Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Linguistics Vanguard

A Multimodal Journal for the Language Sciences

Editor-in-Chief: Bergs, Alexander / Cohn, Abigail C. / Good, Jeff

1 Issue per year

Online
ISSN
2199-174X
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Tuning to languages: experience-based approaches to the language science of bilingualism

Anne L. Beatty-Martínez
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, Pennsylvania State University, 466 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
  • Center for Language Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Paola E. Dussias
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, Pennsylvania State University, 466 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
  • Center for Language Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-02-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2017-0034

Abstract

Experience-based approaches to language hold that individuals become sensitive to distributed emergent phenomena in their linguistic experience. The purpose of this paper is to bring together experience-based perspectives from the domains of cognitive psychology and linguistics. First, we present an overview of the cognitive processes that underpin experience-based learning, and review the cognitive biases that have been attributed to the emergence of distributional regularities in language. We then discuss the P-chain (Dell, G. S. & F. Chang. 2014. The P-chain: Relating sentence production and its disorders to comprehension and acquisition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 369(20120394). 1–9.), an influential experience-based framework for experience-based theory in psycholinguistics, and present data from bilingual speakers to substantiate the assumptions of the model. Our goal is to focus on language usage in bilinguals to illustrate how individuals can become attuned to linguistic variation in the input and how this input can act as constraining information with critical psycholinguistic implications.

Keywords: bilingualism; experience-based approaches; language processing

References

  • Acheson, D. J. & M. C. MacDonald. 2009. Approaches to the serial ordering of verbal information. Psychological Bulletin 135. 50–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Altmann, G. T. M. & J. Mirković. 2009. Incrementality and prediction in human sentence processing. Cognitive Science 33. 583–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Anderson, J. R. 1982. Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review 89. 362–380.Google Scholar

  • Bates, E. & B. MacWhinney. 1982. Functionalist approaches to grammar. In E. Wanner & L. Gleitman (eds.), Language acquisition: The state of the art. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bavelier, D., R. L. Achtman, M. Mani & J. Föcker. 2012. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players. Vision Research 61. 132–143. PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Beatty-Martínez, A. L. & P. E. Dussias. 2017. Bilingual experience shapes language processing: Evidence from codeswitching. Journal of Memory and Language 95. 173–189.Google Scholar

  • Beatty-Martínez, A. L., C. A. Navarro-Torres, M. C. Parafita Couto & P. E. Dussias. 2017. The codeswitching map task corpus. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar

  • Bernolet, S. & R. J. Hartsuiker. 2010. Does verb bias modulate syntactic priming? Cognition 114. 455–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Bialystok, E. & A.-M. Depape. 2009. Musical expertise, bilingualism, and executive functioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 35. 565–574.Google Scholar

  • Bock, K. J., G. S. Dell, F. Chang & K. H. Onishi. 2007. Persistent structural priming from language comprehension to language production. Cognition 104. 437–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Bock, K. J. & D. E. Irwin. 1980. Syntactic effects of information availability in sentence production. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19. 467–484.Google Scholar

  • Bock, K. & Z. M. Griffin. 2000. The persistence of structural priming: Transient activation or implicit learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology 129. 177–192.Google Scholar

  • Bock, K. J. & R. K. Warren. 1985. Conceptual accessibility and syntactic structure in sentence formulation. Cognition 21. 47–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Bybee, J. L. 2010. Language, usage and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bybee, J. L. 2013. Usage-based theory and exemplar representations of constructions. In T. Hoffmann & G. Trousdale (eds.), The Oxford handbook of construction grammar, 49–69. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bybee, J. L. & D. Eddington. 2006. A usage-based approach to Spanish verbs of ‘becoming’. Language 82. 323–355.Google Scholar

  • Christiansen, M. H., N. Chater. 2015. The language faculty that wasn’t: a usage-based account of natural language recursion. Frontiers in Psychology 6(1182). 1–18.Google Scholar

  • Clark, A. 2013. Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36. 181–204.Google Scholar

  • Cohen, Henri & Claire Lefebvre (eds.). 2005. Handbook of categorization in cognitive science. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Inc.Google Scholar

  • Croft, W. 1991. Syntactic categories and grammatical relations the cognitive organization of information. Chicago: The Univeristy of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

  • Dell, G. S. & F. Chang. 2014. The P-chain: Relating sentence production and its disorders to comprehension and acquisition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 369(20120394). 1–9.Google Scholar

  • DeLong, K. A., T. P. Urbach & M. Kutas. 2005. Probabilistic word pre-activation during language comprehension inferred from electrical brain activity. Nature Neuroscience 8. 1117–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Draganski, B., C. Gaser, V. Busch, G. Schuierer, U. Bogdahn & A. May. 2004. Changes in grey matter induced by training Newly honed juggling skills show up as a transient feature on a brain-imaging scan. Nature 427. 311–312.Google Scholar

  • Dussias, P. E., J. R. Valdés Kroff, R. E. Guzzardo Tamargo & C. Gerfen. 2013. When gender and looking go hand in hand: Grammatical gender processing in L2 Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 35. 353–387.Google Scholar

  • Ellis, N. C. 2002. Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 24. 143–188.Google Scholar

  • Ellis, N. C., M. B. O. Donnell & U. T. E. Römer. 2015. Usage-based language learning. Language Learning 63. 25–51.Google Scholar

  • Ferreira, V. S. & K. Bock. 2006. The functions of structural priming. Language and Cognitive Processes 21. 1011–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Ferreira, V. S. & H. Yoshita. 2003. Given-new ordering effects on the production of scrambled sentences in Japanese. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 32. 669–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Fillmore, C. J. 1988. The mechanisms of construction grammar. In Proceedings of the fourth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 35–55).Google Scholar

  • Franks, J. J. & J. D. Bransford. 1971. Abstraction of visual patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90. 65–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Frazier, L. 1979. On comprehending sentences: Syntactic parsing strategies. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.Google Scholar

  • Gahl, S. & S. M. Garnsey. 2004. Syntactic probabilities affect pronunciation variation. Language 80. 748–775.Google Scholar

  • Gallistel, C. R. 1990. The organization of learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Garrett, M. F. 1980. Levels of processing in sentence production. In. B. Butterworth (ed.), Language production, vol. 1: Speech and talk, 177–220. London, UK: Academic Press.Google Scholar

  • Gennari, S. P., J. Mirković & M. C. Macdonald. 2012. Animacy and competition in relative clause production: A cross-linguistic investigation. Cognitive Psychology 65. 141–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Gentner, D. 1983. Structure mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science 7. 155–170.Google Scholar

  • Givón, T. 1995. Functionalism and grammar. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Goldberg, A. E. 2006. Constructions at work: The nature of generalization in language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Goldberg, A. E. 2013. Constructionist approaches. In T. Hoffmann & G. Trousdale (eds.), The Oxford handbook of construction grammar, 15–31. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Green, D., J. Abutalebi. 2013. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 2013. 515–530.Google Scholar

  • Guzzardo Tamargo, R. E., J. R. Valdés Kroff & P. E. Dussias. 2016. Examining the relationship between comprehension and production processes in code-switched language. Journal of Memory and Language 89. 138–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Hahne, A. & A. D. Friederici. 1999. Electrophysiological evidence for two steps in syntactic analysis: Early automatic and late controlled processes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11. 194–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Hasher, L. & R. T. Zacks. 1984. Automatic processing of fundamental information: The case of frequency of occurrence. American Psychologist 39. 1372–1388.Google Scholar

  • Hopp, H. 2016. Learning (not) to predict: Grammatical gender processing in second language acquisition. Second Language Research 32. 277–307.Google Scholar

  • Ibbotson, P. 2013. The scope of usage-based theory. Frontiers in Psychology 4(225). 1–15.Google Scholar

  • Jaeger, T. F. 2006. Redundancy and syntactic reduction in spontaneous speech. Stanford, CA: Stanford University dissertation.Google Scholar

  • Jaeger, T. F. & H. Tily. 2011. On language ‘utility’: Processing complexity and communicative efficiency. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 2. 323–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Johnston, J. C. 1978. A test of the sophisticated guessing theory of word perception. Cognitive Psychology 10. 123–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kelly, M. H. & S. Martin. 1994. Domain-general abilities applied to domain-specific tasks: Sensitivity to probabilities in perception, cognition, and language. Lingua 92. 105–140.Google Scholar

  • Kemper, S., L. Hoffman, R. Schmalzried, R. Herman & D. Kieweg. 2011. Tracking talking: Dual task costs of planning and producing speech for young versus older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 18. 257–279.Google Scholar

  • Kroll, J. F., P. E. Dussias, K. Bice & L. Perrotti. 2015. Bilingualism, mind, and brain. Annual Review of Linguistics 1. 377–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kroll, J. F. & C. Navarro-Torres. in press. Bilingualism. In J. Wixted (ed.), Stevens’ handbook of experimental psychology (4th edn.), vol. 4. Language and thought. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar

  • Kulick, D. 1992. Language shift and cultural reproduction: Socialization, self, and syncretism in a Papua New Guinean village. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Labov, W. 2010. Principles of linguistic change: vol. 3. Cognitive and cultural factors. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Langacker, R. W. 1987. Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Lew-Williams, C. & A. Fernald. 2007. Young children learning Spanish make rapid use of grammatical gender in spoken word recognition. Psychological Science 18. 193–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Lew-Williams, C. & A. Fernald. 2010. Real-time processing of gender-marked articles by native and non-native Spanish speakers. Journal of Memory and Language 63. 447–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Lipski, J. M. 1978. Code-switching and the problem of bilingual competence. In M. Paradis (ed.), Aspects of bilingualism, 250–264. Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press.Google Scholar

  • MacDonald, M. C. 2013. How language production shapes language form and comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology 4(226). 1–16.Google Scholar

  • MacDonald, M. C. & M. S. Seidenberg. 2006. Constraint satisfaction accounts of lexical and sentence comprehension. In M. J. Traxler & M. A. Gernbacher (eds.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (2nd edn.), 581–611. London, UK: Elsevier Inc.Google Scholar

  • MacDonald, M. C., N. J. Pearlmutter & M. S. Seidenberg. 1994. Syntactic ambiguity resolution as lexical ambiguity resolution. In C. J. Clifton, L. Frazier & R. Keith (eds.), Perspectives on sentence processing, 123–153. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

  • Medin, D. L. & M. M. Schaffer. 1978. Context theory of classification learning. Psychological Review 85. 207–238.Google Scholar

  • Miller, G. 1956. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63. 81–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Mitchell, D. C. & F. Cuetos. 1991. The origins of parsing strategies. In C. Smith (ed.), Current issues in natural language processing, 1–12. Austin, TX: University of Austin Press.Google Scholar

  • Newmeyer, F. J. 2006. On Gahl and Garnsey on grammar and usage. Language 82. 399–404.Google Scholar

  • Perrotti, L., M. Carlson, P. E. Dussias & M. Brown. 2015. Exposure to English can change Spanish speakers; processing strategies in Spanish. Paper presented at the 2015 Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages, University of Campinas, Brazil, 6–9 May.Google Scholar

  • Pfaff, C. 1979. Constraints on language mixing: Intrasentential code-switching and borrowing in Spanish/English. Language 55. 291–318.Google Scholar

  • Poplack, S. 1980. Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español [and finish in Spanish]: Toward a typology of codeswitching. Linguistics 18. 581–618.Google Scholar

  • Reber, A. S. 1967. Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6. 855–863.Google Scholar

  • Reber, A. 1989. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118. 219–235.Google Scholar

  • Reicher, G. M. 1969. Perceptual recognition as a function of meaningfulness of stimulus material. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81. 275–280.Google Scholar

  • Rosch, E. 1977. Human categorization. In N. Warren (ed.), Studies in cross-cultural psychology, vol. 1, 1–49. London, UK: Academic Press.Google Scholar

  • Saffran, J. R., E. L. Newport & R. N. Aslin. 1996. Word segmentation: The role of distributional cues. Journal of Memory and Language 35. 606–621.Google Scholar

  • Simon, H. A. 1974. How big is a chunk?: By combining data from several experiments, a basic human memory unit can be identified and measured. Science 183. 482–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Smith, M. & L. Wheeldon. 2004. Horizontal information flow in spoken sentence production. Journal of Experimental Psychology 30. 675–686.Google Scholar

  • Stallings, L. M., M. C. MacDonald & P. G. O’Seaghdha. 1998. Phrasal ordering constraints in sentence production: Phrase length and verb disposition in heavy-NP shift. Journal of Memory and Language 39. 392–417.Google Scholar

  • Staub, A. & C. Clifton Jr. 2006. Syntactic prediction in language comprehension: Evidence from either…or. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32. 425–436.Google Scholar

  • Tanaka, M. N., H. P. Branigan, J. F. McLean & M. J. Pickering. 2011. Conceptual influences on word order and voice in sentence production: Evidence from Japanese. Journal of Memory and Language 65. 318–330.Google Scholar

  • Terrace, H. S. 1987. Chunking by a pigeon in a serial learning task. Nature 325. 149–151.Google Scholar

  • Tily, H., S. Gahl, I. Arnon, N. Snider, A. Kothari & J. Bresnan. 2009. Syntactic probabilities affect pronunciation variation in spontaneous speech. Language and Cognition 1. 147–165.Google Scholar

  • Tomasello, M. 2003. Introduction: Some surprises for psychologists. In: M. Tomasello (ed.), The New Psychology of Language, Vol. 2, 1–14. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

  • Valdés Kroff, J. R. 2016. Mixed NPs in Spanish-English bilingual speech: Using a corpus-based approach to inform models of sentence processing. In R. E. Guzzardo Tamargo, C. M. Mazak & M. C. Parafita Couto (eds.), Spanish-English codeswitching in the Caribbean and the US, 281–300. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Valdés Kroff, J. R., P. E. Dussias, C. Gerfen, L. Perrotti & M. T. Bajo. 2017. Experience with code-switching modulates the use of grammatical gender during sentence processing. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 7. 163–198. (accessed 01 February 2016).PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Williams, H. & K. Staples. 1992. Syllable chunking in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song. Journal of Comparative Psychology 106. 278–286.Google Scholar

  • Winston, P. H. 1980. Learning and reasoning by analogy. Communications of the ACM 23. 689–703.Google Scholar

  • Yamashita, H. & F. Chang. 2001. ‘Long before short’ preference in the production of a head-final language. Cognition 81. B45–B55.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-07-18

Accepted: 2017-09-13

Published Online: 2018-02-13


Citation Information: Linguistics Vanguard, Volume 4, Issue 1, 20170034, ISSN (Online) 2199-174X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2017-0034.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in