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First report on the occurrence of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions in the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, Iran: implications for mineralisation processes in a continental collision setting

Sina Asadi / Farid Moore / Alireza Zarasvandi / Majid Khosrojerdi
Published Online: 2014-01-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/logos-2013-0019


Hydrothermal alteration of the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, south of the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc and southeast of the central Iranian volcano-plutonic belt has resulted in three stages of mineralisation characterised by veins and veinlets. These are, from early to late: (1) quartz + K-feldspar + biotite + pyrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± magnetite (early potassic alteration and type-A veins); (2) quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite + bornite + pyrrhotite + K- -feldspar + biotite + magnetite (potassic-sericitic alteration and type-B veins); and (3) quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite + sericite (sericitic alteration and type-C veins). Most ores were formed during stages 2 and 3.

Three main types of fluid inclusions are distinguished based on petrographical, microthermometrical and laser Raman spectroscopy analyses, i.e. type I (three-phase aqueous inclusions), type II (three-phase liquid-carbonic inclusions) and type III (multi-phase solid inclusions). The fluid inclusions in quartz veins of the stages are mainly homogenised at 340-530°C (stage 1), 270-385°C (stage 2) and 214-350°C (stage 3), respectively, with salinities of 3.1-16 wt.% NaCl equivalent, 2.2-43 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 8.2-22.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively.

The estimated trapping pressures are 97.9-123.6 MPa (3.7-4.6 km) in stage 1 and 62.5-86.1 MPa (2.3-3.1 km) in stage 2, respectively. These fluid inclusions are homogenised in different ways at similar temperatures, suggesting that fluid boiling took place in stages 2 and 3. The fluid system evolved from high-temperature, medium-salinity, high-pressure and CO2-rich to low-temperature, low-pressure, high-salinity and CO2-poor, with fluid boiling being the dominating mechanism, followed by input of meteoric water. CO2 escape may have been a factor in increasing activities of NaCl and S2- in the fluids, diminishing the oxidation of the fluids from stage 1 to 3. The result was precipitation of sulphides and trapping of multi-phase solid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz veins.

Keywords: CO2-bearing fluid inclusions; laser Raman spectroscopy; collision; Meiduk porphyry copper deposit; Iran

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Published Online: 2014-01-29

Published in Print: 2013-12-01

Citation Information: Geologos, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 301–320, ISSN (Online) 2080-6574, ISSN (Print) 1426-8981, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/logos-2013-0019.

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