Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Lodz Papers in Pragmatics

Founded by Cap, Piotr

Editor-in-Chief: Chilton, Paul / Kopytowska, Monika

2 Issues per year

CiteScore 2017: 0.35

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.249
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.074

See all formats and pricing
More options …

Unveiling the Other - the Pragmatics of Infosuasion

Monika Kopytowska
Published Online: 2011-02-03 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10016-010-0013-y

Unveiling the Other - the Pragmatics of Infosuasion

The present paper, starting from the assumption that television news is "the main source" (Robinson and Levy 1986) and a key player in the democratic process explores the media-politics interface, along with the ideological conditioning and cultural embedding of the news discourse, understood both as a process and as a product. The objective behind it is threefold. Firstly, it is to examine the media mechanisms accounting for the process of ‘infosuasion’, i.e. persuading the viewers under the guise of delivering information in the form of neutral and balanced reporting, thereby shaping their perceptions of the self and the "Other". Secondly, it is to demonstrate the dialectics between the news media and political elites, visible in the CNN representation of Iranians and its contingency on the anti-nuclear discourse of the Bush Administration. Finally, it is to maximize the validity of an eclectic approach, combining pragmatic and semiotic perspectives, in the domain of news media discourse along with the processes within this discourse and the practices behind it.

Keywords: Discourse; implicit meaning; entailment; presupposition; implicature; infosuasion; news; representation

  • Ahmed, Akbar S. Islam under Siege: Living Dangerously in a Post-Honour World. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Ahmed, Akbar S. Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and promise. New York: Routledge, 1992.Google Scholar

  • Allan, Stuart. News Culture. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2010.Google Scholar

  • Annual Report on American Journalism, 2007. http://www.stateofthenewsmedia.org/2007/

  • Anthonissen, Christine. "Interaction between visual and verbal communication: changing patterns in the printed media." In Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity, edited by Gilbert Weiss and Ruth Wodak, 297-31. Basingstoke & N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Asp, Kent. "Medialization, media logic and mediarchy." The Nordicom Review of Mass Communication Research 2 (1990): 47-50.Google Scholar

  • Bahador, Babak. CNN Effect in Action: How the News Media Pushed the West Toward War in Kosovo. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Bazzi, Samia. Arab News and Conflict. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009.Google Scholar

  • Bell, Allan. The Language of News Media. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.Google Scholar

  • Bennett, Lance W. and Robert M. Entman. Mediated Politics: Communication in the Future of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.Google Scholar

  • Berkowitz, Dan. "Assessing forces in the selection of local television news." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 35 (1991): 245-251.Google Scholar

  • Bertuccelli Papi, Marcella. "Implicitness." In Key Notions for Pragmatics, edited by Jef Verschueren and Jan-Ola Östman, 139-162. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009.Google Scholar

  • Bignell, Jonathan. Media Semiotics: An Introduction. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002.Google Scholar

  • Blakemore, Diane. Understanding Utterances. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.Google Scholar

  • Blommaert, Jan. Discourse: A Critical Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Borchers, Timothy A. Persuasion in the Media Age. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Brighton, Paul and Dennis Foy. News Values. London: Sage, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Bublitz, Wolfram. "I've bought a freezer - you've bought a freezer - they've bought a freezer: Repetition as a repetition as a text building device." In Repetition in Dialogue, edited by Carla Bazzanella, 16-28. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1996.Google Scholar

  • Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966.Google Scholar

  • Caldas-Coulthard, Carmen Rosa. "Cross-cultural representation of ‘otherness’ in media discourse." In Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity, edited by Gilbert Weiss and Ruth Wodak, 272-296. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Cap, Piotr. Explorations in Political Discourse. Methodological and Critical Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag, 2002.Google Scholar

  • Chouliaraki, Lilie and Norman Fairclough. Discourse in Late Modernity: Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.Google Scholar

  • CNN International Press Release, CNN International figures, 2005. http://www.cnnasiapacific.com/en/groups/international/index.asp

  • Cohen, Jeff and Norman Solomon. Adventures in Medialand. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1993.Google Scholar

  • Corner, John. Critical Ideas in Television Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.Google Scholar

  • Cotter, Coleen. "Discourse and Media." In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, edited by Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi Hamilton, 416-436. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2001.Google Scholar

  • Cottle, Simon. News, Public Relations and Power. London: Sage, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Devereux, Eoin. Understanding the Media. London: Sage, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Dorman, William A. and Mansour Farhang. The U.S. Press and Iran: Foreign Policy and the Journalism of Deference. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.Google Scholar

  • Drew, Paul and John Heritage (eds.). Talk at Work: Interaction in Institutional Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.Google Scholar

  • Eco, Umberto. "Semantics, pragmatics and text semiotics." In The Pragmatic Perspective, edited by Verschueren Jef and Marcella Bertuccelli Papi, 695-715. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1987.Google Scholar

  • Ekström, Mats. "Politicians interviewed on television news." Discourse and Society 12.5(2001): 563-584, doi: 10.1177/0957926501012005001.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ensink, Titus. "Pragmatic aspects of televised texts: A single case study of the intervention of a televised documentary program in party politics." Journal of Pragmatics 38 (2006): 230-249, doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2005.06.020.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fairclough, Norman. Language and Power. London: Longman, 1989.Google Scholar

  • Fairclough, Norman. New Labour, New Language? London: Routledge, 2000.Google Scholar

  • Fetzer, Anita and Gerda E. Lauerbach (eds.). Political Discourse in the Media. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Fiske, John and John Hartley. Reading Television. London: Routledge, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Flournoy, Don M. and Robert K. Stewart. CNN: Making News in the Global Market. London: University of Luton Press, 1997.Google Scholar

  • Freedberg, David. The Power of Images: Studies in the History and Theory of Response. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.Google Scholar

  • Galtung, Johan and Marie H. Ruge. "The structure of foreign news." Journal of Peace Research 2.1 (1965): 64-91, doi: 10.1177/002234336500200104.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gazdar, Gerald. "A solution to the projection problem." In Syntax and Semantics, vol.11: Presupposition, edited by Choon-Kyu Oh and David A. Dineen, 57-89. New York: Academic, 1979.Google Scholar

  • Gilboa, Eytan. "Global television news and foreign policy: Debating the CNN effect." International Studies Perspectives 6 (2005): 325-341, doi: 10.1111/j.1528-3577.2005.00211.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Grice, Herbert P. "Logic and conversation." In Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts, edited by Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan, 41-58. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar

  • Hall, Stuart. "The West and the rest: Discourse and power." In Formations of Modernity, edited by Stuart Hall and Bram Gieben, 275-320. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992.Google Scholar

  • Harris, Richard J. A Cognitive Psychology of Mass Communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.Google Scholar

  • Herman, Edward. S. and Noam Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. London: Pantheon Books, 1988.Google Scholar

  • Hjarvard, Stig. "The Mediatization of society. A Theory of the media as agents of social and cultural change." Nordicom Review 29.2 (2008): 105-134.Google Scholar

  • Hodges, Adam and Chad Nilep (eds.). Discourse, War and Terrorism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Izadi, Foad and Hakimeh Saghaye-Biria. "A Discourse Analysis of elite American newspaper editorials: The case of Iran's nuclear program." Journal of Communication Inquiry 31.2 (2007): 140-165, doi: 10.1177/0196859906298073.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jacobs, Geert. Preformulating the News: An Analysis of the Metapragmatics of Press Releases. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1999.Google Scholar

  • Jakobson, Roman. "Closing statement: Linguistics and poetics." In Style in Language, edited by Thomas Sebeok, 350-377. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1960.Google Scholar

  • Johnstone, Barbara. "Perspectives on repetition: An introduction." Text 7.3 (1987): 205-213.Google Scholar

  • Johnstone, Barbara. Repetition in Discourse: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1994.Google Scholar

  • Kartunnen, Lauri and Stanley Peters. "Conversational Implicature." In Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 11: Presupposition, edited by Choon-Kyu Oh and David Dineen, 1-56. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar

  • Kartunnen, Lauri. "Presupposition and linguistic context." Theoretical linguistics 1.3 (1974): 3-44.Google Scholar

  • Kissinger, Henry. Does America Need a Foreign Policy? Toward a Diplomacy for the 21st Century. London: Simon & Schuster, 2001.Google Scholar

  • Kopytowska, Monika (ed.). Language, Ideology and Identity (in progress).Google Scholar

  • Kopytowska, Monika (ed.). "Kognitywno-afektywne aspekty komunikacji masowej - proksymizacja w dyskursie wiadomości telewizyjnych". In Prace Komisji Nauk Filologicznych Oddziału Polskiej Akademii Nauk we Wrocławiu II, edited by Piotr Chruszczewski and Stanisław Prędota, 259-288. Wrocław, 2010a.Google Scholar

  • Kopytowska, Monika (ed.). "Mass-mediated multiculturalism and identity: Representations of Muslims in the British press." In Intercultural Europe: Arenas of Difference, Communication, and Mediation, edited by Hanna Pułaczewska. Stuttgart: Ibidem, 2010c.Google Scholar

  • Kopytowska, Monika (ed.). "Television news and the ‘meta-war’." Pragmatic Perspectives on Language and Linguistics, edited by Iwona Witczak-Plisiecka, 301-326. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010b.Google Scholar

  • Kopytowska, Monika (ed.). The Language of Television News in Pragmatic and Cognitivist Perspective. University of Łódź. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Kraft, Robert N. "The influence of camera angle on comprehension and retention of pictorial events." Memory and Cognition 15 (1987): 291-307.Google Scholar

  • Kress, Gunter and Robert Hodge. Language as Ideology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979.Google Scholar

  • Kress, Gunter and Teo Van Leeuwen. "Colour as a semiotic mode: Notes for a grammar of colour." Visual Communication 1.3 (2002): 343-368, doi: 10.1177/147035720200100306.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kress, Gunter and Teo Van Leeuwen. Multimodal Discourse. The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication. London: Arnold, 2001.Google Scholar

  • Kress, Gunter and Teo Van Leeuwen. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge, 1996.Google Scholar

  • Lakoff, Robin Tolmach. "Conversational logic." In Key Notions for Pragmatics, edited by Jef Verschueren and Jan-Ola Östman, 102-113. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009.Google Scholar

  • Lambrecht, Knud. Information Structure and Sentence Form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.Google Scholar

  • Lassen, Inger, Jeanne Strunck and Torben Vestergaard. Mediating Ideology in Text and Image: Ten Critical Studies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Levinson, Stephen. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.Google Scholar

  • Levinson, Stephen. Presumptive Meanings: The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000.Google Scholar

  • Lewis, Bernard. Islam and the West. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.Google Scholar

  • Lilleker, Darren G. Key Concepts in Political Communication. London: Sage, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Mabro, Judy. Veiled Half-truths: Western Travellers' Perceptions of Middle Eastern Women. New York: I. B. Tauris, 1991.Google Scholar

  • Martin, James R. and Ruth Wodak (eds.). Re/reading the Past. Critical and Functional Perspectives on Time and Value. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Messaris, Paul. "The film audience's awareness in the production process." Journal of the University Film Association 33.4 (1981): 53-56.Google Scholar

  • Messaris, Paul. Visual Persuasion: The Role of Images in Advertising. London: Sage, 1997.Google Scholar

  • Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics. An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.Google Scholar

  • Norrick, Neal. "Functions of repetition in conversation." Text 7 (1987): 245-64.Google Scholar

  • Nossek, Hillel, "Our news and their news: On the role of national identity in the definition of political violence and terrorism as news." In News Media and Political Violence, edited by Hillel Nossek, Prasun Sonwalkar and Anabelle Sreberny, 343-368. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2005.Google Scholar

  • O'Keeffe, Anne. Investigating Media Discourse. London: Routledge, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Okulska, Urszula and Piotr Cap (eds.). Perspectives in Politics and Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2010.Google Scholar

  • Östman, Jan Ola. Pragmatics as Implicitness: An Analysis of Question Particles in the Language of Persuasion. Ph. D. dissertation. University of California at Berkeley, CA, 1986.Google Scholar

  • Philo, Greg. Seeing and Believing. London: Routledge, 1990.Google Scholar

  • Poole, Elizabeth. Reporting Islam. Media Representations of British Muslims. London: IB Tauris, 2002.Google Scholar

  • Poole, Elizabeth and John E. Richardson. Muslims and the News Media. London: IB Tauris, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Potts, Christopher. The Logic of Conventional Implicatures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Reynolds, Amy and Brooke Barnett. "America under attack: CNN's verbal and visual framing of September 11th." In Media Representations of September 11th, edited by Steve Chermak, Frankie Bailey and Michelle Brown. New York: Praeger, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Robinson, John P. and Mark R. Levy (eds.). The Main Source. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1986.Google Scholar

  • Robinson, Piers. "The CNN effect revisited." Critical Studies in Media Communication 22.4 (2005): 344-349, doi: 10.1080/07393180500288519.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Robinson, Piers. The CNN Effect: The Myth of News, Foreign Policy, and Intervention. London: Routledge, 2002.Google Scholar

  • Roeh, Itzhak and Akiba A. Cohen. "One of the bloodiest days: A comparative analysis of open and closed television news." Journal of Communication 42.2 (1992): 42-55, doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00777.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Said, Edward. "Suicidal ignorance." Al-Ahram Weekly Online 560 (2001): 15-21.Google Scholar

  • Said, Edward. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine how we See the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.Google Scholar

  • Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.Google Scholar

  • Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage, 1979.Google Scholar

  • Savarese, Rosella. "‘Infosuasion’ in European newspapers: A case study on the war in Kosovo." European Journal of Communication 15.3 (2000): 363-381, doi:10.1177/0267323100015003006.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sbisà, Marina. "Ideology and the persuasive use of presupposition." In Language and Ideology: Selected Papers from the Sixth International Pragmatics Conference, edited by Jef Verschueren, 492-509. Antwerp: International Pragmatics Association, 1999.Google Scholar

  • Schaap, Gabi. Interpreting Television News. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.Google Scholar

  • Schulz, Winfried. "Reconstructing mediatization as an analytical concept." European Journal of Communication 19.1 (2004): 87-101, doi: 10.1177/0267323104040696.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne Marie, Peter R. White and Karin Ajimer. "Presupposition and ‘taking-for-granted’ in mass communicated political argument: An illustration from British, Flemish, and Swedish political colloquy." In Political Discourse in the Media, edited by Anita Fetzer and Gerda E. Lauerbach, 31-74. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Slembrouck, Stef. "Channel." In Key Notions for Ptragmatics, edited by Jef Verschueren and Jan-Ola Östman, 48-61. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009.Google Scholar

  • Stalnaker, R. C. "Pragmatic presuppositions." In Semantics and Philosophy, edited by Michael K. Munitz and Peter K. Unger, 197-214. New York: New York University Press, 1974.Google Scholar

  • Stalnaker, Robert C. "Presuppositions." Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1973): 44-57.Google Scholar

  • Suleiman, Michael W. The Arabs in the Mind of America. Brattleboro, VT: Amana Books, 1998.Google Scholar

  • Suleiman, Yasir. A War of Words: Language and Conflict in the Middle East. Cambridge CUP, 2004.Google Scholar

  • Tannen, Deborah. "Repetition in conversation as spontaneous formulaicity." Text 7 (1987): 215-43, doi: 10.1515/text.1.1987.7.3.215, //1987.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Thompson, John B. Ideology and Modern Culture. Stanford UP, 1990.Google Scholar

  • Thussu, Daya Kishan. News as Entertainment: The Rise of Global Infotainment. London: Sage, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Tolson, Andrew. Media talk: Spoken Discourse on TV and Radio. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Torfing, Jacob. New Theories of Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.Google Scholar

  • Triandafyllidou, Anna, Ruth Wodak and Michał Krzyżanowski (eds.). The European Public Sphere and the Media: Europe in Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.Google Scholar

  • Van Dijk, Teun A. "Opinions and ideologies in the press." In Approaches to Media Discourse, edited by Allan Bell and Peter Garrett, 21-63. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998b.Google Scholar

  • Van Dijk, Teun A. Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Sage, 1998a.Google Scholar

  • Van Dijk, Teun A. News as Discourse. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988.Google Scholar

  • Van Leeuwen, Teo. "Some notes on visual semiotics." Semiotica 129.1/4 (2000): 179-195.Google Scholar

  • Van Leeuwen, Teo. Introducing Social Semiotics. London: Routledge, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Verhagen, Arie. Constructions of Intersubjectivity: Discourse, Syntax, and Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Verschueren, Jef. "Predicaments of criticism." Critique of Anthropology 21 (2001): 59-81, doi: 10.1177/0308275X0102100104.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Verschueren, Jef. Understanding Pragmatics. London: Arnold, 1999.Google Scholar

  • Volkmer, Ingrid. CNN: News in the Global Sphere. Luton, UK: University of Luton Press, 1999.Google Scholar

  • Walma van der Molen, Juliette. "Assessing text-picture correspondence in television news: The development of a new coding scheme." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45 (2001): 483-498.Google Scholar

  • Watson, Helen. "Women and the veil: Personal responses to global process." In Islam, Globalization and Postmodernity, edited by Akbar S. Ahmed and Hastings Donnan. London: Routledge, 1994.Google Scholar

  • Weiss, Gilbert and Ruth Wodak. Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.Google Scholar

  • Zettl, Herbert. Sight, Sound, Motion: Applied Media Aesthetics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co, 1998.Google Scholar

  • Zhou, Shuhua. "Effects of arousing visuals and redundancy on cognitive assessment of television news." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49.1 (2005): 23-45, doi: 10.1207/s15506878jobem4901_3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2011-02-03

Published in Print: 2010-01-01

Citation Information: Lodz Papers in Pragmatics, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 249–282, ISSN (Online) 1898-4436, ISSN (Print) 1895-6106, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10016-010-0013-y.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in