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Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

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Highlights on Artificial Insemination (AI) Technology in the Pigs

Tarek Khalifa
  • Corresponding author
  • EquiBiotech Inc-Research Services in Farm Animal Breeding, 19 Gravias Street P.O. Box 54645, Thessaloniki, Greec e
  • Veterinary Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization, 57001 NAGREF Campus, Thermi, P.O. Box 60272, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Constantinos Rekkas
  • Veterinary Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization, 57001 NAGREF Campus, Thermi, P.O. Box 60272, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Foteini Samartzi
  • Veterinary Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization, 57001 NAGREF Campus, Thermi, P.O. Box 60272, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Aristotelis Lymberopoulos
  • Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Department of Animal Production, P.O. Box 141 Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kostas Kousenidis
  • Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Department of Animal Production, P.O. Box 141 Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Toni Dovenski
  • Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Reproduction, Lazar Pop Trajkov 5-7, 1000 Skopje, R. Macedonia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-11-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2013.09.001


Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the development of field AI services in the majority of countries concerned with pig production. The objective of this paper is to review: (a) the current status of swine AI in the world, (b) significance and limitation of AI with liquid and frozen semen, (c) the biological traits of porcine semen in relation to in vitro sperm storage, (d) the criteria used for selection of a boar stud as a semen supplier, (e) how to process boar semen for liquid and frozen storage in the commercial settings and (f) how to improve fertility and prolificacy of boar semen. More than 99% of the inseminations conducted worldwide are made with liquid-stored semen. AI with frozen semen is used only for upgrading the genetic base in a particular country or herd. Determining the initial quality of semen ejaculates along with the selection of the optimum storage extender has a profound effect on the quality and fertility of AI doses. Different procedures have been used for improving the fertility of preserved spermatozoa including colloidal centrifugation of the semen, intrauterine insemination and modulation of the uterine defense mechanism after AI. Development of an efficient protocol for synchronizing the time of ovulation in sows and gilts coupled with improving uterine horn insemination technique will make a breakthrough in the commercial use of frozen boar semen.

Keywords: boar; semen storage; artificial insemination; fertility


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About the article

Received: 2013-09-07

Accepted: 2013-09-30

Published Online: 2015-11-18

Published in Print: 2014-03-01

Citation Information: Macedonian Veterinary Review, ISSN (Online) 1857-7415, DOI: https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2013.09.001.

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