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Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

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Comparative Clinical and Haematological Investigations in Lactating Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis

Vania Marutsova
  • Department of Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, Students’ Campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
/ Rumen Binev
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, Students’ Campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
  • Email:
/ Plamen Marutsov
  • Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, Students’ Campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
Published Online: 2015-11-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2015.04.042


Ketosis of lactating cows is among the most common metabolic diseases in modern dairy farms. The economic importance of the disease is caused by the reduced milk yield and body weight loss, poor feed conversion, lower conception rates, culling and increased mortality of affected animals. In the present study, a total of 47 high-yielding dairy cows up to 45 days in milk (DIM) are included. All animals were submitted to physical examination wich included checking the rectal body temperature, heart rate, respiratory and rumen contraction rates, and inspection of visible mucous coats. The body condition was scored, and blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were assayed. The cows were divided into 3 groups: first group (control) (n=24) with blood β-hydroxybutyrate level <1.2 mmol/l, second group (n=15) with blood β-hydroxybutyrate between 1.2-2.6 mmol/l (subclinical ketosis) and third group (n=8) with blood β-hydroxybutyrate >2.6 mmol/l (clinical ketosis). Whole blood samples were obtained and analyzed for Red Blood Cell (RBC, 1012/l), Hemoglobin (HGB, g/l), Hematocrit (HCT, %), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, fl), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH, pg), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC, g/l), White Blood Cell (WBC, 109/l), Lymphocytes (LYM, 109/l), Monocytes (MON, 109/l), Granulocytes (GRA, 109/l), Red Blood Distribution Width (RDW, %), Red Blood Cell Distribution Width Absolute (RDWa, fl), Platelets (PLT, 109/l) and Mean Platelet Volume (MPV, fl). In this study, deviations in the clinical parameters in the control group and in those with subclinical ketosis were not identified. The cows from the third group (clinical ketosis) exhibited hypotonia, anorexia and body weight loss vs. control group. Hematological analysis showed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in cows with subclinical ketosis vs. control group. In cows with clinical ketosis WBC counts decreased (leukopenia), while hemoglobin content and hematocrit values are higher vs. control group. Blood BHBA values are higher in both groups of ketotic cows vs. the control group. The other analyzed parameters (RBC, MCH, MCHC, MCV, RDW, RDWa, MON, GRA, PLT and MPV) were close to control values.

Keywords: ketosis; hematological parameters; β-hydroxybutyrate; dairy cows


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About the article

Received: 2015-01-20

Revised: 2015-03-27

Accepted: 2015-03-31

Published Online: 2015-11-18

Published in Print: 2015-10-01

Citation Information: Macedonian Veterinary Review, ISSN (Online) 1857-7415, DOI: https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2015.04.042. Export Citation

© 2015. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

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