Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

2 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.161
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.368

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Effects of Experimental Trypanosoma Congolense Infection on Sperm Morphology in Yankasa Rams

Oluyinka O. Okubanjo
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Victor O. Sekoni
  • Department of Veterinary Public Health and Reproduction, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta-Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ologunja J. Ajanusi
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Adewale A. Adeyeye
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Theriogenology and Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-11-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2015.07.050


The objective of the study was to determine the effect of T. congolense on the sperm morphology of Yankasa rams (YKR). Nine YKR aged 24-30 months-old were assigned into two groups of 6 infected and 3 uninfected control and were monitored for 7 weeks. The infected group of YKR was each inoculated with 1 × 106 T. congolense through the jugular vein, while the control group remained uninfected. The entire infected group developed trypanosomosis post infection (pi) characterized by sperm morphological abnormalities in the semen. There were significant (P<0.001) increases in the mean percentage of acrosomal, head, middle piece and tail abnormalities. Proximal and distal droplets as well detached heads were also significantly (P<0.001) increased post infection (pi). Acrosomal abnormalities, distal droplet and tail abnormalities increased from week 1 pi till the end of the study, while head abnormalities and detached heads increased from week 2 pi. Middle piece abnormalities and proximal droplets increased from week 3 and 4 pi till the end of the study respectively. The high incidence of morphological defects caused by T. congolense is capable of causing infertility from the first week pi thereby making the rams unfit for breeding at the end of the study.

Keywords: infertility; sperm abnormalities; spermatogenesis; Trypanosoma congolense; Yankasa rams


  • 1. Adamu, S.; Fatihu, M. Y., Useh, N. M., Mamman, M., Sekoni, V. O., Esievo, K. A. N. (2007). Sequential testicular and epididymal damage in Zebu bulls experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. Veterinary Parasitology, 143(1): 29-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.07.022 PMid:16935425CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 2. Adenowo, T. K, Njoku, C. O., Oyedipe, E. O., Sannusi, A. (2004). Experimental trypanosomiasis in Yankasa ewes: the body weight response. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 33(4): 323-326. PMid:15977439Google Scholar

  • 3. Adeyemo, O.; Oyejide, A., Agbedana, O. (1990). Plasma testosterone in Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei infected West African dwarf rams. Animal Reproduction Science, 22, 21-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(90)90034-DCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4. Anene, B. M., Omamegbe, J. O. (1984). Abortion associated with Trypanosoma brucei infection in an Alsatian bitch: A case report. Tropical Veterinarian, 2, 211-213.Google Scholar

  • 5. Audu, P. A., Esievo, K. A. N., Mohammed, G., Ajanusi, O. J. (1999). Studies on infectivity and pathogenicity of an isolate of Trypanosoma evansi in Yankasa sheep. Veterinary Parasitology, 86, 185-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00141-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Bawa, E. K., Sekoni. V. O., Olorunju. S. A. S., Uza, D. V., Ogwu, D., Oyedipe, E. O. (2005). Comparative clinical observations on Trypanosoma vivax infected pregnant Yankasa and West African Dwarf ewes. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4 (7): 630-636.Google Scholar

  • 7. Bengaly Z., Clausen, P. H., Boly, H., Kanwe, A., Duvallet G. (1993). Comparison of experimental trypanosomiasis in various breeds of small ruminants in Burkina Faso. Revue d’Elevage et de Medcine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 46(4): 563-570. PMid:7915427Google Scholar

  • 8. Blench, R. M. (1999). Traditional livestock breeds: geographical distribution and dynamics in relation to the ecology of West Africa. Retrieved November, 28, 2010 from http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/2041.pdf.Google Scholar

  • 9. Chemineau, P., Cagnie, Y. (1991). Training manual on artificial insemination in sheep and goats. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper: 83.Google Scholar

  • 10. Dalal, S. M., Amer, H. A., Rwaida, M. R. (2008). Pathological and some biochemical studies on pregnant ewes experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Egyptian Journal Comparative Pathology and Clinical Pathology, 21, 372- 400.Google Scholar

  • 11. Desquesnes, M. (2004). Livestock Trypanosomoses and their Vectors in Latin America (English translation). Published by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). PP. 8-19.Google Scholar

  • 12. Desquesnes, M., Dia, M. L. (2003). Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma congolense in cattle by the African tabanid Atylotus agrestis. Experimental Parasitology, 105: 226-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2003.12.014 PMid:14990316CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13. Faye, D., Sulon, J., Kane, Y., Beckers, J. F., Leak, S., Kaboret, Y., Sousa, N. M., Losson, B., Geerts, S. (2004). Effects of an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on the reproductive performance of West African Dwarf goats. Theriogenology, 62: 1438-1451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.02.007 PMid:15451252CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14. Griffin, L. (1983). Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 93(3): 489-492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9975(83)90036-1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15. Lamorde, A. G. (1996). The role of veterinarians in a developing economy. Nigerian Veterinary Journal (Special Edition), 1(1): 106-111.Google Scholar

  • 16. Leigh, O. O., Fayemi, O. E. (2013). The effect of experimental Trypanosoma brucei infection on hormonal changes during the oestrous cycle, pregnancy and pregnancy outcome in West Africa Dwarf does. Wayamba Journal of Animal Science, ID 1365263763.Google Scholar

  • 17. Mbaya, A. W., Kumshe, H., Nwosu, C. O. (2012). The mechanisms of anaemia in trypanosomosis: A Review. In: Anemia, (D. Silverberg editor.). Published by InTech. pp. 276. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/29530CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18. Mutayoba, B. M., Eckersall, P. D., Seely, C., Gray, C. E., Cestnik, V., Jeffcoate, I. A., Holmes, P. H. (1995). Effects of Trypanosoma congolense on pituitary and adrenocortical function in sheep: responses to exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Research in Veterinary Science, 58, 180-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-5288(95)90074-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Office of the International Epizootic (OIE) (2009). Trypanosomosis (Tsetse-transmitted). Retrieved from www.oie.int/fileadmin/...in.../TRYPANO_TSETSE_ FINAL.pdf.Google Scholar

  • 20. Office of the International Epizootic (OIE) (2013). Trypanosomosis - tsetse transmitted. In: OIE Terrestrial Manual. pp. 1-11.Google Scholar

  • 21. Opasina B.A., David-West K.B. (1987). Position paper on sheep and goat production in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of an FAO seminar on Sheep and goat meat production in the humid tropics of West Africa held in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’lvoire. PMid:3424454Google Scholar

  • 22. Ogunsanmi, A. O., Akpavie, S. O., Anosa, V. O. (1994). Haematology changes in ewes experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Revue d”Elevage et de medicine Veterinaire des pays Tropicaux, 47(1): 53-57.Google Scholar

  • 23. Okubanjo, O. O.; Sekoni, V. O.; Ajanusi, O. J., Nok, A. J., Adeyeye, A. A. (2014). Testicular and epididymal pathology in Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 4(3): 185-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60502-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 24. Okubanjo, O. O., Sekoni, V. O., Ajanusi, O. J., Adeyeye, A. A. (2014). Semen characteristics and reaction time of yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Global Veterinaria, 13 (3): 297-301.Google Scholar

  • 25. Osaer S., Goossens, B., Sauveroche, B., Dempfl e, L. (1997). Evaluation of the semen quality and reproductive performance of trypanotolerant Djallonké rams following an artificial infection with Trypanosoma congolense. Small Ruminant Research, 24(3): 213-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(96)00944-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26. Otchere E. O. (1986). Small ruminant production in tropical Africa. In: Proceedings an FAO expert consultation held in Sofia, Bulgaria, 8-12 July 1985. Paper 58.Google Scholar

  • 27. Podstawski Z., Kosiniak-Kamysz K., Bittmar A. (2007). Relationship between some enzymes activity, sperm morphology and stallion semen quality. Zootehnie şi Biotehnologii, 40(1): 152-156.Google Scholar

  • 28. Rodrigues, C. M. F., Olinda, R. G., Silvaa, T. M. F., Valea, R. G., Da Silvaa, A. E., Limaa, G. L., Garciab, H. A., Teixeirab, M. M. G., Batista, J. S. (2013). Follicular degeneration in the ovaries of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from the Brazilian semi-arid region. Veterinary Parasitology, 191, 146-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.08.001 PMid:22921989 CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 29. Sekoni, V. O.; Gustafsson, B. K., Mather, E. C. (1981). Influence of wet fixation staining techniques and storage time on bull sperm morphology. Nordisk Veterinaer Medicin, 33, 161-166. PMid:6172775Google Scholar

  • 30. Sekoni, V. O., Gustafsson, B. K. (1987). Seasonal variations in the incidence of sperm morphological abnormalities in dairy bulls regularly used for artificial insemination. British Veterinary Journal, 43, 312-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0007-1935(87)90064-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 31. Sekoni, V. O.; Njoku, C. O.; Kumi-Diaka, J., Saror, D. I . (1990a). Pathological changes in male genitalia of cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense. British Veterinary Journal, 146, 175-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0007-1935(90)90011-QCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 32. Sekoni V. O., Saror D. I., Njoku C. O., Kumi-Diaka J. (1990b). Elevation of morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa in the semen of Zebu bulls consequent to Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense infections. Theriogenology, 33(4): 925-936. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(90)90827-GCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 33. Sekoni V. O. (1993). Elevated sperm morphological abnormalities of Yankasa rams consequent to Trypanosoma vivax infection. Animal Reproduction Sciences, 31(3-4): 243-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(93)90009-GCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34. Sekoni, V. O., Rekwot, P. I., Bawa, E. K. (2004). Effects of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense infections on the reaction time and semen characteristics of Zebu (Bunaji) x Friesian crossbred bulls. Theriogenology, 61, 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(03)00183-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 35. Victor I.; Sackey A. K. B., Natala A. J. (2012). Penile protrusion with hemorrhages and prepucial inflammation in pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Journal of Animal Production Advances, 2(6): 297-302.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-04-29

Revised: 2015-07-02

Accepted: 2015-07-13

Published Online: 2015-11-18

Published in Print: 2015-10-01

Citation Information: Macedonian Veterinary Review, ISSN (Online) 1857-7415, DOI: https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2015.07.050.

Export Citation

© 2015. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in