Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

2 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.161
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.368

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The Paradox of Human Equivalent Dose Formula: A Canonical Case Study of Abrus Precatorius Aqueous Leaf Extract in Monogastric Animals

Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Patrick Azubuike Onyeyili
  • Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-03-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/macvetrev-2015-0061


There is abundant literature on the toxicity of A. precatorius seeds. However there is a need to define the toxicity limit of the Abrus precatorius leaf in monogastric animals. Human Equivalent Dose (HED) which is equal to animal dose multiplied by animal km (metabolism constant) divided by human km was used to project the LD50 of fifteen monogastric animals, where human km factor is body weight (kg) divided by body surface area (m2). Human Equivalent No-observable Adverse Effect Doses were determined by multiplying the animal no-observable adverse effect dose by animal weight (Wa) divided by human weight (Wh). The LD50 of the aqueous leaf extract of Abrus precatorius in mice was estimated to be between 2559.5 and 3123.3 mg/kg body weight. The LD50 extrapolated from mouse to rat (1349.3-1646.6 mg/kg), hamster (1855.3-2264.1 mg/kg), guinea pig (1279.5-1561.4 mg/kg), rabbit (618.4-754.7 mg/kg), monkey (593.7-724.5 mg/kg), cat (392.7-479.2 mg/kg), dog and baboon (371.1-452.8 mg/kg), child (297-362 mg/kg) and adult human (197.8-241.5 mg/kg) body weight respectively could be a reality. The therapeutic safe dose range for the animals was 1-12.5 mg/kg body weight for a period of 7 days, but at a dose (≤ 200 mg/kg body weight) the leaf extract showed haematinic effect. However, at a higher dose (> 200 mg/kg), the extract showed haemolytic activity in rats, whereas at a dose (≥25.0 mg/kg), the leaf extract might be organotoxic in hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, monkey, cat, dog, baboon, child and adult human if administered orally for a period of 7 days.

Keywords: monogastric; toxicity; Abrus precatorius; mice; human


  • 1. Ad Hoc Working Group (AHWG) (1992). Federal Coordinating Council for science, engineering and technology (FCCSET) Draft Report: A cross-section scaling factor for carcinogen risk assessment based on equivalence of mg/kg3/day. Federal Register 57: 24152 – 24173.Google Scholar

  • 2. Adedapo, A.A. (2002). Toxicological effects of some plants in the family euphorbiaceae in rats. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.Google Scholar

  • 3. Adedapo, A.A., Omoloye, O.A., Ohore, O.G. (2007). Studies on the toxicity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Abrus precatorius in rats. Onderstepport J Vet Res. 74, 31 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v74i1.137Crossref

  • 4. Adelowotan, O., Aibinu, I., Adenipekun, E., Odugbemi, T. (2008). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Abrus precatorius (L) Fabaceae extract on some clinical pathogens. Niger Postgrad Med. J. 15 (1): 32-37. PMid:18408781Google Scholar

  • 5. Anam, E.M. (2011). Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Abrus precatorius (Fabaceae). Phytomedicine 8(1): 24-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0944-7113-00001 PMid:11292235Crossref

  • 6. Anand, R.S., Kishire, V.O., Rajkumar, V. (2010). Abrus prectorius. A phytopharmacological review. J. Pharm. Res. 3(11): 2585-2587.Google Scholar

  • 7. Budavari, S. (1989). The Merak Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals, 10th ed., Rahway, New Jersey, Merck and Co. Inc PMid:2666071Google Scholar

  • 8. Burkill, H.M. (1997). The useful plant of West Tropical Africa, Vol 11, Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar

  • 9. Cheecke, P.R. (1998). Natural toxicants in feed, forage and poisonous plants. Interstate Publishers, Denville.Google Scholar

  • 10. Cheecke, P.R., Shull, L.R. (1985). Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. The Connecticut: AVI Publishing Company.Google Scholar

  • 11. Choudhari, A.B., Sayyed, N., Khairnar, A.S. (2011). Evaluation of antiserotonergic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Abrus precatorius leaves. J. Plant Res. 4(3): 570-572.Google Scholar

  • 12. Davis, J.H. (1978). Abrus precatorius (Rosary pea). The most common lethal plant poison. J. Florida Med Assoc. 65, 189-191.Google Scholar

  • 13. Dhawan, B.N., Patnaik, G.K., Singh, K.K., Tandon, J.S., Rastogi RP. (1977). Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Indian J Exp Biol. 15, 208-219. PMid:914326Google Scholar

  • 14. Dreisbach, R.H., Robinson, W.O. (1987). Handbook of poisoning: prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Los Altos, Appleton and Lange, California 497.Google Scholar

  • 15. Faustman, E.M., Allen, B.C., Karlock, R.J., Kimmel, C.A. (1994). Dose-response assessment for developmental toxicity. 1. Characterization of database and determination of no observed adverse effect levels. Fundamental Appl. Toxicol. 23, 478-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/faat.1994.1132Crossref

  • 16. Fernando, C. (2011). Poisoning due to Abrus precatorius (Jequirity bean). Anaesthesia 56 (12): 1178-1180.Google Scholar

  • 17. Freireich, E.J., Gehan, E.A., Rall, D. (1966). Quantitative comparison of toxicity of anticancer agents in mouse, rat, hamster, dog, monkey and man. Cancer Chemother. Rep. 50, 219-244. PMid:4957125Google Scholar

  • 18. Frohne, D., Pfander, H.J. (1983). A colour atlas of poisonous plants. Germany Wolfe Publishing Ltd., 291. PMid:6683299Google Scholar

  • 19. Galey, F.D. (1996). Plants and other natural toxicants. In: (Smith BP. Ed), Large Animals Internal Medicine, 2nd ed., Boston: Mushby Publishers.Google Scholar

  • 20. Garg, S.K. (2005). Veterinary toxicology. New Delhi CBS publishers and Distributors, p321.Google Scholar

  • 21. Ghosal, S., Dutta, S.K. (1971). Alkaloids of Abrus precatorius. Phytochemistry 10(1): 195-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90270-XCrossref

  • 22. Hart, M. (1963). Jecquirity bean poisoning. N. Engl. J. Med. 268, 885-886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM196304182681608Crossref

  • 23. Hatts, D.S., S. Goble, R. (2002). A straw-man proposal for a quantitative definition of the reference dose. DOD conference on Toxicology risk assessment, Dayton, Ohio, 25, 2001, p 1-48.Google Scholar

  • 24. Hemadari, K., Rao, S.S. (1983). Leucorrhoea and menorrhalgia, tribal medicine, Ancient Sci. Life 3, 40-41.Google Scholar

  • 25. Hodge, H.C., Sterner, J.H. (1949). Toxicity rating. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. Q. 10(4): 93. PMid:24536943Google Scholar

  • 26. Iwu, M.M. (1993). Handbook of African medicinal plants. London: CRC Press Boca Raton Ann Arbot.Google Scholar

  • 27. Kim, N.C., Kim, D.S., Kinghorn, A.D. (2002). New triterpenoids from the leaves of Abrus precatorius. Nat. Prod.Let.16 (4): 261-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10575630290020596 PMid:12168762Crossref

  • 28. Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D. (1980). Indian medicinal plants. Vol. 1, Dehra Dun: International Book Distributors.Google Scholar

  • 29. Klassen, C.D. (2011). Casarett and Doall’s. Toxicology: The basic science of poisoning. 6th ed., New York: Mc Graw-Hill.Google Scholar

  • 30. Limmatvapirat, C., Sirisopanapom, Kittakoop, P. (2004). Antitubercular and antiplasmodial constituents of Abrus precatorius. Planta Med. 70 (3): 276-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-818924 PMid:15114511Crossref

  • 31. Liu, C.L., Tsai, C.C., Lin, S.C. Wang, L.I., Hsu, C.I., Hwang, M.J., Lin, J.Y. (2000). Primary structure and function analysis of Abrus precatorius agglutinin A by site-directed mutagenesis, Pro (199) and amphiphilic alpha-helix H impairs protein synthesis inhibitory activity. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (3): 1897-1901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.275.3.1897 PMid:10636890Crossref

  • 32. Mann, A., Gbate, M., Nda, Umar, A. (2003). Medicinal and economic plants of Nupeland. Bida: Jube Evans Books and Publications, p.191.Google Scholar

  • 33. Mordent, J. (1986). Man versus beast: pharmacokinetic scaling in mammals. J. pharmaceut. Sci.75, 1028 – 1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.2600751104Crossref

  • 34. Premanand, R., Ganesh, T. (2010). Neuroprotective effects of Abrus precatorius Linn. Aerial extract on hypoxic neurotoxicity induced rats. Intern. J. Chem. Pharmaceut. Sci. 1(1).Google Scholar

  • 35. Rajaram, N., Janardhanan, K. (1992). The chemical composition and nutritional potential of the tribal pulse, Abrus precatorius L. plant. Foods Human Nutr. 42(94): 285-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02194088Crossref

  • 36. Reagan-Shaw, S., Nihal, M., Amhad, N. (2007). Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. The FASEBJ 22, 659-661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.07-9574LSF PMid:17942826Crossref

  • 37. Saganuwan, S.A., Onyeyili, P.A. (2012). Haematonic and plasma expander effects of aqueous leaf extract of Abrus precatorius in Mus musculus. Campar Clinical Pathol. 21(6): 1249-1255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00580-011-1274-8Crossref

  • 38. Saganuwan, S.A. (2011). A modified arithmetical method of Reed and Muench for determination of a relatively ideal median lethal dose (LD50). Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 5(12): 1543-1546. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP11.393Crossref

  • 39. Saganuwan, S.A. (2012). Toxicological and antimalarial effect of aqueous leaf extract of Abrus precatorius (Jacqurity bean) in Swiss albino mice. PhD Thesis, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Nigeria.Google Scholar

  • 40. Saganuwan, S.A. (2012b). Principles of pharmacological calculations. 1st ed., Zaira: Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd.Google Scholar

  • 41. Saganuwan, S.A., Gulumbe, M.L. (2005a). In vitro antimicrobial activities testing of Abrus precatorius cold water leaf extract on Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Klebesiella pneumoniae. J. Sci. Technol. Res. 4(3): 70-73.Google Scholar

  • 42. Saganuwan, S.A., Gulumbe, M.L. (2005b). In vitro antimicrobial activities testing of Abrus precatorius cold water leaf extract on Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcuspneumoniae. Proc 2nd Annu Conf Nigerian Soc. Indigen Knowl Dev., 9th-12th Nov., Cross River State Univ. Technol Obubra, 93-97.Google Scholar

  • 43. Saganuwan, S.A., Onyeyili, P.A., Etuk, U.E. (2009). Acute toxicity and haematological studies of aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius leaf in Mus Musculus, African Education Initiative Conf. p65.Google Scholar

  • 44. Saganuwan, S.A., Onyeyili, P.A., Suleiman, A.O. (2011). Comparative toxicological effects of orally and intraperitoneally administered aqueous extracts of Abrus precatoriusleaf in Mus musculis. Herba Polonica 57(3): 32-44.Google Scholar

  • 45. Saganuwan, S.A., Onyeyili, P.A. (2010). Biochemical effects of aqueous leaf extract of Abrus precatorius (Jecurity bean) in Swiss albino mice. Herba Polonica 56(3): 63-80.Google Scholar

  • 46. Saganuwan, S.A., Onyeyili, P.A., Ameh, I.G., Etuk, E.U. (2011). In vivo antiplasmodial activity by aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius in mice. Rev. Latinoamer. Quin. 39(1-2): 32-34.Google Scholar

  • 47. Sawyer, N., Ratain, M.J. (2001). Body surface area as a determinant of pharmacokinetics and drug dosing. Invest New Drugs 19, 171-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010639201787 PMid:11392451Crossref

  • 48. Sofi, M.S., Sateesh, M.K., Bashir, M., Harish, G., Lakshmeesha, T.R., Vedashree, S., Vedamurthy, A.B. (2012). Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Abrus precatorius L. on human metastatic breast cancer cell line, NDA-NB-231. CytotechnologyGoogle Scholar

  • 49. Stirpe, F., Barbieri, L. (1986). Symposium: Molecular mechanisms of toxicity, toxic lectins from plants. Human Toxicol. 5(2): 108-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096032718600500208Crossref

  • 50. Sylva, M. (1998). Interspecies allometric scaling in pharmacokinetics of drugs. Acts Pharm Hung. 68 (6): 350-354.Google Scholar

  • 51. Taur, D.J., Patil, R.Y. (2011). Effect of Abrus precatorius Leaves on milk induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in the management of asthma. Asian Pacific J. Tropical. 1(1): 40-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60119-6Crossref

  • 52. Travis, D.C., White, R.K., Ward, R.C. (1990). Interspecies extrapolation of pharmacokinetics. J. Theoretical Biol. 142, 285 - 304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193(05)80554-5Crossref

  • 53. Tripathi, S., Maith, T.K. (2005). Immunomodulatory role of native and heat denatured agglutinin from Abrus precatorius. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 37(13): 451-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2004.07.015 PMid:15474989Crossref

  • 54. US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1986). Guideline for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed Regist 51: 3392-4003.Google Scholar

  • 55. Wambebe, C., Amosun, S.L. (1984). Some neutromuscular effects of crude extracts of the leaves of Abrus precatorius. J. Ethnopharmacol. 11(1): 49-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(84)90095-3Crossref

  • 56. Watt, J.M., Breyer-Brandiwijk, A. (1962). The medicinal poisoning plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd ed., London: Livingstone publishers. PMCid:PMC1957435Google Scholar

  • 57. Xiao, Z.H., Wang, F.Z., Sun, A.J. (2011). A new triterpenoid saponin from Abrus precatorius Linn. Molecules 17(1): 295-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules17010295 PMid:22210168Crossref

  • 58. Yamba, O., Innocent, P.G., Odille, G.N. (2007). Biological and toxicological study of aqueous root-extract from Mitragyna inermis (Wild Okt) Rubiacea. Int. J. Pharmacol. 3(1): 80-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2007.80.85Crossref

About the article

Received: 2015-05-16

Revised: 2015-09-01

Accepted: 2015-10-10

Published Online: 2016-03-14

Published in Print: 2016-03-01

Citation Information: Macedonian Veterinary Review, ISSN (Online) 1857-7415, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/macvetrev-2015-0061.

Export Citation

© 2015 Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan et al., published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in