Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

2 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 0.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.161
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.368

Open Access
Online
ISSN
1857-7415
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Retrospective Analysis of the Bluetongue Outbreak in Serbia

Spomenka Djurić
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Economics and Statistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Belgrade, Bul. Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Predrag Simeunović
  • Department of Ruminants and Swine Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Belgrade, Bul. Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Milorad Mirilović
  • Department of Economics and Statistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Belgrade, Bul. Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jevrosima Stevanović
  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade Bul. Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Uroš Glavinić
  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade Bul. Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Branislav Vejnović
  • Department of Economics and Statistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Belgrade, Bul. Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Zoran Stanimirović
  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade Bul. Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-03-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/macvetrev-2016-0094

Abstract

Bluetongue, a vector-born disease caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, is considered to be one of the most important diseases of domestic ruminants. The first outbreak of bluetongue in Serbia was reported in 2001, when BTV serotype 9 was identified in sampled materials. In 2014, outbreak of BTV-4 in Serbia caused considerable economic losses affecting sheep, cattle and goats. During this outbreak, BTV-4 was recorded in 644 outbreaks within 49 municipalities, part of 17 administrative regions. From the total number of sheep kept in areas affected by bluetongue (n=1 748 110), 2 083 cases (0.2%) were proven to be BTV-4 infected. Total of 206 infected cattle and 24 infected goats were reported during this investigation period, which represents 0.06% and 0.03% of the total number of cattle and goats kept in affected areas, respectively. The highest incidence of infected sheep, cattle and goats was recorded on the territory covered by veterinary institute of Nis. Recorded lethality in cattle, sheep and goats was 18.45% (n=38), 48.10% (n=1002) and 54.17% (n=13), respectively. The peak of the outbreak was in September and October when 94.43% of the confirmed positive cases, regardless of the species, was recorded. Monitoring of bluetongue disease in Serbia relies on active surveillance programmes aimed at: (i) identification and tracing of susceptible and potentially infected animals and (ii) detection, distribution and prevalence of insect vectors. Vaccination of sheep is planned to be implemented as a control measure against bluetongue in Serbia.

Keywords: bluetongue; BTV 4; outbreak; Serbia

References

  • 1. Verwoerd, D., Erasmus, B. J. (2004). Bluetongue. In: J. A. Coetzer, R. C. Tustin, (Ed.), Infectious diseases of livestock. 2nd ed. (pp. 1201-1220). Cape Town: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • 2. Maclachlan, N.J., Drew, C.P., Darpel, K.E., Worwa, G. (2009). The pathology and pathogenesis of bluetongue. J Comp Pathol. 141, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2009.04.003 PMid:19476953CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3. Schwartz-Cornil, I., Mertens, P.P., Contreras, V., Hemati, B., Pascale, F., Breard, E., Mellor, P.S., MacLachlan, N.J., Zientara, S. (2008). Bluetongue virus: virology, pathogenesis and immunity. Vet Res. 39-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2008023 PMid:18495078CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4. King, A.M.Q., Lefkowitz, E., Adams, M.J., Carstens, E.B. (2012). Family - Reoviridae. Virus Taxonomy. (pp.541-637). San Diego: Elsevier.Google Scholar

  • 5. Maan, N.S., Maan, S., Belaganahalli, M.N., Ostlund, E.N., Johnson, D.J., Nomikou, K., Mertens, P.P. (2012). Identification and differentiation of the twenty six bluetongue virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. PloS One, 7(2), pp.e32601-e32601. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032601 PMid:22389711 PMCid:PMC3289656CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Gibbs, E.P., Greiner, E.C. (1994). The epidemiology of bluetongue. Comp Immunol Microb Infect Dis. 17, 197-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-9571(94)90044-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7. Tabachnick, W.J. (2004). Culicoides and the global epidemiology of bluetongue virus infection. Vet Ital. 40, 145-150.Google Scholar

  • 8. Mellor, P.S., Boorman, J. (1995). The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses. Ann Trop Med Parasit. 89, 1-15. PMid:7741589Google Scholar

  • 9. Darpel, K.E., Batten, C.A., Veronesi, E., Shaw, A.E., Anthony, S., Bachanek-Bankowska, K., Kgosana, L., Bin-Tarif, A., Carpenter, S., Muller-Doblies, U.U., Takamatsu, H.H., Mellor, P.S., Mertens, P.P.C. (2007). Clinical signs and pathology shown by British sheep and cattle infected with bluetongue virus serotype 8 derived from the 2006 outbreak in northern Europe. Vet Rec. 161, 253-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.161.8.253 PMid:17720961Google Scholar

  • 10. Mellor, P.S., Carpenter, S., Harrup, L., Baylis, M., Mertens, P.P. (2008). Bluetongue in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: history of occurrence prior to 2006. Prev Vet Med. 87, 4-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.06.002 PMid:18619694CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 11. Maclachlan, N.J. (2011). Bluetongue: history, global epidemiology, and pathogenesis. Prev Vet Med. 102, 107-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.04.005 PMid:21570141CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12. Barratt-Boyes, S.M., MacLachlan, N.J. (1995). Pathogenesis of bluetonguevirus infection of cattle. J Am Vet Med A. 206, 1322-1329. PMid:7775242Google Scholar

  • 13. OIE Disease Information. [Internet]. Bluetongue. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/BLUETONGUE.pdfGoogle Scholar

  • 14. Sperlova, A., Zendulkova, D. (2011). Bluetongue: a review. Vet Med. 56, 430-452.Google Scholar

  • 15. Anon. (2001a). Bluetongue in Greece and Italy. Off Int Epizoot Dis Info. 14, 215-218.Google Scholar

  • 16. Wilson, A.J., Mellor, P.S. (2009). Bluetongue in Europe: past, present and future. Philos T Roy Soc B. 364, 2669-2681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0091 PMid:19687037 PMCid:PMC2865089CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 17. Saegerman, C., Berkvens, D., Mellor, P.S. (2008). Bluetongue epidemiology in the European union. Emerg Infect Dis. 14, 539-544. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071441 PMid:18394269 PMCid:PMC2570923CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18. Rodríguez-Sánchez, B., Iglesias-Martín, I., Martínez-Avilés, M., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J.M. (2008). Orbiviruses in the Mediterranean Basin: updated epidemiologicalsituation of Bluetongue and new methods for the detection of BTV serotype 4. Transbound Emerg Dis. 55, 205-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2008.01029.x PMid:18666964CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Zientara, S., MacLachlan, N.J., Calistri, P., Sanchez- Vizcaino, J.M., Savini, G. (2010). Bluetongue vaccination in Europe. Expert Rev Vaccines. 9, 989-991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/erv.10.97 PMid:20822340CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20. De Clercq, K., Mertens, P., De Leeuw, I., Oura, C., Houdart, P., Potgieter, A.C., Maan, S., et al. (2009). Emergence of bluetongue serotypes in Europe. Part 2. The occurrence of a BTV-11 strain in Belgium. Transbound Emerg Dis. 9/10, 355-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2009.01092.x PMid:19909474CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21. Eschbaumer, M., Hoffmann, B., Moss, A., Savini, G., Leone, A., Konig, P., Zemke, J., Conraths, F., Beer, M. (2010). Emergence of bluetongue virus serotype 6 in Europe-German field data and experimental infection in cattle. Vet Microbiol. 143, 189-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.040 PMid:20045271CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 22. Ganter, M. (2014). Bluetongue disease-Global overview and future risks. Small Ruminant Res. 118, 79-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2013.12.011CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 23. Djuricic, B., Nedic, D., Lausevic, D., Pavlovic, M. (2004). The epizootiological occurrence of bluetongue in the central Balkans. Vet Ital. 40, 105-107. PMid:20419644Google Scholar

  • 24. Anon. (2001b). Bluetongue in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Off Int Epizoot Dis Info. 14, 234.Google Scholar

  • 25. Mellor, P.S., Wittmann, E.J. (2002). Bluetongue virus in the Mediterranean basin 1998-2001. Vet J. 164, 20-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.2002.0713 PMid:12359482CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26. Zientara, S., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J.M. (2013). Control of bluetongue in Europe. Vet Microbiol. 165, 33-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.01.010 PMid:23462519CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27. OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health [Internet]. 72nd General Session, 23-28 May 2004. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/A_RESO_2004_WP.pdf Google Scholar

  • 28. OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health [Internet]. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Chapter 2.01.03. Bluetongue, 2014. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/fr/Health_standards/tahm/2.01.03_BLUETONGUE.pdfGoogle Scholar

  • 29. Hofmann, M., Griot, C., Chaignat, V., Perler, L., Thür, B. (2008). Bluetongue disease reaches Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk, 150, 49-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281.150.2.49 PMid:18369049CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30. Anon. (1998a). Bluetongue in Greece: confirmation of diagnosis. Dis Info. 11, 166-167.Google Scholar

  • 31. Anon. (1998b). Disease outbreaks reported to the OIE in November-December. Bull Off Int Epizoot. 110, 506.Google Scholar

  • 32. Taylor, W.P., Mellor, P.S. (1994). Distribution of bluetongue virus in Turkey, 1978-81. Epidemiol Infect. 112, 623-633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268800051323 PMid:8005228 PMCid:PMC2271514CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 33. Labrovic, A., Poljak, Z., Separovic, S., Jukic, B., Lukman, D., Listes, E., Bosnic, S. (2004). Spatial distribution of bluetongue in cattle in southern Croatia in the last quarter of 2002. Vet Ital. 40, 217-220. PMid:20419667Google Scholar

  • 34. Listes, E., Bosnic, S., Beni, M., Lojkic, M., Cac, Z., Cvetnic, Z., Madic, J., Separovic, S., Labrovic, A., Savini, G., Goffredo, M. (2004). Serological evidence of bluetongue and a preliminary entomological study in southern Croatia. Vet Ital. 40, 221-225. PMid:20419668Google Scholar

  • 35. OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health [Internet]. Bluetongue, Serbia, 2015. [Accessed 30 October 2015.] http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=15987.Google Scholar

  • 36. OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health [Internet]. Weekly Disease Information, 2015b, [Accessed 30 October 2015]. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/WIGoogle Scholar

  • 37. Roberts, H., Smith, J., Batten, C., Nomikou, K., Mertens, P. (2014). Preliminary outbreak assessment - Bluetongue virus (BTV-4) in Greece, Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/animaldiseases-international-monitoring.Google Scholar

  • 38. Mehlhorn, H., Walldorf, V., Klimpel, S., Schaub, G., Kiel, E., Focke, R., Liebisch, G., Liebisch, A., Werner, D., Bauer, C., Clausen, H., Bauer, B., Geier, M., Hörbrand, T., Bätza, H.J., Conraths, F.J., Hoffmann, B., Beer, M. (2009). Bluetongue disease in Germany (2007-2008): monitoring of entomological aspects. Parasitol Res. 105, 313-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1416-y PMid:19322587CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 39. Purse, BV., Mellor, P.S., Rogers, D.J., Samuel, A.R., Mertens, P.P.C., Baylis, M. (2005). Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nat Rev Microbiol. 3, 171-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1090 PMid:15685226 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-01-27

Revised: 2016-10-10

Accepted: 2016-08-20

Published Online: 2017-03-14

Published in Print: 2017-03-01


Citation Information: Macedonian Veterinary Review, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 21–27, ISSN (Online) 1857-7415, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/macvetrev-2016-0094.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Simon More, Dominique Bicout, Anette Bøtner, Andrew Butterworth, Klaus Depner, Sandra Edwards, Bruno Garin‐Bastuji, Margaret Good, Christian Gortázar Schmidt, Virginie Michel, Miguel Angel Miranda, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Mohan Raj, Liisa Sihvonen, Hans Spoolder, Jan Arend Stegeman, Hans‐Hermann Thulke, Antonio Velarde, Preben Willeberg, Christoph Winckler, Peter Mertens, Giovanni Savini, Stephan Zientara, Alessandro Broglia, Francesca Baldinelli, Andrey Gogin, Lisa Kohnle, and Paolo Calistri
EFSA Journal, 2017, Volume 15, Number 8

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in