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The Maulino forest, located at the coastal range of south central Chile, has been severely disrupted by intense human activities. Currently, landscape is dominated by large extensions of plantations of Monterrey pine, where remnants of native forest are immersed. Here, we assess consequences of Maulino forest fragmentation and habitat replacement upon small mammal fauna. We describe habitat characteristics, small mammal's composition and abundance in native forests (fragmented and continuous), but also in Pinus plantation. Population and body condition were compared among habitats, along with movement among native and Pinus forests. Higher species richness was found in continuous forest comprising Abrothrix longipilis, A. olivaceus, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, Irenomys tarsalis, Geoxus valdivianus, Rattus rattus, Octodon bridgesi, Thylamys elegans, and Dromiciops gliroides. Higher abundance was observed in fragmented forest and Pinus plantations, where A. longipilis, A. olivaceus, O. longicaudatus, and T. elegans accounted for 80% of total captures. Population structure and body size were not affected negatively by fragmentation and habitat replacement, although habitat characteristics differed among surveyed habitats. Fragmentation of Maulino forests seems to have a significant impact on overall small mammal's richness, threatening the persistence of rare taxa of small mammals. Conservation and management practices are discussed to favor protection of this highly endangered habitat.
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