Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Mammalia

Editor-in-Chief: Denys, Christiane


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.714
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.816

CiteScore 2017: 0.82

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.433
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.603

Online
ISSN
1864-1547
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Ahead of print

Issues

New record of Hipposideros speoris (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from Myanmar hidden in the National Zoological Collections of the Zoological Survey of India

Tauseef Hamid Dar / Manokaran KamalakannanORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4440-0041 / Chinnadurai Venkatraman / Kailash Chandra
Published Online: 2018-12-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2018-0110

Abstract

Hipposideros speoris is a small-sized leaf-nosed bat and was thought to be restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Based on a single museum specimen preserved in alcohol housed in the National Zoological Collections of the Zoological Survey of India, we report and confirm the presence of H. speoris for the first time in Pyay, Myanmar.

Keywords: Hipposideros speoris; Myanmar; National Zoological Collections; new record

The Schneider’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros speoris (Schneider, 1800) is a small-sized bat and one of the 13 species of South Asia and 83 species of leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae) of the world (Bates and Harrison 1997), (Murray et al. 2012). Hipposideros speoris is known only from Uttarakhand, peninsular India and Sri Lanka (Figure 1); it has been recorded up to 1385 m above sea level (asl) (Bates and Harrison 1997), (Molur et al. 2002). It inhabits dry plains to hill crevices in caves, disused buildings, underground tunnels, old bridges, old forts and palaces. It roosts in colonies ranging from 50 to 1000 individuals; males and females live together for most of the year; their insectivorous diet includes coleopterans, dipterans and other insects (Bates and Harrison 1997), (Molur et al. 2002).

Distribution map of Schneider’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros speoris showing the distribution in Uttarakhand, peninsular India and Sri Lanka (yellow dots and plains) and the new record (red triangle) from Pyay, Myanmar.
Figure 1:

Distribution map of Schneider’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros speoris showing the distribution in Uttarakhand, peninsular India and Sri Lanka (yellow dots and plains) and the new record (red triangle) from Pyay, Myanmar.

Recently, the authors examined the Hipposideros bat collections housed in the National Zoological Collections of the Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India and found a single specimen of a bat registered (No. 18562) and tagged as a male Hipposideros speoris speoris (Schneider), collected from Prome, Burma (presently known as Pyay, Myanmar) by Dr. J. Anderson in 1868 (Figure 2A). The specimen preserved in alcohol was re-examined and confirmed as a male of H. speoris based on the keys provided by Bates and Harrison (1997). The skull of the specimen was not extracted in order to keep it intact for further studies.

Schneider’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros speoris (Reg. No. 18562) from Mynamar: (A) dorsal view of the specimen with tag; (B) leaf-nose showing the three supplementary leaf-lets; (C) baculum. Copyright of photographs (Figure 2): M. Kamalakannan.
Figure 2:

Schneider’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros speoris (Reg. No. 18562) from Mynamar: (A) dorsal view of the specimen with tag; (B) leaf-nose showing the three supplementary leaf-lets; (C) baculum.

Copyright of photographs (Figure 2): M. Kamalakannan.

External characters: The single specimen of Hipposideros speoris of Pyay, Myanmar has a forearm length of 52.97 mm, whereas the specimens from India and Sri Lanka were reported to have forearm lengths of 50.7 mm (range 45.6–54.0 mm) (Bates and Harrison 1997). The head and body length is 55.16 mm (Pyay, Myanmar) versus 54.7 mm (range 46.0–62.0 mm) (India and Sri Lanka); the tail length measures 23.90 mm (Pyay, Myanmar) versus 25.2 mm (range 20.0–29.0 mm) (India and Sri Lanka; Table 1). The three additional leaflets on the leaf-nose (outer is smaller than the other two) and well-developed lappets next to the nostrils (Figure 2B) are the external characters that distinguish this species from other Hipposideros species. A frontal sac is present above the leaf-nose. In general, H. speoris varies from gray to orange-brown, palest between the shoulders and on the ventral side, darker on the flanks and the posterior side. The baculum is tiny (length 0.57 mm) with a blunt tip and slightly expanded base (Figure 2C).

Table 1:

Morphological measurements of Hipposideros speoris specimens from Pyay, Myanmar.

Hipposideros speoris is widespread and common in its range, known from many locations in Uttarakhand, peninsular India and Sri Lanka (Bates and Harrison 1997). However, H. speoris was not known from Myanmar and not reported by earlier authors, although the specimen from Myanmar was collected more than 100 years ago. A total of nine species of Hipposideros bats were previously reported from Myanmar, namely Hipposideros armiger (Hodgson, 1835), Hipposideros ater (Templeton, 1848), Hipposideros cineraceus (Blyth, 1853), Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813), Hipposideros lankadiva (Kelaart, 1850), Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield, 1823), Hipposideros lylei (Thomas, 1913), Hipposideros pomona (K. Andersen, 1918) and Hipposideros pratti (Thomas, 1891) (Simmons 2005, Bates et al. 2015). This new record increases this total to 10 species and mainly extends the distribution of this species 1000 km further east from the nearest known locality (Bhubaneswar, Odisha) from India.

This bat has been classified as “Least Concern” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (Molur et al. 2008). However, this species, along with other bats, is locally threatened in some parts in its Indian range due to local bushmeat consumption and medicinal uses, and habitat loss due to roost disturbance, developmental activities and stone quarrying; no threat has been reported from Sri Lanka (Bates and Harrison 1997), (Molur et al. 2008). Additional field studies in the Pyay area and nearby in Myanmar will improve our knowledge of its present range, population status and local threats.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, for his support, encouragement and for providing the necessary facilities.

References

  • Bates, P.J.J. and D.L. Harrison. 1997. Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, England, UK. Google Scholar

  • Bates, P.J.J., O. Tun, M.M. Aung, A. Lu, M.R. Lum and M.M. Sein. 2015. A review of Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart, 1850 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) with a description of a new subspecies from Myanmar. Trop. Nat. Hist. 15: 191–204. Google Scholar

  • Molur, S., G. Marimuthu, C. Srinivasulu, S. Mistry, A.M. Hutson, P.J.J. Bates, S. Walker, K. Padmapriya and A.R. Binupriya. 2002. Status of South Asian Chiroptera: conservation assessment and management plan C.A.M.P. Workshop report. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India. Google Scholar

  • Molur, S., W. Yapa and C. Srinivasulu. 2008. Hipposideros speoris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T10162A3177889. Google Scholar

  • Murray, S.W., P. Campbell, T. Kingston, A. Zubaid, C.M. Francis and T.H. Kunz. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of hipposiderid bats from Southeast Asia and evidence of cryptic diversity. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 62: 597–611. Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: (D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder eds.) Mammal species of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. pp. 312–529. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-06-26

Accepted: 2018-11-13

Published Online: 2018-12-22


Citation Information: Mammalia, 20180110, ISSN (Online) 1864-1547, ISSN (Print) 0025-1461, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2018-0110.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in