Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Medicine

formerly Central European Journal of Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

1 Issue per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016 (Open Medicine): 0.294
IMPACT FACTOR 2016 (Central European Journal of Medicine): 0.116

CiteScore 2016: 0.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.140
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.154

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 2, Issue 1 (Mar 2007)


Wheezing and lung function measured in subjects exposed to various levels of fine particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Wieslaw Jedrychowski / Frederica Perera / Robin Whyatt / Elzbieta Mroz / Elzbieta Flak / Ryszard Jacek / Agnieszka Penar / John Spengler / David Camman
Published Online: 2007-03-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11536-006-0043-6


The main purpose of the study was to assess the occurrence of wheezing and lung function in non-smoking women exposed to various levels of fine particulate matter(FP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Out of the total study group, 152 women were included in the lower exposed group (PM2.5 ≤34.3μg/m3 or PAHs ≤ 22.9ng/ m3) and 96 persons in higher concentrations of both air pollutants (PM2.5>34.3μg/m3 and PAHs > 22.9ng/ m3). Except for FVC and FEV1, all lung forced ventilatory flows (PEFR, FEF25% FEF50%, FEF75%, FEF25−75%) were significantly lower in the higher exposed group. The findings suggest bronchoconstriction within the respiratory tract, which may be related to the exposure under study. This was consistent with a higher prevalence of wheezing in more exposed subjects. It was shown that higher levels of both pollutants increased the risk of wheezing by factor 5.6 (95% CI: 1.77–17.8) after accounting for potential confounders such as allergic diseases and exposure to ETS. This study suggests that pollutants in question may have the capacity to promote broncho-constriction and asthmatic symptoms, possibly by bronchial inflammation resulting from the exposure.

Keywords: Personal exposure; fine particles; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; lung function; wheezing

  • [1] J.G. Ayres: “Chronic effects of air pollution [editorial]”, Occup. Environ. Med., Vol. 59, (2002), pp. 147–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.59.3.147CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2] H.R. Anderson, C. Spix, S. Medina, J.P. Schouten, J. Castellsague, G. Rossi, D. Zmirou, G. Touloumi, B. Wojtyniak, A. Ponka, L. Bacharova, J. Schwartz and K. Katsouyanni: “Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project”, Eur. Respir. J., Vol. 10, (1997), pp. 1064–1071. http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.97.10051064CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] R.W. Atkinson, H.R. Anderson, J. Sunyer, J. Ayres, M. Baccini, J.M. Vonk, A. Boumghar, F. Forastiere, B. Forsberg, G. Touloumi, J. Schwartz and K. Katsouyanni: “Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project”, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Vol. 164, (2001), pp. 1860–1866. Google Scholar

  • [4] I. Baldi, J.F. Tessier, F. Kauffmann, H. Jacqmin-Gadda, C. Nejjari and R. Salamon: “Prevalence of asthma and mean levels of air pollution: results from the French PAARC survey”, Eur. Respir. J., Vol. 14, (1999), pp. 132–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3003.1999.14a22.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] W.L. Beeson, D.E. Abbey and S.F. Knutsen: ”Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study”, Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 106, (1998), pp. 813–823. Google Scholar

  • [6] R.J. Delfino, A.M. Murphy-Moulton, R.T. Burnett, J.R. Brook and M.R. Becklake: “Effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses in Montreal, Quebec”, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Vol. 155, (1997), pp. 568–576. Google Scholar

  • [7] D.W. Dockery, J. Schwartz and J.D. Spengler: “Air pollution and daily mortality: associations with particulates and acid aerosols”, Environ. Res., Vol. 59, (1992), pp. 362–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80042-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] D.W. Dockery and C.A. Pope: ”Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution”, Ann. Rev. Public Hlth., Vol. 15, (1994), pp. 107–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.15.050194.000543CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9] D.W. Dockery, J. Cunningham, A.I. Damokosh., L.M. Neas, J.D. Spengler, P. Koutrakis, J.H. Ware, M. Raizenne and F.E. Speizer: “Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: respiratory symptoms”, Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 104, (1996), pp. 500–505. Google Scholar

  • [10] W. Jedrychowski and E. Flak: “Effects of air quality on chronic respiratory symptoms adjusted for allergy among preadolescent children”, Eur. Respir. J., Vol. 11, (1998), pp. 1312–1318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.98.11061312CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] K.L. Timonen and J. Pekkanen: “Air pollution and respiratory health among children with asthmatic or cough symptoms”, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Vol. 156, (1997), pp. 546–552. Google Scholar

  • [12] D.E. Abbey, R.J. Burchette, S.F. Knutsen, W.F. McDonnell, M.D. Lebowitz and P. Enright: “Long-term particulate and other air pollutants and lung function in non-smokers”, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Vol. 158, (1998), pp. 289–298. Google Scholar

  • [13] D.J. Berglund, D.E. Abbe, M.D. Lebowitz, S.F. Knutsen and W.F. McDonnell: “Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in an elderly non-smoking population”, Chest, Vol. 115, (1999), pp. 49–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.115.1.49CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14] B. Brunekreft, P.I. Kinney, J.H. Ware, D.W. Dockery, F.E. Speizer, J.D. Spengler and B.G. Ferris: “Sensitive subgroups and normal variation in pulmonary function response to air pollution episodes”, Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 90, (1991), pp. 189–193. Google Scholar

  • [15] W. Jedrychowski, E., Flak and E. Mróz: ”The adverse effect of low levels of ambient air pollutants on lung function growth in preadolescent children”, Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 107, (1999), pp. 669–674. Google Scholar

  • [16] D.E. Abbey, N. Nishino, W.F. McDonnell, R.J. Burchette, S.F. Knutsen, W.L. Beeson and J.X. Yang: “Long-term inhalable particles and other air pollutants related to mortality in nonsmokers”, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Vol. 159, (1999), pp. 373–382. Google Scholar

  • [17] F. Barbone, M. Bovenzi, F. Cavalleri, G. Stanta: “Air pollution and lung cancer in Trieste, Italy”, Am. J. Epidemiol., Vol. 141, (1995), pp. 1161–1169. Google Scholar

  • [18] A.J. Cohen and C.A. Pope: “Lung cancer and air pollution”, Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 103, Suppl. 8, (1995), pp. 219–224. Google Scholar

  • [19] D.W. Dockery, C.A. Pope, X. Xu, J.D. Spengler, J.H. Ware, M.E. Fay, B.G. Ferris and F.E. Jr Speizer: “An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities”, N. Engl. J. Med., Vol. 329, (1993), pp. 1753–1759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199312093292401CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20] F. Dominici, M. Daniels, S.L. Zeger and J.M. Samet: “Air pollution and mortality: estimating regional and national dose-response relationships”, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., Vol. 97, (2002), pp. 100–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1198/016214502753479266CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] W. Jedrychowski, H. Becher, J. Wahrendorf and Z. A. Basa-Cierpialek: “Case-control study of lung cancer with special reference to the effect of air pollution in Poland”, J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health, Vol. 44, (1990), pp. 114–120. Google Scholar

  • [22] K. Katsouyanni, A. Karakatsani, I. Messari, G. Touloumi, A. Hatzakis, A. Kalandidi and D. Trichopoulos: “Air pollution and cause specific mortality in Athens”, J. Epidemiol. Community Health, Vol. 44, (1990), pp. 321–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.44.4.321CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23] F. Laden, L.M. Neas, D.W. Dockery and J. Schwartz: “Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six U.S. cities”, Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 108, (2000), pp. 941–947. Google Scholar

  • [24] C.A. Pope, R.T. Burnett, M.J. Thun, E.E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito and G.D. Thurston: “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution”, J. Am. Med. Assoc., Vol. 287, (2002), pp. 1132–1141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.9.1132CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25] J.M. Samet, F. Dominici, F.C. Curriero, I. Coursac and S.L. Zeger: “Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987–1994”, N. Engl. J. Med., Vol. 343, (2000), pp. 1742–1749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200012143432401CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26] J.E. Vena: “Air pollution as a risk factor in lung cancer”, Am. J. Epidemiol., Vol. 116, (1982), pp. 42–56. Google Scholar

  • [27] Health Effects Institute: Revised analyses of time-series studies of air pollution and health, 46 Health Effects Institute, special report, Boston, MA, 2003. Google Scholar

  • [28] R.J. Delfino: “Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research”, Environ. Health Prespect., Vol. 110, (2002), pp. 573–589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.021100607CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29] W. Jedrychowski, R.M. Whyatt, D.E. Camman, U.V. Bawle, K. Peki, J.R. Spemgler, T.S. Dumyahn, A. Penar and F.P. Perera: “Effect of prenatal PAH exposure on birth outcomes and neurocognitive development in a cohort of newborns in Poland. Study design and preliminary ambient data”, Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Hlth., Vol. 16, (2003), pp. 21–29. Google Scholar

  • [30] P. Quanjer, G.J. Tammeling, G.J. Cotes, O.F. Pedersen, R. Peslin, J.C. Vernault: “Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows”, Eur. Respir. J., Vol. 6, (1993), pp. 5–40. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31] British Thoracic Society, (Anonymous): “Guidelines for the measurement of respiratory function. Recommendations of the British Thoracic Society and the Association of Respiratory Technicians and Physiologists”, Respir. Med., Vol. 88(3), (1994), pp. 165–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0954-6111(05)80346-4CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32] F.P. Perera, S.M. Illman, P.L. Kinney, R. Whyatt, E.A. Kelvin, P. Shepard, D. Evans, M. Fullilove, J. Ford, R.L. Miller, I.H. Meyer and V.A. Rauh: “The challenge of preventing environmentally related disease in young children: community-based research in New York City”, Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 110, (2002), pp. 197–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.02110197CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33] X. Xu, D.W. Dockery and I. Wang: “Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function”, Arch. Environ. Health, Vol. 46, (1991), pp. 198–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1991.9937448CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34] A.J. Ghio and R.B. Devlin: “Inflammatory lung injury after bronchial instillation of air pollution particles”, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Vol. 164, (2001), pp. 704–708. Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2007-03-01

Published in Print: 2007-03-01

Citation Information: Open Medicine, ISSN (Online) 2391-5463, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11536-006-0043-6.

Export Citation

© 2007 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Elizabeth M. Noth, Fred Lurmann, Amanda Northcross, Charles Perrino, David Vaughn, and S. Katharine Hammond
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 2016, Volume 9, Number 8, Page 899
Enoch Anyenda, Tomomi Higashi, Yasuhiro Kambayashi, Thao Nguyen, Yoshimasa Michigami, Masaki Fujimura, Johsuke Hara, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Masami Kitaoka, Hiroki Asakura, Daisuke Hori, Yohei Yamada, Koichiro Hayashi, Kazuichi Hayakawa, and Hiroyuki Nakamura
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2016, Volume 13, Number 8, Page 800
Amy M Padula, John R Balmes, Ellen A Eisen, Jennifer Mann, Elizabeth M Noth, Frederick W Lurmann, Boriana Pratt, Ira B Tager, Kari Nadeau, and S Katharine Hammond
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 2015, Volume 25, Number 3, Page 295
Amanda L Northcross, Michael Trinh, Jay Kim, Ian A Jones, Matthew J Meyers, Delia D Dempsey, Neal L Benowitz, and S Katharine Hammond
Tobacco Control, 2014, Volume 23, Number 1, Page 14
Sara L Gale, Elizabeth M Noth, Jennifer Mann, John Balmes, S Katharine Hammond, and Ira B Tager
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 2012, Volume 22, Number 4, Page 386

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in