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Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform

Journal of Criminology and Penal Reform

Ed. by Albrecht, Hans-Jörg / Remschmidt, Helmut / Quensel, Stephan


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Volume 102, Issue 1

Issues

Delinquenz im Altersverlauf

Befunde der kriminologischen VerlaufsforschungResearch findings in life-course criminology

Delinquent Behavior over the Life Course

Research findings in life-course criminology

Prof. Dr. Klaus Boers
  • Corresponding author
  • Universität Münster, Institut für Kriminalwissenschaften, Professur für Kriminologie, Bispinghof 24/25, 48143MünsterGermany
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  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2019-05-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mks-2019-0004

Zusammenfassung

In der kriminologischen Verlaufsforschung werden die Kontinuität und der Abbruch delinquenten Verhaltens im Altersverlauf analysiert. Dazu müssen wiederholt dieselben Personen befragt werden. Neben der Entwicklungsdynamik ermöglichen solche Paneldaten, sowohl kausale Annahmen als auch die Wirkungen von Kontrollinterventionen zu untersuchen. Seit den 1930er Jahren haben sich zunächst eher persönlichkeitsorientierte multifaktorielle und später soziologische Forschungsperspektiven herausgebildet. Im Rahmen Letzterer konnten in jüngerer Zeit auch die Wirkungen polizeilicher und justizieller Kontrollen genauer untersucht werden. In einer Verlaufsperspektive sind weniger sich spontanbewährende gelegentliche Täter von Interesse, als vielmehr wiederholt auffällige (Gewalt-)Täter. Solche Intensivtäter sind ganz überwiegend nicht bis ins höhere Erwachsenenalter, sondern vor allem im Jugend- und Heranwachsendenalter aktiv. Individuelle und (etwas stärker) soziale Ursachen beeinflussen miteinander die Entstehung und den Abbruch delinquenter Verläufe. Formelle Kontrollinterventionen fördern delinquente Normorientierungen sowie die Bindung an delinquente Gruppen und reduzieren schulische oder berufliche Erfolgschancen. In deren Folge kommt es verstärkt zu delinquentem Verhalten.

Abstract

The continuity of and desistance from delinquent behavior is a focal point of interest in developmental and life-course criminology. To analyze such phenomena, a repeated interrogation of the same respondents is essential. Such panel data allow for the analysis of developmental dynamics, of causal processes or of the impact of control interventions. Since the 1930 s, personality-oriented multifactorial as well as sociological perspectives have emerged in life-course criminology. From a life-course perspective, especially intensive offending is of interest rather than occasional offending. However, intensive (violent) offenders are not necessarily persistent offenders over the life-course. They are mainly active during adolescence, while most of them start to desist from crime in early adulthood. Individual and (somewhat more) social factors are interrelated in causing the emergence of as well as the desistance from delinquent behavior. Formal control interventions foster delinquent peer associations as well as delinquent norm orientations while reducing conventional life chances. Subsequently, this leads to an increase of delinquent behavior.

Schlüsselwörter: Kriminologische Verlaufsforschung; Intensivtäterschaft; Persistenz; Delinquenzabbruch; individuelle und soziale Delinquenzursachen; formelle Sozialkontrolle

Keywords: Developmental and life-course criminology; intensive offending; persistence; desistance; individual and social causes of crime; social control

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About the article

Published Online: 2019-05-30

Published in Print: 2019-05-28


Citation Information: Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform, Volume 102, Issue 1, Pages 3–42, ISSN (Online) 2366-1968, ISSN (Print) 0026-9301, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mks-2019-0004.

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