Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Metrology and Measurement Systems

The Journal of Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation of Polish Academy of Sciences

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.598

CiteScore 2016: 1.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.460
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.228

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 22, Issue 1


Measurement and Comparison of Reliability Performance of Photovoltaic Power Optimizers for Energy Production

Marcantonio Catelani
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Information Engineering, University of Florence, via S. Marta 3, 50139, Firenze, Italy
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Lorenzo Ciani
  • Department of Information Engineering, University of Florence, via S. Marta 3, 50139, Firenze, Italy
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Giorgio Graditi / Giovanna Adinolfi
Published Online: 2015-02-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mms-2015-0012


Photovoltaic (PV) power optimizers are introduced in PV systems to improve their energetic productivity in presence of mismatching phenomena and not uniform operating conditions. Commercially available converters are characterized by different DC-DC topologies. A promising one is the boost topology with its different versions. It is characterized by its circuital simplicity, few devices and high efficiency values - necessary features for a Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) converter. PV power optimizer designs represent a challenging task since they operate in continuously changing operating conditions which strongly influence electronic component properties and thus the performance of complete converters. An aspect to carefully analyze in such applications is the thermal factor. In this paper, a necessity to have a suitable temperature monitoring system to avoid dangerous conditions is underlined In addition, another important requirement for a PV power optimizer is its reliability, since it can suggest a useful information on its diagnostic aspects, maintenance and investments. In fact, a reliable device requires less maintenance services, also improving the economic aspect. The evaluation of the electronic system reliability can be carried out using different reliability prediction models. In this paper, reliability indices, such as the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) or the Failure Rate of a Diode Rectification (DR) boost, are calculated using the evaluation of the Military Handbook 217F and Siemens SN29500 prediction models. With the reliability prediction results it has been possible to identify the most critical components of a DMPPT converter and a measurement setup has been developed in order to monitor the component stress level on the temperature, power, voltage, current, and energy in the DMPPT design phase avoiding the occurrence of a failure that might decrease the service life of the equipment.

Keywords: photovoltaic; DMPPT converter; reliability; MIL-HDBK-217F; Siemens SN29500


  • [1] Walker, G.R., Sernia, P. C. (2004). Cascaded dc-dc Converter Connection of Photovoltaic Modules. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 19, 1130-1139.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2] Roman, E., Alonso, R., Ibanez , P., Goitia, D., Elorduizapatarietxe, S. (2006). Intelligent PV Module for Grid-Connected PV Systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 53, 1066-1073.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Adinolfi, G., Femia, N., Petrone, G., Spagnuolo, G., Vitelli, M. (2010). Design of dc/dc Converters for DMPPT PV Applications Based on the Concept of Energetic Efficiency. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 132.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [4] Adinolfi, G., Arsie, I., Di Martino, R. (2008). A prototype of hybrid solar vehicle:simulations and onboard measurements. 9th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, 1, 917-922.Google Scholar

  • [5] Adinolfi, G., Femia, N., Petrone, G., Spagnuolo, G., Vitelli, M. (2009). Energy efficiency effective design of DC/DC converters for DMPPT PV applications. Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 1, 4602-4606.Google Scholar

  • [6] Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G., Femia, N., Vitelli, M.(2011). Comparative Analysis of Synchronous Rectification Boost and Diode Rectification Boost Converter for DMPPT Applications. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 1, 1000-1005.Google Scholar

  • [7] Xiao, W., Ozog, N., Dunford, W.G. (2007). Topology Study of Photovoltaic Interface for Maximum Power Point Tracking. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 54, 1696-1704.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G. (2012). Temperature Influence on Photovoltaic Power Optimizer Components Reliability. International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 1, 1113-1118.Google Scholar

  • [9] IEC 60050-191 ed 1.0 (1990), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV), Chapter 191: Dependability and quality of service. Forecast publication date for Ed. 2.0 is 2012-06-02. IEC International Electrotechincal Commission, Geneve (CH).Google Scholar

  • [10] Dziadak, B., Makowski, L., Michalski, A. (2013). Some Practical Problems of Communications Reliability in Environmental Monitoring Systems. Metrology and Measurement Systems. XX(3): 327-524.Google Scholar

  • [11] Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G. (2011). Performances analysis of different DMPPT boost converters. 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. 1, 3703-3707.Google Scholar

  • [12] Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G. (2011). Energy performances and reliability evaluation of an optimized DMPPT boost converter. IEEE International Conference on Clean Electrical Power,1, 69-72.Google Scholar

  • [13] Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G. (2012). Temperature influence on Commercial PV Optimizer Reliability. 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 1, 3594-3597.Google Scholar

  • [14] Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G., Tina, G. M. (2013). Photovoltaic Optimizer boost converters: temperature influence and electro-thermal design. Applied Energy,115, 140-150.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Catelani, M., Ciani, L. (2012). Experimental tests and reliability assessment of electronic ballast system. Microelectronics Reliability, 52, 1833-1836.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16] Catelani, M., Zanobini, A., Ciani, L. (2009). Qualification tests and reliability analysis on electronic ballast system. IEEE - International Instrumentation And Measurement Technology Conference,1, 1707-1710.Google Scholar

  • [17] Catelani, M., Ciani, L., Simoni, E.(2012). Thermal analysis of Critical components in Photovoltaic Inverter. IEEE International Instrumentation And Measurement Technology Conference, 1, 1891-1895.Google Scholar

  • [18] Catelani, M., Ciani, L., Simoni, E.(2012). Photovoltaic inverter: thermal characterization to identify critical components. XX IMEKO World Congress - Metrology for Green Growth, accepted.Google Scholar

  • [19] Catelani, M., Ciani, L., Paolilli, E. (2013).Reliability and availability analysis of an automatic highway toll collection system. International Instrumentation And Measurement Technology Conference 1, 1594-1598.Google Scholar

  • [20] Catelani, M., Ciani, L., Luongo, V. (2010).The FMEDA approach to improve the safety assessment according to the IEC61508. Microelectronics Reliability, Issue 50, 9-11, 1230-1235.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G., Pontecorvo, A. (2013). RIAC 217 Plus reliability prediction model in photovoltaic systems. IEEE International Conference on Clean Electrical Power,1, 343-347.Google Scholar

  • [22] Catelani, M., Ciani, L., Graditi, G., Adinolfi, G. (2013). Photovoltaic Power Optimizers: a comparison in reliability evaluations. IMEKO TC10 Workshop on Technical Diagnostics:New Perspectives in Measurements, Tools and Techniques for Industrial Applications, 1, 254-259.Google Scholar

  • [23] Calleja, H., Chan, F., Uribe, I. (2007). Reliability-Oriented Assessment of a DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic Applications. IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference, 1, 1522-1527.Google Scholar

  • [24] Tian, X. (2005) Design for Reliability and Implementation on Power Converters. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium Proceedings,1, 89-95.Google Scholar

  • [25] Graditi, G., Colonnese, D., Femia, N. (2010). Efficiency and Reliability Comparison of DC-DC Converters for Single Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters. Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation an Motion Proceedings, 1, 140-147. Google Scholar

  • [26] Dhople, S., Davoudi, A., Domínguez-Garcia, A., Chapman, P. (2012). A Unified Approach to Reliability Assessment of Multiphase DC-DC Converters in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 27, No. 2, 739-751.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Yang, S., Xiang, D., Bryant, A., Mawb,y P., Ran, L., Tavner, P. (2010). Condition monitoring for device reliability in power electronic converters: a review. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 25, No. 11, 2734-2752.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28] S.V. Dhople, A. Davoudi, P.L. Chapman and A.D. Dominguez García.Reliability assessment of faulttolerant Dc-Dc converters for photovoltaic applications. Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition , 1, 2271-2276.Google Scholar

  • [29] MIL-HDBK-217F Notice 2 Military Handbook, Reliability prediction of electronic equipment (1995)Google Scholar

  • [30] Siemens SN29500 Note 1 Failure rates of components, expected values (2010-09)Google Scholar

  • [31] Coilcraft Document.Current and Temperature Ratings. Doc.316-1. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-04-08

Accepted: 2014-11-17

Published Online: 2015-02-20

Published in Print: 2015-03-01

Citation Information: Metrology and Measurement Systems, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 139–152, ISSN (Online) 2300-1941, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mms-2015-0012.

Export Citation

© Polish Academy of Sciences. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Jihen Sakly, Afef Bennani-Ben Abdelghani, Ilhem Slama-Belkhodja, and Hafedh Sammoud
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 2017, Volume 5, Number 3, Page 1216
Marcantonio Catelani, Lorenzo Ciani, Marian K. Kazimierczuk, and Alberto Reatti
Measurement, 2016, Volume 88, Page 310

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in