Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Management of Organizations: Systematic Research

Organizacijy vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai

2 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Maximization of Created Social Value: Social Business Models and Their Application Tendencies in Lithuania

Jūratė Kuklytė
  • Corresponding author
  • Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Ekonomikos ir vadybos fakulteto Vadybos katedros doktorantė (vadyba). S. Daukanto g. 28, LT-44246 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jolita Vveinhardt
  • socialinių mokslų daktarė (vadyba), Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Ekonomikos ir vadybos fakulteto Vadybos katedros docentė. S. Daukanto g. 28, LT-44246 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-07-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mosr-2017-0004


This research, based on the analysis of social business models’ concepts, aims to identify tendencies of social business models implementation in Lithuania. The theoretical part of the article highlights the main features of a pure social business model and a hybrid social business model, as well as discusses their differences. Having evaluated the implementation state of social business models, the authors reveal that the existing practice of public enterprises restricts development of social business potential, mainly accountability and transparency of social business. Therefore, transition of public enterprises to other forms of social business models should be promoted so that to ensure competitiveness in the market and continuous pursuit of social objectives. The findings revealed that the most popular forms of social business in Lithuania are volunteering, charitable activities, and sponsorship. However, despite the fact that some practices of social business are applied, development of social business models is a little-known phenomenon to the public thus might be confused with the definition of a social enterprise.

Keywords: social business model; public institution; social enterprise; social entrepreneurship; non-governmental organization


  • 1. Adomaitytė-Subačienė, I. (2015). Socialinių paslaugų kokybės standartizavimas Lietuvoje // Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika. Social Theory, Empirics, Policy and Practice. Vol. 11, No. 11, p. 54-65. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 2. Adomaviciute, E., Janiunaite, B., Stuopyte, E. (2012). The Profile of Social Entrepreneurs Working for Non-governmental Organizations // Socialiniai mokslai. Social Sciences. Vol. 77, No. 3, p. 17-29. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3. Agafonow, A. (2014). Value Creation, Value Capture and Value Devolution: Where do Social Enterprise Stands? // Administration & Society. Vol. 47, No. 8, p. 1038-1060. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4. Alter, A. L., Oppenheimer, D. M., Epley, N., Eyre, R. N. (2007). Overcoming Intuition: Metacognitive Difficulty Activates Analytic Reasoning // Journal of Experimental Psychology. Vol. 136, No. 4, p. 569-576. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5. Altuna, N., Contri, A. M., Dell'Era, C., Frattini, F., Maccarrone, P. (2015). Managing Social Innovation in For-Profit Organizations: the Case of Intesa Sanpaolo // European Journal of Innovation Management. Vol. 18, Iss. 2, p. 258-280. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Antepara, I., Claeye, F. (2016). Examples of Social Business Effectively Addressing Fuel Poverty by Overcoming the Barriers when Implementing Energy Efficiency Measures // Social Business Academia Conference at HEC Paris.Google Scholar

  • 7. Austin, J. E., Herman, L., Reficco E., WeiSkillern, J. (2005). Social Entrepreneurship: It’s for Corporations, Too / In Social Entrepreneurship: New Paradigms of Sustainable Social Change, edited by A. Nicholls. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • 8. Bengo, I., Arena, M., Azzone, G., Calderini, M. (2015). Indicators and Metrics for Social Business: A Review of Current Approaches // Journal of Social Entrepreneurship. Vol. 7, Issue 1, p. 1-24. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9. Boons, F., Ludeke-Freund, F. (2013). Business Models of Sustainable Innovation: State-Of- The-Art and Steps towards a Research Agenda // Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 45, p. 9-19. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10. Bocken, N. M. P., Fil, A., Prabhu, J. (2016). Scaling up Social Businesses in Developing Markets // Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 139, p. 295-308. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 11. Butkevičienė, E. (2009). Social Innovations in Rural Communities: Methodological Framework and Empirical Evidence // Socialiniai mokslai. Social Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 63, p. 80-88.Google Scholar

  • 12. Čižikienė, J., Urmanavičienė, A. (2016). Adult Learning: Trends and Opportunities in the organization. Society. Integration. Education // Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Vol. 4, p. 35-47. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13. Dentchev, N., Baumgartner, R., Dieleman, H., Johannsdottir, L., Jonker, J., Nyberg, T., Rauter, R., Rosano, M., Snihur, Y., Tang, X., van Hoof, B. (2016). Embracing the Variety of Sustainable Business Models: Social Entrepreunership, Corporate Intrapreneurship, Creativity, Innovation and other Approaches to Sustainability Challenges // Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 113, p. 1-4. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14. Dietrich, M., Znotka, M., Guthor, H., Hilfinger, F. (2015). Instrumental and Noninstrumental Factors of Social Innovation Adoption // Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. Vol. 27, No. 4, p. 1950-1978. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15. Gramescu, L. (2016). Scaling Social Innovation in Europe: An Overview of Social Enterprise Readiness // Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 221, p. 218-225. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16. Dutch, L., Reficco, E., Wei-Skillern, J., Austin, J. E. (2006). Social Entrepreneurship: It’s for Corporations, Too. Chapter 8 / In Social Entrepreneurship, ed. by J. Mair, J. Robinson, K. Hockerts. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

  • 17. Gubbins, C., Dooley, L. (2014). Exploring Social Network Dynamics Driving Knowledge Management for Innovation // Journal of Management Inquiry. Vol. 23, No. 2, p. 162-185. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18. Gundry, L. K., Kickul, J. R., Griffiths, M. D., Bacq, S. C. (2011). Creating Social Change Out of Nothing: The Role of Entrepreneurial Bricolage in Social Entrepreneurs’ Catalytic Innovations // In Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship (Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, Vol. 13), ed. G. T. Lumpkin, Jerome A. Katz. - Emerald Group Publishing Limited, p. 1-24. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Hammond, A. L., Prahalad, C. K. (2004). Selling to the Poor // Foreign Policy, May-June, p. 30-37.Google Scholar

  • 20. Yunus, M. (2007). Creating a World without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. Publisher: PublicAffairs, 282 p.Google Scholar

  • 21. Yunus, M. (2008). Creating a World without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism // Global Urban Development. Vol. 4, Issue 2, p. 1-19.Google Scholar

  • 22. Yunus, M., Weber, K. (2009). Creating a World without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. Publisher: PublicAffairs, 320 p.Google Scholar

  • 23. Kadol, N. (2011). The Social Business Undertakings as a Basis for the Sustainable Development Economy // Human Resources: The Main Factor of Regional Development, Issue 4, p. 89-97.Google Scholar

  • 24. Kanter, R. M. (1999). The Enduring Skills of Change Leaders // Leader to Leader. Vol. 1999, Issue 13, p. 15-22. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 25. Kardelis, K. (2002). Mokslinių tyrimų metodologija ir metodai. Kaunas: UAB Judex.Google Scholar

  • 26. Kostetska, I., Berezyak, I. (2014). Social Entrepreneurship as an Innovative Solution Mechanism of Social Problems of Sočiety // Management Theory & Studies for Rural Business & Infrastructure Development. Vol. 36, Iss. 2/3, p. 569-577.Google Scholar

  • 27. Kovaliov, R., Štreimikienė, D. (2007). Verslas ir darnaus vystymosi įgyvendinimas // Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai. Nr. 41, p. 151-167.Google Scholar

  • 28. Lisetchi, M., Brancu, L. (2014). The Entrepreneurship Concept as a Subject of Social Innovation // Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 124, p. 87-92. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 29. Mahlouji, H., Anaraki, N. K. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility towards Social Responsible Innovation: A Dynamic Capability Approach // International Review of Business Research Papers. Vol. 5, No. 6, p. 185-194.Google Scholar

  • 30. Michelini, L. (2012). Social Innovation and New Business Models: Creating Shared Value in Low Income Markets. London: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 31. Mirkovski, K., Lowry, P. B., von Briel, F., Liu, L. I. (2015). The Role of Innovation Intermediaries in Collaborative Networks of Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises // Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS). Internet access: <http://pacis2015.comp.nus.edu.sg/_proceedings/PACIS_2015_submission_373.pdf> [accessed January 27, 2017].Google Scholar

  • 32. Morais-Da-Silva, R. L., Takahashi, A. R. W., Segatto, A. P. (2016). Scaling up Social Innovation: A Meta-Synthesis // RAM. Revista de Administracao Mackenzie. Vol. 17, No. 6, p. 134-163.Google Scholar

  • 33. Moore, M. L., Riddell, D., Vocisano, D. (2015). Scaling out, Scaling up, Scaling Deep: Strategies of Non-profits in Advancing Systemic Social Innovation // The Journal of Corporate Citizenship. Vol. 2015, No. 58, p. 67-85. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34. Mosedale, J., Voll, F. (2017). Social Innovationsin Tourism: Social Practices Contributing to Social Development / In Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism, p. 101-115. Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar

  • 35. Navasaitienė, S., Rukuižienė, R., Kuchko, E., Levickaya, I. (2015). Conceptual Outlook to Social Business Development // Management Theory & Studies for Rural Business & Infrastructure Development. Vol. 37, No. 4, p. 552-561. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 36. Nicolopoulou, K., Karatas-Ozkan, M., Janssen, F., Jermier, J. (2016). Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation. Publisher: Routledge, 400 p.Google Scholar

  • 37. Ogliastri, E., Prado, A., Jager, U., Vives, A., Reficco, E. (2015). Social Business // International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, p. 168-173.Google Scholar

  • 38. Okunevičiūtė-Neverauskienė, L., Moskvina, J. (2011). Socialinės įmonės: socialinės ekonomikos raidos aspektas // Filosofija. Sociologija. T. 22, Nr. 4, p. 384-393.Google Scholar

  • 39. Paniotto, V. I., Maksimenko, V. S. (1982). [Паниотто, В. И., Максименко, В. С.] Коли- чественные методы в социологических ис- следованиях. Киев: Наукова думка.Google Scholar

  • 40. Parmigiani, A., Rivera-Santos, M. (2014). Sourcing for the Base of Pyramid: Constructing Supply Chains to Address Voids in Subsistence Markets // Journal of Operations Management. Vol. 33/34, p. 60-70. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 41. Pellicer-Sifres, V., Belda-Miquel, S., Lopez-Fogues, A., Boni Aristizabal, A. (2017). GrassrootsSocial Innovation for Human Development: An Analysis of Alternative Food Networks in the City of Valencia (Spain) // Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, p. 1-17. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 42. Petrini, M., Scherer, P., Back, L. (2016). Business Model with a Social Impact // Rae-Revista de Administracao de Empresas. Vol. 56, No. 2, p. 209-225. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 43. Prahalad, C. K., Lieberthal, K. (2003). The End of Corporate Imperialism // Harward Business Review. Vol. 81, No. 8, p. 109-117.Google Scholar

  • 44. Pukėnas, K. (2009). Kokybinių duomenų analizėSPSS programa. Kaunas: Lietuvos kūno kultūros akademija.Google Scholar

  • 45. Rover, O. J., de Gennaro, B. C., Roselli, L. (2016).Social Innovation and Sustainable Rural Development: The Case of a Brazilian Agroecology Network // Sustainability. Vol. 9, No. 1, p. 1-14. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 46. Rubikas, I. (2014). Socialinio verslo modelio įtaka investicinei aplinkai: analizė ir rekomendacijos. Prieiga internete: <http://docsfiles.com/pdf_socialinis_modelis.html> [žiūrėta 2016 03 05].Google Scholar

  • 47. Sabato, S., Vanhercke, B., Verschraegen, G. (2017). Connecting Entrepreneurship with Policy Experimentation? The EU Framework for Social Innovation // Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, p. 1-21.Google Scholar

  • 48. Salim, S., B., Ellingstad, P. (2016). Social innovation model for business performance and innovation // International Journal of Productivity &Performance Management. Vol. 65, Iss. 2, p. 256-274. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 49. Sanchez, P., Ricart, J. E. (2010). Business Model Innovation and Sources of Value Creation in Low-Income Markets // European Management Review. Vol. 7, Iss. 3, p. 138-154. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 50. Saslavsky, D., Shepherd, B. (2012). Facilitating International Production Networks: The Role of Trade Logistics // Policy Research Working Papers. No. 6224. Internet access: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-6224>.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 51. Schoettl, J., Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2011). Photovoltaic Business Models: Threat or Opportunity for Utilities? / In Handbook of Research on Energy Entrepreneurship, eds. R. Wustenhagen, R. Wuebker. - Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. Iss. 8, p. 145-171. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 52. Social Enterprise Summit ataskaita (2015). Socialinio forumo ataskaita. Prieiga internete: <https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B-LmVXTyQiK1LVUwZkxBUkNQaUU/view> [žiūrėta 2016 03 20].Google Scholar

  • 53. Spiegel, O., Abbassi, P., Zylka, M. P., Schlagwein, D., Fischbach, K., Schoder, D. (2016). Business Model Development, Founders’ Social Capital and the Success of Early Stage Internet Start-Ups: A Mixed-Method Study // Information Systems Journal, Vol. 26, Issue 5, p. 421-449. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 54. Spiess-Knafl, W., Mast, C., Jansen, S., A. (2015). Onthe Nature of social Business Model Innovation // Social Business, Vol. 5, Issue 2, p. 113-130 doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 55. Starkauskienė, V., Galinskaitė, A. (2015). Subjective Well-Being and Income: Analysis and Evidence on Easterling Paradox // Taikomoji ekonomika: sisteminiai tyrimai. Applied Economics: Systematic Research. T. 9, No. 2, p. 49-64.Google Scholar

  • 56. Steiner, A., Teasdale, S. (2016). The Playground of the Rich? Growing Social Business in the 21st Century // Social Enterprise Journal. Vol. 12, Issue 2, p. 201-216. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 57. Svirina, A., Zabbarova, A., Oganisjana, K. J. (2016). Implementing Open Innovation Concept in Social Business // Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. Vol. 2, No. 20, p. 1-10. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 58. Šalkauskas, Š., Dzemyda, I. (2013). Socialinio verslo modelis // Verslo sistemos ir ekonomika. Business Systems and Economics. Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 208-219. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 59. Šutavičienė, Ž. (2011). Viešojo ir privataus sektorių partnerystės poreikis ir galimybės Lietuvoje // Socialinių mokslų studijos. Societal Studies. Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 789-815.Google Scholar

  • 60. Teece, D. J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovations // Long Range Planning. Vol. 43, Issue 2-3, p. 172-194. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 61. Ubius, U., Alas, R. (2012). The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Innovation Climate // Inžinerinė ekonomika. Engineering Economics. Vol. 23, No. 3, p. 310-318. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 62. Unceta, A., Castro-Spila, J., Garcia Fronti, J. (2017). The Three Governances in Social Innovation // Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, p. 1-15. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 63. Upward, A., Jones, P. (2016). An Ontology for Strongly Sustainable Business Models: Defining an Enterprise Framework Compatible with Natural and Social Science // Organization & Environment. Vol. 29, Issue 2, p. 97-123. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 64. Urmanavičienė, A., Čižikienė, J., Raišienė, A. G. (2015). Are Social Enterprises Ready to Help in Solving Societal Problems?: The Case of Lithuania // Contemporary Research on Organization Management and Administration. Vol. 1, Issue 3, p. 6-26.Google Scholar

  • 65. Vaitkevičius, R., Saudargienė, A. (2006). Statistikasu SPSS psichologiniuose tyrimuose. Kaunas: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Google Scholar

  • 66. Van Oost, E., Verhaegh, S., Oudshoorn, N.(2009). From Innovation Community to Community Innovation, User- initiated Innovation in Wireless Leiden // Science, Technology & Human Values. Vol. 34, No. 2, p. 182-205. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 67. Velu, C. (2015). Business Model Innovation and Third-Party Alliance on the Survival of New Firms // Technovation. Vol. 35, p. 1-11. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 68. Voltan, A. (2017). Scaling Impact From Grassroots Social Innovation: A Conceptual Network- Based Model // International Journal of Work Innovation. Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 32-50. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 69. Von Jacobi, N., Edmiston, D., Ziegler, R. (2017). Tackling Marginalisation through Social Innovation? Examining the EU Social Innovation Policy Agenda from a Capabilities Perspective // Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, p. 1-15.Google Scholar

  • 70. Vveinhardt, J. Štreimikienė, D. (2016). Management Culture and Mobbing in a Social Organisation: Whether a Special Status Provides a Guarantee of Safety // Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja. Vol. 29, No. 1, p. 950-966. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 71. Vveinhardt, J., Kuklytė, J. (2016). Socialiniai verslo modeliai: diegimo tendencijos ir koncepcijos // Taikomoji ekonomika: sisteminiai tyrimai. Applied Economics: Systematic Research. T. 10, Nr. 1, p. 171-186. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 72. Vveinhardt, J., Kuklytė, J. (2016). Improvement Programme of Development of Social Business Models in LITHUANIA // Forum Scientiae Oeconomia. Vol. 4, No. 6, p. 149-170.Google Scholar

  • 73. Westley, F., Antadze, N. (2010). Making a Difference: Strategies for Scaling Social Innovation for Greater Impact // The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal. Vol. 15, No. 2, p. 1-19.Google Scholar

  • 74. Wilson, F., Post, J., Grzywinski, R., Houghton, M. (2014). Social Innovation and Investment: The Shore Bank Experience / In Socially Responsible Investment in the 21st Century: Does it make a Difference for Society? (Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Vol. 7), eds. C. Louche, T. Hebb. - Emerald Group Publishing Limited, p. 65-89.Google Scholar

  • 75. Wood, J., Khan, F. G. (2016). Social Business Adoption: An Empirical Analysis // Business Information Review. Vol. 33, No. 1, p. 28-39. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 76. Židonis, Ž. (2012). ES struktūrinių fondų paramaLietuvos jaunimo verslumui skatinti: valstybės intervencijos logikos rekonstrukcija // Viešoji politika ir administravimas. Public Policy and Administration. No. 2, p. 222-234.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-07-09

Accepted: 2017-05-30

Published Online: 2017-07-01

Published in Print: 2017-06-27

Citation Information: Management of Organizations: Systematic Research, Volume 77, Issue 1, Pages 57–79, ISSN (Online) 2335-8750, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mosr-2017-0004.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in