Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …


Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Practical precursor aspects for electron beam induced deposition

J.J.L. Mulders
Published Online: 2014-08-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/nanofab-2014-0007


The purity of a structure made with electron beam induced deposition (EBID) is a the major concern when creating micro and nano-scale functionalities, for example for rapid prototyping. Substantial research focuses on the improvements of the purity using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) based precursors. However, from a practical point of view, many other aspects of a precursor are very relevant in the design of a process and the actual use of a tool for EBID. To a large extent, these precursorrelated characteristics will determine whether or not a precursor can successfully be applied. Some of these characteristics include: vapor pressure range, transition behavior, chemical stability, pyrolitic thresholds, release of corrosive ligands during deposition, toxicity, commercial availability, compatibility with the instrument and operator safety. These characteristic are discussed in more detail here in order to understand what an ideal EBID precursor may be. Although some parameters such as toxicity or flammability seem less important, in practice they can be a road block for application unless the main instrument, such as a regular scanning electron microscope (SEM), is adapted accordingly.

Keywords : EBID; precursor; properties


  • [1] Utke I., Moshkalev S., Russel P., Nanofabrication Using Focused Ion and Electron Beams, Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-19-973421-4. Google Scholar

  • [2] Koops H.W., Kaya A, Weber M., Fabrication and characterization of platinum nanocrystalline material grown by electronbeam induced deposition, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 1995, 13, 2400-2403. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Brintlinger T., Fuhrer M.S., Melngailis J., Utke I., Bret T., Perentes A., et al., Electrodes for carbon nanotube devices by focused electron beam induced deposition of gold, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 2005, 23, 3174-3177. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4] Fernandez-Pacheo A., DeTeresa J.M., Cordoba R., Ibarra M.R., Magnetotransport properties of high-quality cobalt nanowires grown by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys., 2009, 42, 055005. Google Scholar

  • [5] Wnuk J.D., Gorham J.M., Rosenberg S.G., van Dorp W.F., Madey, T.E., Hagen C.W., Fairbrother D.W., Electron Induced Surface Reactions of the Organometallic Precursor Trimethyl(methyl cyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV), J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113, 2487-2496. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Botman A., Mulders J.J.L., Weemaes R., Mentink S., Purification of platinum and gold structures after electron-beam-induced deposition, Nanotechnology, 2006, 17, 3779-3785. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7] Kakefuda Y., Yamashita Y., Mukai K., Yoshinobu J., Compact UHV system for fabrication and in situ analysis of electron beam deposited structures using a focused low energy electron beam, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 2006, 77, 053702. Google Scholar

  • [8] Belova L.M., Dahlberg E.D., Riazanova A., Mulders J.J.L., Christophersen C., Eckert J., Rapid electron beam assisted patterning of pure cobalt at elevated temperatures via seeded growth, Nanotechnology, 2011, 22, 145305. PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [9] Mehendale S., Mulders J.J.L., Trompenaars P.H.F., A new sequential EBID process for the creation of pure Pt structures from MeCpPtMe3, Nanotechnology, 2013, 24, 145303. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [10] Mulders J.J.L., Belova L.M., Raizanova A., Electron beam induced deposition at elevated temperatures: compositional changes and purity improvement, Nanotechnology, 2011, 22, 055302.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-03-14

Accepted: 2014-07-17

Published Online: 2014-08-07

Citation Information: Nanofabrication, Volume 1, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2299-680X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/nanofab-2014-0007.

Export Citation

© 2014 J.J.L. Mulders. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Julie A Spencer, Michael Barclay, Miranda J Gallagher, Robert Winkler, Ilyas Unlu, Yung-Chien Wu, Harald Plank, Lisa McElwee-White, and D Howard Fairbrother
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 2017, Volume 8, Page 2410
Kang-In Lee, Hyun-Taek Lee, Ki-Hwan Jang, and Sung-Hoon Ahn
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2018
Ragesh Kumar TP, Ilyas Unlu, Sven Barth, Oddur Ingolfsson, and D. Howard Fairbrother
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2017
M. Huth, F. Porrati, and O.V. Dobrovolskiy
Microelectronic Engineering, 2017
Soraya Sangiao, Santiago Martín, Alejandro González-Orive, César Magén, Paul J. Low, José M. De Teresa, and Pilar Cea
Small, 2017, Volume 13, Number 7, Page 1603207
J M De Teresa, A Fernández-Pacheco, R Córdoba, L Serrano-Ramón, S Sangiao, and M R Ibarra
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2016, Volume 49, Number 24, Page 243003
Julie A. Spencer, Joseph A. Brannaka, Michael Barclay, Lisa McElwee-White, and D. Howard Fairbrother
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2015, Volume 119, Number 27, Page 15349

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in