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Violent Conflicts and Neutral Legations: A Case Study of the Spanish and Swiss Legations in Wartime Japan

Pascal Lottaz
  • Corresponding author
  • Security and International Studies, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo 106-8677, Japan
  • Email:
Published Online: 2017-08-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ngs-2017-0018


This article explores the way in which the Spanish and the Swiss legations in Japan acted and reacted to violent change in the international environment. By looking at the period of Japanese wartime aggression in Asia and the Pacific from 1931–1945, it analyzes key moments for both diplomatic missions, when changes abroad or at home led their respective diplomats to take a stance beyond the regular representation of national interests. The article argues that violent conflicts impacted the diplomatic behavior of the legations in Japan heavily. They were shaped by new policies in reaction to the violence, while sometimes also engaging in shaping such policies themselves.

Keywords: Neutrality; Spain; Switzerland; World War II; Diplomacy


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About the article

Published Online: 2017-08-01

Citation Information: New Global Studies, ISSN (Online) 1940-0004, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ngs-2017-0018.

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