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Nordic Journal of Migration Research

The Journal of Nordic Migration Research

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Volume 4, Issue 3


Canada as an Inspirational Model: Reforming Scandinavian Immigration and Integration Policies

Trygve Ugland
Published Online: 2014-09-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/njmr-2014-0016


The Scandinavian countries have often been portrayed as models for the development of policies for other states. However, in the area of immigration and integration policies, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden have themselves been searching for new policy solutions abroad. Canada is internationally recognised in the areas of immigration control and immigrant integration, and this article focuses on the role the Canadian immigration and integration policy model played in the Scandinavian reform process during the 2000-2012 period. The overall conclusion is that the Canadian model significantly shaped the reform debate and process in the three Scandinavian countries. However, the Canadian model was not copied or emulated to a great extent. Instead, it served as intellectual stimulus and a model for inspiration. In particular, the Canadian model served as an inspiration for the rediscovery of labour immigration in Scandinavia during the 2000s.

Keywords: Scandinavia; immigration and integration; Canadian model; policy transfer; inspiration


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About the article

Received: 2013-07-12

Accepted: 2014-07-10

Published Online: 2014-09-25

Published in Print: 2014-09-01

Citation Information: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 144–152, ISSN (Online) 1799-649X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/njmr-2014-0016.

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© by Trygve Ugland. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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