Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Noise Mapping

Ed. by Asdrubali, Francesco

1 Issue per year

Emerging Science

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Urban soundscape maps modelled with geo-referenced data

Catherine Lavandier / Pierre Aumond / Saul Gomez / Catherine Dominguès
Published Online: 2016-10-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/noise-2016-0020


The noise maps that are currently proposed as part of the EU Directive are based on the calculation of the Lday, Levening and Lnight. These levels are calculated from emission and propagation models that are expensive in time. These noise maps are criticized for being distant from the perception of city users. Thus, calculation models of sound quality have been proposed, for being closer to city users’ perception. They are either based on perceptual variables, or on acoustic measurements, or on georeferenced data, the latter being often already integrated into the Geographic Information Systems of most French metropolises. Considering 89 Parisian situations, this article proposes to compare the sound quality really perceived, with those from models using geo-referenced data. It also looks at the modeling of perceptual variables that influence the sound quality, such as perceived loudness, the perceived time ratio of traffic, voices and birds. To do this, such geo-referenced data as road traffic, the presence of gardens, food shops, restaurants, bars, schools, markets, are transformed into core densities. Being quick and easy to calculate, these densities predict effectively sound quality in the urban public space. Visualization of urban soundscape maps are proposed in this paper.

Keywords: sound qualitymap; kernel density; soundscape modelling


  • [1] European Parliament and Council, Directive 2002/49/EC relating to the assessment andmanagement of environmental noise. Oflcial Journal of the European Communities L 189.45, 12–26 (2002). Google Scholar

  • [2] Aletta F., Kang J., Axelsson O., Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models, Landscape and Urban Planning journal, 149, 65–74 (2016). Google Scholar

  • [3] International Organization for Standardization ISO 12913- 1:2014acoustics—soundscape—part 1: definition and conceptual framework. Geneva:ISO (2014). Google Scholar

  • [4] Schafer R.M., The tuning of the world, edited by Knopf, (New York), p. 301, (1977). Google Scholar

  • [5] Payne S. R., Davies W. J., Adams M. D., Research into the practical and policy applications of soundscape concepts and techniques in urban areas, Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs, HMSO, London, available on www.defra.gov.uk (2009) Google Scholar

  • [6] Guastavino C., Categorization of environmental sounds, Can. J. Exp. Psychol. 61(1), 54–63 (2007). Google Scholar

  • [7] Raimbault M., Dubois D., Urban soundscapes: Experiences and knowledge, Cities, 22(5), 339–350 (2005). Google Scholar

  • [8] Brown A. L., A Review of Progress in Soundscapes and an Approach to Soundscape Planning, Int. J. of Acoust. and Vibr., 17 (2), 73–81, (2012). Google Scholar

  • [9] Payne S.R., Devine-Wright P., Irvine K.N., People’s perceptions and classifications of sounds heard in urban parks: semantics, affect and restoration, Proceedings of the Inter Noise, Istambul, (2007). Google Scholar

  • [10] Nilsson, M., & Berglund, B., Soundscape quality in suburban green areas and city parks. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 92, 903–911, (2006). Google Scholar

  • [11] Brown, A. L., Kang, J., Gjestland, T., Towards standardization in soundscape preference assessment. Applied Acoustics, 72(6), 387–392. (2011). Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [12] Dubois, D., A cognitive approach to urban soundscapes: Using verbal data to access everyday life auditory categories. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 92, 865–874, (2006). Google Scholar

  • [13] Rådsten-Ekman, M., Axelsson, Ö., Nilsson, M. E., Effects of Sounds from Water on Perception of Acoustic Environments Dominated by Road-Traflc Noise. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 99(2), 218–225, (2013). Google Scholar

  • [14] Galbrun, L., Ali, T. T., Acoustical and perceptual assessment of water sounds and their use over road traflc noise. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133(1), 227–37. (2013). Google Scholar

  • [15] Jeon, J. Y., Lee, P. J., You, J., Kang, J., Acoustical characteristics of water sounds for soundscape enhancement in urban open spaces. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131(3), 2101–2109. (2012). Google Scholar

  • [16] Hong, J. Y., Jeon, J. Y., Designing sound and visual components for enhancement of urban soundscapes. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134(3), 2026–2036, (2013). Google Scholar

  • [17] Axelsson Ö., Nilsson M., Berglund B., A principal component model of soundscape perception, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128(5), 2836–2846, (2010). Google Scholar

  • [18] Ge, J., Lu, J., Morotomi, K., Hokao, K, Developing Soundscapegraphy for the Notation of Urban Soundscape: Its Concept, Method, Analysis and Application. Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 95(1), 65–75, (2009). Google Scholar

  • [19] Pheasant, R., Horoshenkov, K.,Watts, G., Barrett, B., The acoustic and visual factors influencing the construction of tranquil space in urban and rural environments tranquil spaces-quiet places? The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123(3), 1446–1457,(2008). Google Scholar

  • [20] Rey Gozalo, G., Trujillo Carmona, J., Barrigón Morillas, J. M., Vílchez-Gómez, R., Gómez Escobar, V., Relationship between objective acoustic indices and subjective assessments for the quality of soundscapes. Applied Acoustics, 97, 1–10, (2015). Google Scholar

  • [21] Lavandier, C., Defréville, B., The contribution of sound source characteristics in the assessment of urban soundscapes. Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 92(6), 912–921, (2006). Google Scholar

  • [22] Lavandier C., Delaitre P., D’Hondt E., Gonzalez Boix E., Kambona K., Urban sound quality assessment with mobile technology: The Cart_ASUR project, proceedings of Acoustics2013, New Delhi, Inde, Novembre 10–15, (2013). Google Scholar

  • [23] Ricciardi P., Delaitre P., Lavandier C., Torchia F., Aumond P., Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris crossvalidated by Milan data, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 138(4), 2337–2348, (2015). Google Scholar

  • [24] Liu J., Kang J., Luo T., Behm, H. Coppack, Spatiotemporal variability of soundscapes in amultiple functional urban area, Landscape and Urban Planning, 115, 1–9 (2013). Google Scholar

  • [25] Liu J., Kang J., Behm H., Luo T., Landscape spatial pattern indices and soundscape perception in a multi-functional urban area, Germany, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 22, 208–218, (2014). Google Scholar

  • [26] Hong J.Y., Jeon J.Y., Soundscape mapping in urban contexts using GIS techniques, Proceedings of the Internoise Conference, Melbourne, Australia, (2014). Google Scholar

  • [27] Hong, J.Y., Jeon, J.Y., Exploring spatial relationships among soundscape variables in urban areas: A spatial statistical modelling approach. Landsc. Urban Plan. 157, 352–364, (2017). Google Scholar

  • [28] Aletta F., Kang J., Soundscape approach integrating noise mapping techniques: a case study in Brighton, UK, Noise Mapping, 2, 1–12, (2015). Google Scholar

  • [29] Kephalopoulos S., Paviotti M., Anfosso-Lédée F.,CommonNoise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU) EUR 25379 EN. Luxembourg: Publications Oflce of the European Union, 180 p., (2012). Google Scholar

  • [30] Silverman, B.W., Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall, London, first edition (1986). Google Scholar

  • [31] Wand M.P., Jones M.C., Kernel Smoothing, Chapman & Hall/CRC, first edition (1995). Google Scholar

  • [32] Liu J., Kang, J., Behm H., Birdsong As an Element of the Urban Sound Environment: A Case Study Concerning the Area of Warnemünde in Germany, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 100(3), 458–466, (2014). Google Scholar

  • [33] Yu L., Kang J., Modelling subjective evaluation of soundscape quality in urban open spaces: an artificial neural network approach, Journal of the Acoustical Society of Americ., 126, 1163– 74 (2009). Google Scholar

  • [34] Genaro, N., Torija, A., Ramos, A., Requena,I., Ruiz, D.P., Zamorano, M., A neural network based model for urban noise prediction. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol.128(4), pp.1738–1746, (2010). Google Scholar

  • [35] Brocolini L., Waks L., Lavandier C., Marquis-Favre C., Quoy M., Lavandier M., Comparison between multiple linear regressions and artificial neural networks to predict urban sound quality, Proceedings of the 20th International Congress of Acoustics ICA, Sydney, (2010). Google Scholar

  • [36] G. Brambilla, V. Gallo, G. Zambon, The soundscape quality in some urban parks in Milan, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 10, 2348–2369, (2013). Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37] Lavandier C., Delaitre P., Ribeiro C., Global and local sound quality indicators for urban context based on perceptive and acoustic variables, Proceedings of the Euronoise Congress, 1471– 1476, Maastricht, (2015). Google Scholar

  • [38] Weninger B., A Color Scheme for the Presentation of Sound Immission in Maps: Requirements and Principles for Design, Proceedings of the Euro Noise Conference, 439–444, Maastricht, (2015). Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-05-06

Accepted: 2016-10-20

Published Online: 2016-10-28

Citation Information: Noise Mapping, Volume 3, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2084-879X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/noise-2016-0020.

Export Citation

©2016 C. Lavandier et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in