Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs

The Journal of Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues

6 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 0.768

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.321
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.485
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 0.618

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
Volume 30, Issue 3 (Apr 2013)


Was the STAD programme really that successful?

Professor Thor Norström
  • Swedish Institute of Social Research (SOFI) Stockholm University
  • Email:
/ Björn Trolldal PhD
  • STAD (Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems) Stockholm Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education Stockholm County Council Health Care Provision, and Karolinska Institute
  • Email:
Published Online: 2013-05-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/nsad-2013-0014


AIM - A community intervention programme STAD was launched in Stockholm in January 1998, which included training in responsible beverage service and stricter enforcement of existing alcohol laws. An evaluation suggested that during the first 33 months of the programme, the level of police-recorded violence dropped by a striking 29%. We propose to probe the robustness of this estimate, which is often cited as evidence of the effectiveness of these kinds of intervention. In this paper, we reanalyse the underlying data by applying alternative model specifications. DATA AND METHODS - We reanalysed the original data on police-recorded violence from January 1994 to September 2000 by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. We estimated models based on raw data and seasonally differenced data; we also varied the definition of control area and applied the statistical technique of difference-in-differences modelling. RESULTS - The estimated intervention effects from these model specifications were all strongly significant statistically, ranging between 21% and 32%. CONCLUSION - Estimates based on a variety of model specifications were generally somewhat lower than those previously reported. However, the new estimates were all strongly statistically significant and fairly uniform with regard to effect size, which suggests that the findings of a substantial impact of the STAD programme are indeed quite robust.

: Keywards alcohol; on-licensed premises; assaults; violence; RBS programme; community intervention; ARIMA; difference-in-differences

  • Angrist, J.D., & Krueger, A.B. (1999). Empirical strategies in labor economics. In O.C.

  • Ashenfelter & D. Card (Eds.), Handbook oflabor economics, Vol. 3A (pp. 1278-1357). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

  • Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (1985). Using the longitudinal structure of earnings to estimate the effect of training programs. TheReview of Economics and Statistics, 67(4), 648-660.

  • Bertrand, M., Duflo, E., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). How much should we trust differences- in-differences estimates? QuarterlyJournal of Economics, 119(1), 249-275.

  • Box, G.E.P., & Jenkins, G.M. (2008). Time SeriesAnalysis: Forecasting and control. New York: Wiley.

  • Flay, B.R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R.F., Castro, F.G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., Moscicki, E.K., Schinke, S., Valentine, J.C., & Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention Science, 6(3), 151-175. [Crossref]

  • Hallfors, D. & Cho, H. & Sanchez, V., Khatapoush, S., Kim, H.M., & Bauer, D. (2006): Efficacy vs effectiveness trial results of an indicated “model” substance abuse program: Implications for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 96(12), 2254-2259. [Crossref]

  • Holder, H. (1998). Alcohol and the Community:A systems approach to prevention. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Holder, H., Gruenewald, P.J., Ponicki, W.R., Treno, A.J., Grube, J.W., Saltz, R.F.,Voas, R.B., Reynolds, R., Davis, J., Sanchez, L., Gaumont, G., & Roeper, P. (2000). Effect of community-based interventions on highrisk drinking and alcohol-related injuries. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(18), 2341-2347.

  • Homel, R., Carvolth, R., Hauritz, M., Mcilwain, G., & Teague, R. (2004). Making licensed venues safer for patrons: What environmental factors should be the focus of interventions? Drug and Alcohol Review, 23(1), 19-29. [Crossref]

  • Jones, L., Hughes, K., Atkinson, A.M., & Bellis, M.A. (2011). Reducing harm in drinking environments: A systematic review of effective approaches. Health & Place, 17(2), 508-518. [Crossref] [PubMed] [Web of Science]

  • Månsdotter, A.M., Rydberg, M.K., Wallin, E., Lindholm, L.A., & Andréasson, S. (2007). A cost-effectiveness analysis of alcohol prevention targeting licensed premises. TheEuropean Journal of Public Health, 17(6), 618-623.

  • Norström, T., & Skog, O.J. (2005). Saturday opening of alcohol retail shops in Sweden: An experiment in two phases. Addiction,100(6), 767-776. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • Ringwalt, C.R., Clark, H.K., Hanley, S., Shamblen, S.R., & Flewelling, R.L. (2010). The effects of project ALERT one year past curriculum completion. Prevention Science,11(2), 172-184. [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • Trolldal, B., Brännström, L., Paschall, M.J., & Leifman, H. (2013). Effects of a multicomponent responsible beverage service program on violent assaults in Sweden. Addiction, 108(1), 89-96. [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • Wallin, E., Norström, T., & Andreasson, S. (2003). Alcohol prevention targeting licensed premises: A study of effects on violence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol,64(2), 270-277.

  • Wicki, M., & Gmel, G. (2011). Hospital admission rates for alcoholic intoxication after policy changes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,118(2-3), 209-215. [Crossref] [Web of Science]

About the article

Published Online: 2013-05-04

Published in Print: 2013-04-01

Citation Information: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN (Online) 1458-6126, ISSN (Print) 1455-0725, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/nsad-2013-0014. Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Norman Giesbrecht, Linda M. Bosma, Jennifer Juras, and Maria Quadri
World Medical & Health Policy, 2014, Volume 6, Number 3, Page 203
Mats Ramstedt, Håkan Leifman, Daniel Müller, Erica Sundin, and Thor Norström
Drug and Alcohol Review, 2013, Volume 32, Number 6, Page 561

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in