Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs

The Journal of Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues

6 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 0.768

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.321
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.485
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 0.618

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
Volume 32, Issue 5 (Dec 2015)


Rusmisbruk, angst og depresjon etter 10 år: En prospektiv undersøkelse av stoffmisbrukere med og uten LAR-behandling

Edle Ravndal
  • Senter for rus- og avhengighetsforskning (SERAF) Universitet i Oslo
  • Email:
/ Grethe Lauritzen
  • Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning (SIRUS)
  • Email:
Published Online: 2015-11-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/nsad-2015-0048


Substance abuse, anxiety and depression after 10 years: A prospective study of drug users in and outside OMT treatment AIMS - The national Opiate Maintenance Treatment (OMT) program in Norway started officially in 1998. The same year a treatment study was initiated, including the most used treatment measures for drug users in Norway. The main aim in the present study was to investigate the prevalence of live OMT patients in the total sample after 10 years, and to compare the outcome of primarily substance abuse, anxiety and depression among OMT patients versus non-OMT patients. DESIGN & METHODS - Four hundred and seven patients, in Oslo and the nearby regions, who started in 16 different in- and outpatients programs, were followed from intake to treatment and during ten years (1998-2009). Patients in the sample were interviewed after one, two, seven and ten years, and they were divided into three different treatment groups: inpatient residency for grown-ups, outpatient psychiatric youth teams and youths living in collectives. Data was collected through use of EuropASI and HSCL-25 at all follow-ups. RESULTS - After ten years 15 % were deceased. Of the 333 persons left, 73 % (n=248) were interviewed after ten years. Forty percent (n=99) were then in OMT. After ten years there were no gender differences regarding attendance to OMT, but the OMT-group was older (30 vs .28 yrs, p<0.05), and they used more benzodiazepines (p<0.000) and cannabis (p<0.01) than the others. The OMT-group reported to a larger extent more anxiety and depression throughout the total observation period than the non OMT participants. Use of heroin and criminality were significantly reduced in both groups. CONCLUSIONS - In spite of reduced use of heroin, the OMT patients seemed to have more difficulties in reducing the use of benzodiazepines and cannabis, whereas the anxiety and depression scores were high and stable through the total observation time.

Keywords: drug users; substance abusers; opiate maintenance treatment; anxiety; depression; prospective


  • Brown, S. A., Glasner-Edwards, S. V., Tate, S. R. et al. (2006). Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy versus twelve-step facilitation therapyfor substance-dependent adults with depressibe disorders. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 38(4), 449-460. [Crossref]

  • Brooner, R. K., King, V. L., Kidorf, M., Schmidt, C. W., & Bigelow, G. E. (1997). Psychiatric and substance use comorbidity among treatment-seeking opioid abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(1), 71-80. [Crossref]

  • Clausen, T. (2014). Hvor godt virker LAR, og hva er utfordringene? Norsk Farmaceutisk Tidsskrift, 10, 39-42.

  • Carpentier, P. J., Krabbe, P. F. M., van Gogh, M. T. et al. (2009). Psychiatric comorbidity reduces quality of life in chronic methadone maintained patients. American Journal of Addiction, 18, 470-480. [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R.S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Covi, L. (1974). The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A self-report symptom inventory. Behavioral Science, 19, 1-15. [Crossref]

  • Gjersing, L., Waal, H., Røislien, J. et al. (2011). Variations in treatment organization, practices and outcomes within the Norwegian Opioid Maintenance Treatment Programme. Nordic Epidemiology, 21, 113-118.

  • Gjersing, L., Jonassen, K. V., Biong, S., Ravndal, E., Waal, H., Bramness, J., & Clausen, T. (2013). Diversity in causes and characteristics of drug-induced deaths in an urban setting. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41, 119-125. [Web of Science]

  • Godfrey, C., Stewart, D., & Gossop, M. (2004). Economic analysis of costs and consequences of the treatment of drug misuse: 2-year outcome data from the National Outcome Research Study (NTORS). Addiction, 99, 697-707.

  • Grønnerud, L., Mahic, M., & Bramness, J. (2014). Bruk av benzodiasepiner og Z-hypnotika blant pasienter i LAR. Norsk Farmaceutisk Tidsskrift, 10, 53-57.

  • Hartz, I., Bramness, J. G., & Skurtveit, S. (2011). Prescription of antidepressants to patients on opioid maintenance therapy - a pharmacoepidemiological study. Norsk Epidemiologi, 21, 77-83.

  • Kokkevi, A., & Hartgers, C. (1994). European Addiction Severity Index EuropASI, Cost A6.

  • Kosten, T. R., Gawin, F. H., Morgan, C. et al. (1990). Evidence for altered disipramine disposition in methadone-maintained patients treated for cocaine abuse. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 16 (3-4), 329-336. [Crossref]

  • Lauritzen, G., Ravndal, E., & Larsen, J. (2012). Gjennom 10 år. En oppfølgingsstudie av narkotikabrukere i behandling. SIRUSrapport 6/2012, Oslo: SIRUS. Lavie, E., Fatséas, M., Denis, C. et al. (2009). Benzodiasepine use among opiatedependent subjects in buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Correlates of use, abuse and dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 99, 338-344.

  • Mattick, R. P., Breen, C., Kimber J. et al. (2009). Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 3: CD002209.

  • Mattick, R. P., Breen, C., Kimber, J. et al. (2014). Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for for opioid dependence. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2: CD002207.

  • Melberg, H. O., Lauritzen, G., & Ravndal, E. (2003). Hvilken nytte, for hvem og til hvilken kostnad? En prospektiv studie av stoffmisbrukere i behandling. SIRUS rapport nr 4, Oslo: SIRUS.

  • Nasjonal retningslinje for legemiddelassistert rehabilitering ved opioidavhengighet. (2010). Oslo: Helsedirektoratet.

  • Nunes, E. V., Sullivan, M. A., & Levin, F. R. (2004). Treatment of depression in patients with opiate dependence. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 793-802.

  • Nunes, E. V. & Levin, F. R. (2004). Treatment of depression in patients with alcohol or other drug dependence: a meta-analysis. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 291, 1887-1896.

  • Pedrelli, P., Iovieno, N., Vitali, M., Tedeschini, E., Bentley, K. H., & Papakostas, G. I. (2011). Treatment of major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder with antidepressants in patients with comorbid opiate use disorder enrolled in methadone maintenance therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 31(5), 582-586. [Crossref]

  • Ravndal, E. & Lauritzen, G. (2004). Opiatmisbrukere i metadonassistert rehabilitering ett og to år etter inntak, Tidsskrift for Den Norske lægeforening, 124(3), 329-31.

  • Ravndal, E., Lauritzen, G., & Gossop, M. (2015). A 10-year prospective study of mortality among Norwegian drug abusers after seeking treatment. Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy. Doi. org/10. 4172/2155-6105.1000216. [Crossref]

  • Rounsaville, B. J., Weissman, M. M., Crits- Christoph, K., Wilbur, C. H., & Kleber, H. D. (1982). Diagnosis and symptoms of depression in opiate addicts: Course and relationship to treatment outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39(2), 151-156. [Crossref]

  • Strain, E. C., Stitzer, M. L., Bigelow, G. E. (1991). Early treatment time course of depressive symptoms in opiate addicts. Journal of Mental and Nervous Disorders, 179(4), 215-221.

  • Waal, H.; Bussesund, K., Clausen, T., Håseth, A., & Lillevold, P.H. (2013). Statusrapport 2012, LAR som det vil bli fremover? SERAF-rapport nr 1, 2013, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo

  • Waal, H.; Bussesund, K., Clausen, T., Håseth, A., & Lillevold, P. H. (2014). Statusrapport 2013, Helseforetakene - et godt sted å være? SERAF-rapport nr 1, 2014, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo.

About the article

Received: 2015-05-05

Accepted: 2015-05-20

Published Online: 2015-11-26

Published in Print: 2015-12-01

Citation Information: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN (Online) 1458-6126, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/nsad-2015-0048. Export Citation

© by Edle Ravndal. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in