Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Nanotechnology Reviews

Editor-in-Chief: Kumar, Challa

Ed. by Hamblin, Michael R. / Bianco, Alberto / Jin, Rongchao / Köhler, J. Michael / Hudait, Mantu K. / Dai, Ning / Lytton-Jean, Abigail / Xie, Jianping / Bryan, Lynn A. / Thiessen, Rose / Alexiou, Christoph / Lee, Jae-Seung / Delville, Marie-Helene / Yan, Ning / Baretzky, Brigitte / Burg, Thomas P. / Fenniri, Hicham / Yang, Jun / Hosmane, Narayan S. / Dufrene, Yves / Podila, Ramakrishna / Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

6 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.438
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.892

CiteScore 2016: 1.64

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.524
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.514

Online
ISSN
2191-9097
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 2, Issue 4 (Aug 2013)

Issues

Imaging modalities using magnetic nanoparticles – overview of the developments in recent years

Marc Schwarz
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Arnd Dörfler / Tobias Engelhorn / Tobias Struffert / Rainer Tietze
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Christina Janko
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Philipp Tripal
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Iwona Cicha / Stephan Dürr
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Christoph Alexiou
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Stefan Lyer
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-07-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2013-0010

Abstract

The use of nanoparticles in tumor imaging, molecular imaging, and drug delivery has significantly expanded in the last few years. The relatively new field of “theranostics” combines their capacity for drug delivery with their potential as contrast agents. Depending on the imaging modality used, several types of nanoparticles are available, such as gold for optical imaging or superparamagnetic iron oxide for magnetic resonance imaging. This review will give a short overview of the different types of nanoparticles as well as their development and potential application in recent years. Furthermore, it describes the research on classic imaging modalities as well as on new techniques to image nanoparticles in vivo and focuses on magnetic-based imaging modalities.

Keywords: magnetic particle imaging; magnetorelaxometry; multifunctional nanoparticles; nanoparticles

References

  • [1]

    Philpott CM, Gane S, McKiernan D. Nanomedicine in otorhinolaryngology: what does the future hold? Eur. Arch. Ortholaryngol. 2011, 268, 489–496.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Roca AG, Veintemillas-Verdaguer S, Port M, Robic C, Serna CJ, Morales MP. Effect of nanoparticle and aggregate size on the relaxometric properties of MR contrast agents based on high quality magnetite nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. 2009, 113, 7033–7039.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Martin DH. Magnetism in Solids. The MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1967.Google Scholar

  • [4]

    Colombo M, Carregal-Romero S, Casula MF, Gutiérrez L, Morales MP, Böhm IB, Heverhagen JT, Prosperi D, Parak WJ. Biological applications of magnetic nanoparticles. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41, 4306–4334.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    Aikawa E, Nahrendorf M, Sosnovik D, Lok VM, Jaffer FA, Aikawa M, Weissleder R. Multimodality molecular imaging identifies proteolytic and osteogenic activities in early aortic valve disease. Circulation 2007, 115, 377–386.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    Swirski FK, Berger CR, Figueiredo JL, Mempel TR, von Andrian UH, Pittet MJ, Weissleder R. A near-infrared cell tracker reagent for multiscopic in vivo imaging and quantification of leukocyte immune responses. PLoS ONE 2007, 2, e1075.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Nahrendorf M, Sosnovik DE, Waterman P, Swirski FK, Pande AN, Aikawa E, Figueiredo JL, Pittet MJ, Weissleder R. Dual channel optical tomographic imaging of leukocyte recruitment and protease activity in the healing myocardial infarct. Circ. Res. 2007, 100, 1218–1225.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Shen T, Weissleder R, Papisov M, Bogdanov AJR, Brady TJ. Monocrystalline iron oxide nanocompounds (MION): physicochemical properties. Magn. Reson. Med. 1993, 29, 599–604.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    Yu MK, Jeong YY, Park J, Park S, Kim JW, Min JJ, Kim K, Jon S. Drug-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and therapy in vivo. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2008, 47, 5362–5365.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Liu W, Howarth M, Greytak AB, Zheng Y, Nocera DG, Ting AY, Bawendi MG. Compact biocompatible quantum dots functionalized for cellular imaging. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 1274–1284.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Shi X, Wang S, Meshinchi S, Van Antwerp ME, Bi X, Lee I, Baker JR. Dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles as a platform for cancer-cell targeting and imaging. Small 2007, 3, 1245–1252.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Kim D, Park S, Lee JH, Jeong YY, Jon S. Antibiofouling polymer-coated gold nanoparticles as a contrast agent for in vivo x-ray computed tomography imaging. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 7661–7665.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Peng G, Hakim M, Broza YY, Billan S, Abdah-Bortnyak R, Kuten A, Tisch U, Haick H. Detection of lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer from exhaled breath using a single array of nanosensors. Br. J. Cancer 2010, 193, 542–551.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Bunka DH, Stockley PG. Aptamers come of age—at last. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2006, 4, 588–596.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Brody EN, Gold L. Aptamers as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. J. Biotechnol. 2000, 74, 5–13.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    Javier DJ, Nitin N, Levy M, Ellington A, Richards-Kortum R. Aptamer-targeted gold nanoparticles as molecular-specific contrast agents for reflectance imaging. Bioconj. Chem. 2008, 19, 1309–1312.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    Huang X, El-Sayed ICH, Qian W, El-Sayed MA. Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 2115–2120.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Cognet L, Tardin C, Boyer D, Choquet D, Tamarat P, Lounis B. Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2003, 100, 11350–11355.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    Koukourakis MI, Koukouraki S, Giatromanolaki A, Kakolyris S, Georgoulias V, Velidaki A, Archimandritis S, Karkavitsas NN. High intratumoral accumulation of stealth liposomal doxorubicin in sarcomas–rationale for combination with radiotherapy. Acta Oncol. 2000, 39, 207–211.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Harrington KJ, Mohammadtaghi S, Uster PS, Glass D, Peters AM, Vile RG, Stewart JS. Effective targeting of solid tumors in patients with locally advanced cancers by radiolabelled pegylated liposomes. Clin. Cancer Res. 2001, 7, 243–254.Google Scholar

  • [21]

    Bao A, Goins B, Klipper R, Negrete G, Phillips WT. Directed 99mTc labeling of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) for pharmacogenetic and non-invasive imaging studies. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2004, 308, 419–425.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Bellin MF, Beigelman C, Precetti-Morel S. Iron oxide-enhanced MR lymphography: initial experience. Eur. J. Radiol. 2000, 34, 257–264.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Weissleder R, Stark DD, Engelstad BL, Bacon BR, Compton CC, White DL, Jacobs P, Lewis J. Superparamagnetic iron oxide: pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Am. J. Roentgenol. 1989, 152, 167–173.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Harisinghani MG, Barentsz J, Hahn PF, Deserno WM, Tabatabaei S, van de Kaa CH, de la Rosette J, Weissleder R. Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003, 348, 2491–2499.Google Scholar

  • [25]

    Weissleder R, Hahn PF, Stark DD. Superparamagnetic iron oxide: enhanced detection of focal splenic tumors with MR imaging. Radiology 1988, 169, 399–403.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Lee H, Lee E, Kim DK, Jang NK, Jeong YY, Jon S. Antibiofouling polymer-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential magnetic resonance contrast agents for in vivo cancer imaging. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 7383–7389.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    Lee N, Hyeon T. Designed synthesis of uniformly sized iron nanoparticles for efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41, 2575–2589.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    Laurent S, Forge D, Port M, Roche A, Robic C, Elst LV, Muller RN. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications. Chem. Rev. 2008, 108, 2064–2110.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Serrano-Ruiz D, Laurenti M, Ruiz-Cabello J, López-Cabarcos E, Rubio-Retama J. Hybrid microparticles for drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 2012, 00B, 1–8.Google Scholar

  • [30]

    Chan WCW, Nie S. Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 1998, 281, 2016.Google Scholar

  • [31]

    Weissleder R, Mahmood U. Molecular imaging. Radiology 2001, 219, 316–333.Google Scholar

  • [32]

    Wu X, Liu H, Liu J, Haley KN, Treadway JA, Larson JP, Ge N, Peale F, Bruchez MP. Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots. Nat. Biotechnol. 2003, 21, 41–46.Google Scholar

  • [33]

    Gao X, Cui Y, Levenson RM, Chung LWK, Shuming N. In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots. Nat. Biotechnol. 2004, 22, 969–976.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34]

    Sosnovik DE, Nahrendorf M, Weissleder R. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging in cardiovascular medicine. Circulation 2007, 115, 2076–2086.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [35]

    Wold GL, Burnet KR, Goldstein EJ, Joseph PM. Contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. In Magnetic Resonance Annual, Kressel, HY, Ed., Raven Press: New York, 1985, pp. 231–266.Google Scholar

  • [36]

    Högemann-Savellano D, Bos E, Blondet C, Sato F, Abe T, Josephson L, Weissleder R, Gaudet J, Sgroi D, Peters PJ, Basilion JP. The transferrin receptor: a potential molecular imaging marker for human cancer. Neoplasia 2003, 5, 495–506.Google Scholar

  • [37]

    Pouliquen D, Perdrisot R, Ermias A, Akoka S, Jallet P, Le Jeune JJ. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a liver MRI contrast agent: contribution of microencapsulation to improved biodistribution. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1989, 7, 619–627.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38]

    Taupitz M, Wagner S, Hamm B, Dienemann D, Lawaczek R, Wolf KJ. MR Lymphography using iron oxide particles—detection of lymph node metastases in the VX2 rabbit tumor model. Acta Radiol. 1993, 34, 10–15.Google Scholar

  • [39]

    Brunke O, Odenbach S. In situ observation and numerical calculations of the evolution of metallic foams. J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 2006, 18, 6493–6506.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40]

    Tietze R, Rahn H, Lyer S, Schreiber E, Mann J, Odenbach S, Alexiou C. Visualization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in vascular tissue using XμCT and histology. Histochem. Cell Biol. 2011, 135, 153–158.Google Scholar

  • [41]

    Devaraj NK, Keliher EJ, Thurber GM, Nahrendorf M, Weissleder R. 18F labeled nanoparticles for in vivo PET-CT imaging. Bioconjug. Chem. 2009, 20, 397–401.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [42]

    Halavaara JT, Lamminen AE, Bondestam S, Standertskjöld-Nordenstam CG, Hamberg LM. Detection of focal liver lesions with superparamagnetic iron oxide: value of STIR and SE imaging. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 1994, 18, 897–904.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43]

    Bluemke DA, Paulson EK, Choti MA, DeSena S, Clavien PA. Detection of hepatic lesions in candidates for surgery: comparison of ferumoxides-enhanced MR imaging and dual-phase helical CT. Am. J. Roentgenol. 2000, 175, 1653–1658.Google Scholar

  • [44]

    Van Etten B, van der Sijp JRM, Kruyt RH, Oudkerk M, van der Holt B, Wiggers T. Ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in pre-operative assessment for colorectal liver metastases. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 2002, 28, 645–651.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45]

    Onishi H, Murakami T, Kim T, Hori M, Iannaccone M, Kuwabara M, Abe H, Nakata S, Osuga K, Tomoda K, Passariello R, Nakamura H. Hepatic metastases: detection with multi-detector row CT, SPIO-enhanced MR imaging, and both techniques combined. Radiology 2006, 239, 131–138.Google Scholar

  • [46]

    Rappeport ED, Loft A, Berthelsen AK, von der Recke P, Noergaard Larsen P, Mellon Mogensen A, Wettergren A, Rasmussen A, Hillingsoe J, Kirkegaard, Thomsen C. Contrast-enhanced FDG-PET/CT vs. SPIO-enhanced MRI vs. FDG-PET vs. CT in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a prospective study with intraoperative confirmation. Acta Radiol. 2007, 4, 369–378.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47]

    Cai QY, Kim SH, Choi KS, Kim SY, Byun SJ, Kim KW, Park SH, Juhng SK, Yoon KH. Colloidal gold nanoparticles as a blood-pool contrast agent for X-ray computed tomography in mice. Invest. Radiol. 2007, 42, 797–806.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [48]

    Popovtzer R, Agrawal A, Kotov NA, Popovtzer A, Balter J, Carey TE, Kopelman R. Targeted gold nanoparticles enable molecular CT imaging of cancer. Nano Lett. 2008, 8, 4593–4596.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [49]

    Coenegrachts K, De Geeter F, ter Beek L, Walgraeve N, Bipat S, Stoker J, Rigauts H. Comparison of MR (including SS SE-EPI and SPIO-enhanced MRI) and FDG-PET/CT for the detection of colorectal liver metastases. Eur. Radiol. 2009, 19, 370–379.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [50]

    Tanabe M, Ito K, Shimizu A, Fujita T, Onoda H, Yamatogi S, Washida Y, Matsunaga N. Hepatocellular lesions with increased iron uptake on superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis: comparison of four magnetic resonance sequences for lesion conspicuity. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009, 27, 801–806.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [51]

    Giuliani A, Frati C, Rossini A, Komolev VS, Lagrasta C, Savi M, Cavalli S, Gaetano C, Quaini F, Manescu A, Rustichelli F. High-resolution X-ray microtomography for three-dimensional imaging of cardiac progenitor cell homing in infarcted rat hearts. J Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 2011, 5, e168–e178.Google Scholar

  • [52]

    Chou SW, Shau YH, Wu PC, Yang YS, Sieh DB, Chen CC. In vitro and in vivo studies of FePt nanoparticles for dual modal CT/MRI molecular imaging. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 13270–13278.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [53]

    Glaus C, Rossin R, Welch M, Bao G. In vivo evaluation of 64Cu-labeled magnetic nanoparticles as a dual-modality PET/MR imaging agent. Bioconjug. Chem. 2010, 21, 715–722.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [54]

    De Rosales RTM, Tavaré R, Paul RL, Jauregui-Osoro M, Protti A, Glaria A, Varma G, Szanda I, Blower PJ. Synthesis of 64CuII-bis(dithiocarbamatebisphosponate) and its conjugation with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: in vivo evaluation as dual-modality PET-MRI agent. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 50, 5509–5513.Google Scholar

  • [55]

    Choi JS, Lee JH, Shin TH, Song HT, Kim EY, Cheon J. Self-confirming “AND” logic nanoparticles for fault-free MRI. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 11015–11017.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [56]

    Shen Y, Shao Y, He H, Tan Y, Tian X, Xie F, Li L. Gadolinium3+-doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a potential magnetic resonance tracer for monitoring the migration of stem cells in vivo. Int. J. Nanomed. 2013, 8, 119–127.Google Scholar

  • [57]

    Li A, Zheng Y, Yu J, Wang Z, Yang Y, Wu W, Guo D, Ran H. Superparamagnetic perfluorooctylbromide nanoparticles as a multimodal contrast agent for US, MR, and CT imaging. Acta Radiol. 2013, 54, 1–6.Google Scholar

  • [58]

    Fan K, Cao C, Pan Y, Lu D, Yang D, Feng J, Song L, Liang M, Yan X. Magnetoferritin nanoparticles for targeting and visualizing tumour tissues. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2012, 7, 459–464.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [59]

    Jarrett BR, Gustafsson B, Kukis DL, Louie Y. Synthesis of 64Cu-labeled magnetic nanoparticles for multimodal imaging. Bioconjug. Chem. 2008, 19, 1496–1504.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [60]

    McCarthy JR, Patel P, Botnaru I, Haghayeghi P, Weissleder R, Jaffer FA. Multimodal nanoagents for the detection of intravascular thrombi. Bioconjug. Chem. 2009, 20, 1251–1255.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [61]

    Skaat H, Margel S. Synthesis of fluorescent-maghemite nanoparticles as multimodal imaging agents for amyloid-β fibrils detection and removal by magnetic field. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009, 386, 645–649.Google Scholar

  • [62]

    Purushotham S, Ramanujan RV. Thermosensitive magnetic composite nanomaterials for multimodal cancer therapy. Acta Biomater. 2009, 6, 502–510.Google Scholar

  • [63]

    Stanley SA, Gagner JE, Damanpour S, Yoshida M, Dordick JS, Friednann JM. Radio-wave heating of iron oxide nanoparticles can regulate plasma glucose in mice. Science 2012, 336, 604–607.Google Scholar

  • [64]

    Nowostawska M, Corr SA, Byrne SJ, Conroy J, Volkov Y, Gun’ko Y. Porphyrin-magnetite nanoconjugates for biomedical imaging. J. Nanotechnol. 2011, 9, 1–13.Google Scholar

  • [65]

    Huang KW, Chieh JJ, Horng HE, Hong CY, Yang HC. Characteristics of magnetic labeling on liver tumors with anti-alpha-fetoprotein-mediated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Int. J. Nanomed. 2012, 7, 2987–2996.Google Scholar

  • [66]

    Yiu HHP, Pickard MR, Olariu CI, Williams SR, Chari DM, Rosseinsky MJ. Fe3O4-PEI-RITC magnetic nanoparticles with imaging and gene transfer capability: development of a tool for neural cell transplantation therapies. Pharm. Res. 2012, 29, 1328–1443.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [67]

    Ren Y, Zhang H, Chen B, Cheng J, Cai Y, Liu R, Xia G, Wu W, Wang S, Ding J, Gao C, Wang J, Bao W, Wang L, Tian L, Song H, Wang X. Multifunctional magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles combines with chemotherapy and hyperthermia to overcome multidrug resistance. Int. J. Nanomed. 2012, 7, 2261–2269.Google Scholar

  • [68]

    Xu Y, Karmakar A, Heberlein WE, Mustafa T, Biris AR, Biris AS. Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for synergistic enhancement of cancer treatment by combinatorial radio frequency thermolysis and drug delivery. Adv. Healthcare Mater. 2012, 1, 493–501.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [69]

    Miyaki LAM, Sibov TT, Pavon LF, Mamani JB, Gamarra LF. Study of internalization and viability on multimodal nanoparticles for labeling of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. Einstein 2012, 10, 189–196.Google Scholar

  • [70]

    Cho H, Alcantara D, Yuan H, Sheth RA, Chen HH, Huang P, Andersson SB, Sosnovik DE, Mahmood U, Josephson L. Fluorochrome-functionalized nanoparticles for imaging DNA in biological systems. ACS Nano. 2013, 7, 2032–2041.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [71]

    Mikhaylov G, Mikac U, Magaeva AA, Itin VI, Naiden EP, Psakhye I, Babes L, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Zeiser R, Bogyo M, Turk V, Psakhye SG, Turk B, Vasiljeva O. Ferri-liposomes as an MRI-visible drug-delivery system for targeting tumours and their microenvironment. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2011, 6, 594–602.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [72]

    Lee JH, Jang JT, Choi JS, Moon SH, Noh SH, Kim JW, Kim JG, Kim IS, Park KI, Cheon J. Exchange-coupled magnetic nanoparticles for efficient heat induction. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2011, 6, 418–422.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [73]

    Yoo D, Lee JH, Sin TH, Cheon J. Theranostic magnetic nanoparticles. Acc. Chem. Res. 2011, 44, 863–874.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [74]

    Choi KY, Liu G, Lee S, Chen X. Theranostic nanoplatforms for simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy: current approaches and future perspectives. Nanoscale 2012, 4, 330–342.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [75]

    Kievit FM, Zhang M. Cancer nanotheranostics: improving imaging and therapy by targeted delivery across biological barriers. Adv. Mater. 2011, 23, H217–H247.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [76]

    Gleich B, Weizenecker J. Tomographic imaging using the nonlinear response of magnetic particles. Nature 2005, 435, 1214–1217.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [77]

    Goodwill PW, Scott GC, Stang PP, Conolly SM. Narrowband magnetic particle imaging. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2009, 28, 1231–1237.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [78]

    Ferguson RM, Minard KR, Krishnan KM. Optimization of nanoparticle core size for magnetic particle imaging. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 2009, 321, 1548–1551.Google Scholar

  • [79]

    Knopp T, Biederer S, Sattel T, Weizenecker J, Gleich B, Borgert J, Buzug TM. Trajectory analysis for magnetic particle imaging. Phys. Med. Biol. 2009, 54, 385–397.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [80]

    Knopp T, Sattel TF, Biederer S, Rahmer J, Weizenecker J, Gleich B, Borgert J, Buzug TM. Model-based reconstruction for magnetic resonance imaging. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2010, 29, 12–18.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [81]

    Knopp T, Rahmer J, Sattel TF, Biederer S, Weizenecker J, Gleich B, Borgert J, Buzug TM. Weighted iterative reconstruction for magnetic particle imaging. Phys. Med. Biol. 2010, 55, 1577–1589.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [82]

    Knopp T, Biederer S, Sattel TF, Erbe M, Buzug TM. Prediction of the spatial resolution of magnetic particle imaging using the modulation transfer function of the imaging process. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2011, 30, 1284–1292.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [83]

    Rahmer J, Weizenecker J, Gleich B, Borgert J. Analysis of a 3-D system function measured for magnetic particle imaging. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2012, 31, 1289–1299.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [84]

    Finas D, Baumann K, Sydow L, Heinrich K, Gäfe K, Buzug T, Lüdtke-Buzug K. Detection and distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in lymphatic tissue in a breast cancer model for magnetic particle imaging. Biomed. Technol. (Berl.) 2012 Sep 4. pii: /j/bmte.2012.57.issue-s1-M/bmt-2012-4158/bmt-2012-4158.xml. doi: 10.1515/bmt-2012-4158 [Epub ahead of print].CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [85]

    Goodwill PW, Konkle JJ, Zheng B, Saritas EU, Conolly SM. Projection X-space magnetic particle imaging. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2012, 31, 1076.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [86]

    Reeves DB, Weaver JB. Simulations of magnetic nanoparticle Brownian motion. J. Med. Appl. Phys. 2012, 112, 124311.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [87]

    Haegele J, Biederer S, Wojtcyk H, Gräser M, Knopp T, Buzug TM, Barkhausen J, Vogt FM. Toward cardiovascular interventions guided by magnetic particle imaging: first instrument characterization. Magn. Reson. Med. 2013, 69, 1761–1767.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [88]

    Ferguson RM, Kandhar AP, Krishnan KM. Tracer design for magnetic particle imaging (invited). J. Appl. Phys. 2012, 111, 7B318–7B3185.Google Scholar

  • [89]

    Romanus E, Berkov DV, Prass S, Groß C, Weitschies W, Weber P. Determination of energy barrier distributions of magnetic nanoparticles by temperature dependent magnetorelaxometry. Nanotechnology 2003, 14, 1251–1254.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [90]

    Wiekhorst F, Seliger C, Jurgons R, Steinhoff U, Eberbeck D, Trahms L, Alexiou C. Quantification of magnetic nanoparticles by magnetorelaxometry and comparison to histology after magnetic drug targeting. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2006, 6, 3222–3225.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [91]

    Heim E, Harling S, Ludwig F, Menzel H, Schilling M. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2008, 20, 1–5.Google Scholar

  • [92]

    Eberbeck D, Bergemann, Wiekhorst F, Steinhoff U, Trahms L. Quantification of specific bindings of biomolecules by magnetorelaxometry. J. Nanobiotechnol. 2008, 6, 1–12.Google Scholar

  • [93]

    Hofmann A, Wenzel D, Becher UM, Freitag DF, Klein AM, Eberbeck D, Schulte M, Zimmermann K, Bergemann C, Gleich B, Roell W, Weyh T, Trahms L, Nickenig G, Fleischmann BK, Pfeifer A. Combined targeting of lentiviral vectors and positioning of transduced cells by magnetic nanoparticles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 44–49.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [94]

    Richter H, Wiekhorst R, Schwarz K, Lyer S, Tietze R, Alexiou Ch, Trahms L. Magnetorelaxometric quantification of magnetic nanoparticles in an artery model after ex vivo magnetic drug targeting. Phys. Med. Biol. 2009, 54, N411–24.Google Scholar

  • [95]

    Richter H, Kettering M, Wiekhorst F, Steinhoff U, Hilger I, Trahms L. Magnetorelaxometry for localization and quantification of magnetic nanoparticles for thermal ablation studies. Phys. Med. Biol. 2010, 55, 623–633.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [96]

    Kettering M, Richter H, Wiekhorst F, Bremer-Streck S, Trahms L, Kaiser WA, Hilger I. Minimal-invasive magnetic heating of tumors does not alter intra-tumoral nanoparticle accumulation, allowing for repeated therapy sessions: an in vivo study in mice. Nanotechnology 2011, 22, 1–7.Google Scholar

  • [97]

    Wöhl-Bruhn S, Heim E, Schwoerer A, Bertz S, Harling S, Menzel H, Schilling M, Ludwig F, Bunjes H. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry: a new approach to study the release properties of hydrogel cylinders and microspheres. Int. J. Pharmaceutics 2012, 436, 677–684.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [98]

    Weaver JB, Rauwerdink AM, Sullivan CR, Baker I. Frequency distribution of the nanoparticle magnetization in the presence of a static as well as harmonic magnetic field. Med. Phys. 2008, 35, 1988–1994.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [99]

    Dutz S, Kuntsche J, Eberbeck D, Müller R, Zeisberger M. Asymmetric flow field-flow fraction of superferrimagnetic iron oxide multicore nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 2012, 23, 1–7.Google Scholar

  • [100]

    Ge S, Shi X, Sun K, Li C, Baker JR Jr, Holl MMB, Orr BG. A facile hydrothermal synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with turntable magnetic properties. J. Phys. Chem. C Nanomater. Interfaces 2009, 113, 13593–13599.Google Scholar

About the article

Marc Schwarz

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON): The SEON emerged from Prof. Christoph Alexiou’s working group after he received the first chair for Nanomedicine in Germany, which was endowed by the Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftung in 2009. The group can look back on more than 15 years of experience in the application of iron oxide nanoparticles in cancer treatment. The favored therapy approach is “magnetic drug targeting”. The main goal of SEON is to enhance cancer treatment and simultaneously reducing the side effects of chemotherapy, by accumulating the nanoparticle-bound drug with strong external magnetic forces. In the nearer past, SEON has broadened its activities to the use of iron oxide particles in the treatment of arteriosclerosis and also in regenerative medicine.

Marc Schwarz studied Biology at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg. After finishing his PhD thesis at the Department of Neurosurgery of the University Hospital Erlangen, he stayed as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Department of Neuroradiology and focused on glioma imaging and treatment. Since the SEON and the Department of Neuroradiology started to cooperate, he expanded his field of research to magnetic nanoparticles in cancer therapy and imaging.

Arnd Dörfler

Arnd Dörfler studied Medicine at the University of Heidelberg and at the University of Zurich, he graduated in October 1994, and was promoted to Doctor of Medicine 1 month later. From 1994 to 1997, he worked at the Department of Neurology and at the Department of Neuroradiology at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 2002, he qualified as a university lecturer at the Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Radiology of the University Hospital of Essen. Since 2004, he is head of the Department of Neuroradiology at the University Hospital of Erlangen.

Tobias Engelhorn

Tobias Engelhorn studied Medicine at the University of Heidelberg as well as at the Medical School Sanford and graduated in 2000. From 2000 to 2004, he worked at the Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology of the University Hospital of Essen and was promoted to Doctor of Medicine in 2001. Tobias Engelhorn has worked as a senior physician at the Department of Neuroradiology at the University Hospital of Erlangen since 2005. In 2007, he qualified as a university lecturer. Tobias Engelhorn’s scientific work covers preclinical multimodal imaging, experimental radiology, and angiographies.

Tobias Struffert

Tobias Struffert studied Medicine at the Westfälische Wilhelms University of Münster, he graduated in November 1997, and was promoted to Doctor of Medicine in March 1998. From 1998 to 2000, he started his medical career at the University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) at the Departments of Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology. At the beginning of 2000, he changed to the Department of Neuroradiology at the University of the Saarland (Homburg/Saar) where he achieved the board certification in radiology and neuroradiology. In 2006, he changed to the Department of Neuroradiology of the University Hospital of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg. He has worked as a senior physician, and since 2010, he is qualified as a university lecturer. His scientific work covers preclinical multimodal CT and MRI, experimental radiology, and especially functional flat-detector CT imaging.

Rainer Tietze

Rainer Tietze studied Food Chemistry at the J.W. Goethe-University in Frankfurt/Main from 1998 to 2002. He did a postgraduate internship at the Federal Institute for Animal Food Production in Kulmbach and at the State Authority for Food Supervision in Kassel. From 2004 to 2007, he worked as a PhD at the Laboratory of Molecular Imaging in the Clinic of Nuclear Medicine at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg. There, he developed radiolabeled subtype-selective dopamine receptor ligands for PET. Since 2007, he has been a postdoc in the SEON, Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung Professorship at the ENT-Department of the University Hospital Erlangen, Germany. He is responsible for synthesis and analytics of nanoscaled material.

Christina Janko

Christina Janko studied Biology at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg from 2002 to 2007. After her diploma thesis in 2007, she was a PhD student in the group of Prof. Dr. Martin Herrmann at the Institute of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology at the University Hospital Erlangen from 2007 to 2012. In her dissertation in 2012, she focused on the CRP-mediated effects in the clearance of dying and dead cells. Since 2013, she has worked as a postdoctoral research fellow in the group of Prof Dr. Christoph Alexiou in the SEON at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, where she analyzes the toxicology of nanoparticles.

Philipp Tripal

Philipp Tripal studied Biology at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg. In September 2003, he graduated in the field of Microbiology. From 2003 to 2006, he studied for his PhD within the field of tumor research, which he received in May 2007. From 2007 to 2011, he worked as a postdoctoral research fellow for the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, studying the pharmacologic consequences of antidepressants on neuronal cells. In 2011, he moved back to tumor research. In the Department of Nuclear Medicine, he investigated the use of radioactive, tumor-specific compounds for tumor therapy and cell labeling. In January 2013, he joined the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen. Within the SEON, he is investigating the use of magnetic nanoparticles for their application in tissue engineering and 3D cell cultures.

Iwona Cicha

Iwona Cicha studied Biology at the Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland. After obtaining her PhD in Medical Sciences at the Ehime Medical School, Ehime University, Japan, she moved to the University of Erlangen. She was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Nephrology in 2003, before joining the Department of Cardiology, where she obtained her Habilitation in Experimental Medicine in 2012. Currently, she is a group leader in the Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology. She has extensive research experience in the field of atherosclerosis, with focus on the role of inflammation and blood flow dynamics in plaque development and destabilization.

Stephan Dürr

Stephan Dürr earned a Medical Degree from the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg and received his MD at the Institute of Pathology at the University Hospital Erlangen. Since 2004, he has been working at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, where he specialized as an otorhinolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon in 2009. Within the ENT Department, he joined the SEON in 2010. There he has been working as a research fellow on magnetic drug targeting.

Christoph Alexiou

Christoph Alexiou received his MD from the Technical University of Munich, Medical school in 1995. After finishing his internship at the Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of the Technical University of Munich, he started as a physician and researcher at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and founded a research group working in the field of local chemotherapy with magnetic nanoparticles (magnetic drug targeting). In 2000, he received his degree as an ENT-Physician and in 2002, he moved to the ENT-Department in Erlangen, Germany, where he performed his postdoctoral lecture qualification (Habilitation). He worked as an assistant medical director in the clinic and lead the SEON. Since 2009 he holds the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Foundation-Professorship for Nanomedicine at the University Hospital Erlangen. His research focuses on the translation of magnetic drug targeting and the application of magnetic nanoparticles into clinical application. He has received several national and international awards for his work.

Stefan Lyer

Stefan Lyer studied Biology at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg. After finishing his PhD thesis at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)/Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg he continued as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Department of Genome Analysis at the DKFZ. In 2008, he moved back to Erlangen starting a postdoc position at the group of Prof. Dr. Christoph Alexiou at the ENT-Department of the University Hospital Erlangen, which was renamed SEON in 2009. Here, he focussed on the application of nanoparticles in cancer therapy. Since 2011, he has been assistant group leader of SEON.


Corresponding author: Dr. rer. nat. Marc Schwarz, Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany, Phone: +09131-85 44 835, Fax: +09131-85 34 828; and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany


Received: 2013-03-12

Accepted: 2013-05-25

Published Online: 2013-07-02

Published in Print: 2013-08-01


Citation Information: Nanotechnology Reviews, ISSN (Online) 2191-9097, ISSN (Print) 2191-9089, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2013-0010.

Export Citation

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Marina Pöttler, Anna Fliedner, Eveline Schreiber, Christina Janko, Ralf Philipp Friedrich, Christopher Bohr, Michael Döllinger, Christoph Alexiou, and Stephan Dürr
Nanoscale Research Letters, 2017, Volume 12, Number 1
[2]
Kai-Wen Huang, Jen-Jie Chieh, Chih-Kuang Yeh, Shu-Hsien Liao, Yi-Yan Lee, Pei-Yi Hsiao, Wen-Chun Wei, Hong-Chang Yang, and Herng-Er Horng
ACS Nano, 2017, Volume 11, Number 3, Page 3030
[3]
Rainer Tietze and Christoph Alexiou
Nanomedicine, 2017, Volume 12, Number 3, Page 167

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in