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The role of defects and dimensionality in influencing the charge, capacitance, and energy storage of graphene and 2D materials

Prabhakar R. Bandaru
  • Corresponding author
  • Room 258, Engineering 2, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0411, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA, Phone: +(858) 534-5325
  • Program in Materials Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
  • Email:
/ Hidenori Yamada
  • Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
/ Rajaram Narayanan
  • Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
/ Mark Hoefer
  • Program in Materials Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
Published Online: 2017-03-16 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2016-0099


The inevitable presence of defects in graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials influences the charge density and distribution along with the concomitant measured capacitance and the related energy density. We review, in this paper, the various manifestations of the capacitance including both the classical electrostatic (e.g. associated with double layer, space charge, chemical capacitances) and the quantum forms, as well as a few methodologies to tune the respective capacitances. The role of a proper determination of the surface area of 2D materials, considering the presence of defects, in determining the capacitance and the magnitude of the energy storage is also considered.

Keywords: 2D materials; capacitance; defects; energy storage; graphene


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About the article

Prabhakar R. Bandaru

Prabhakar R. Bandaru is a Professor of Materials Science in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). He has worked extensively in energy storage systems, including electrochemical capacitors (ECs) in terms of the fundamental materials physics and chemistry. He also pioneered the use of novel one-dimensional (e.g. nanotube and nanowire) and two-dimensional (e.g. graphene) nanostructures for new modalities in electrochemical storage and electronics.

Hidenori Yamada

Hidenori Yamada is a graduate student in the Electrical Engineering Department at UCSD. He considered the limitations imposed by the electronic density of states in limiting the maximum current that could be obtained in electrochemical devices and contributed extensively on relevant quantum mechanical interpretations.

Rajaram Narayanan

Rajaram Narayanan is a graduate student in the Nanoengineering department at UCSD and avidly pursues electrochemical analysis of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures. He pioneered the use of thin layer electrochemistry for reducing diffusional limitations in ECs and multi-scale hierarchical charge storage.

Mark Hoefer

Mark Hoefer is presently a Research Engineer at Bosch, Germany. Mark graduated with a PhD from the University of California, San Diego, in 2012 with a thesis on the Electrochemical implications of defects in carbon nanostructures. He pioneered the harness of charged defects for controlled capacitive storage.

Received: 2016-11-18

Accepted: 2017-02-09

Published Online: 2017-03-16

Citation Information: Nanotechnology Reviews, ISSN (Online) 2191-9097, ISSN (Print) 2191-9089, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2016-0099. Export Citation

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