Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Opto-Electronics Review

Editor-in-Chief: Jaroszewicz, Leszek

4 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
Volume 16, Issue 2 (Jun 2008)


Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography

H. Rinneberg
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
/ D. Grosenick
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
/ K. Moesta
  • Robert-Rössle-Hospital, Charité, Campus Buch, Lindenberger Weg 80, D-13125, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
/ H. Wabnitz
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
/ J. Mucke
  • Robert-Rössle-Hospital, Charité, Campus Buch, Lindenberger Weg 80, D-13125, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
/ G. Wübbeler
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
/ R. Macdonald
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
/ P. Schlag
  • Robert-Rössle-Hospital, Charité, Campus Buch, Lindenberger Weg 80, D-13125, Berlin, Germany
  • Email:
Published Online: 2008-03-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5


The paper gives a short overview of various methods of optical mammography, emphasizing scanning time-domain mammography. The results of a clinical study on time-domain optical mammography are reviewed, comprising 154 patients carrying a total of 102 carcinomas validated by histology. A visibility score attributed to each carcinoma as qualitative measure of tumour detectability indicates acceptable sensitivity but poor specificity for discrimination between malignant and benign lesions. Likewise, a multi-variate statistical analysis yields sensitivity and specificity between 80% and 85% for tumour detection and discrimination with respect to normal (healthy) breast tissue, but values less than 70% for discrimination between malignant and benign breast lesions, being too low to be of clinical relevance. For 87 of the 88 tumours detected retrospectively in both projection optical mammograms, optical properties and tissue parameters were derived based on the diffraction of photon density waves by a spherical inhomogeneity as forward model. Following injection of a bolus of indocyanine green as non-targeted absorbing contrast agent, dynamic contrast-enhanced time-domain optical mammography was carried out on a small number of patients, but no differences in wash-out kinetics of indocyanine green between tumours and healthy breast tissue were observed.

Keywords: time-domain optical mammography; tumour detectability; tissue absorption and scattering coefficients; tissue total haemoglobin concentration; indocyanine green

  • [1] A. Smith, “Full-field breast tomosynthesis,” Radiol. Manage. 27, 25–31 (2005).

  • [2] T. Wu, R.H. Moore, A. Rafferty, and D.B. Kopans, “A comparison of reconstruction algorithms for breast tomosynthesis”, Med. Phys. 31, 2636–2647 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.1786692 [Crossref]

  • [3] S. Kappadath and C. Shaw, “Dual-energy digital mammography for calcification imaging: Scatter and nonuniformity corrections”, Med. Phys. 32, 3395–3408 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.2064767 [Crossref]

  • [4] A. Malich, M. Facius, R. Anderson, J. Bottcher, D. Sauner, A. Hansch, C. Marx, A. Petrovitch, S. Pfleiderer, and W. Kaiser, “Influence of size and depth on accuracy of electrical impedance scanning”, Eur. Radiol. 13, 2441–2446 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-003-1988-3 [Crossref]

  • [5] T. Diebold, V. Jacobi, B. Scholz, C. Hensel, C. Solbach, M. Kaufmann, F. Viana, J. Balzer, J. Peters, and T. Vogl, “Value of electrical impedance scanning in the evaluation of BI-RADS™ II/IV/V-lesions”, Technol. Cancer Res. T. 4, 93–97 (2005). [Crossref]

  • [6] J. Lorenzen, R. Sinkus, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, C. Leussler, P. Roschmann, and G. Adam, “MR elastography of the breast: preliminary clinical results”, Röfo. Fortschr. Geb. Röntgenstr. Bildgeb. Verfahr. 174, 830–834 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-32690 [Crossref]

  • [7] P.J. Bolan, S. Meisamy, E.H. Baker, J. Lin, T. Emory, M. Nelson, L.I. Everson, D. Yee, and M. Garwood, “In vivo quantification of choline compounds in the breast with 1H MR spectroscopy”, Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 1134–1143 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.10654

  • [8] M.A. Thomas, N. Wyckoff, K. Yue, N. Binesh, S. Banakar, H.-K. Chung, J. Sayre, and N. DeBruhl, “Two-dimensional MR spectroscopic characterization of breast cancer in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. T. 4, 99–106 (2005). [Crossref]

  • [9] M.D. McDonough, E.R. DePeri, and B.A. Mincey, “The role of positron emission tomographic imaging in breast cancer”, Curr. Oncol. Rep. 6, 62–68 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11912-996-0011-y [Crossref]

  • [10] E.L. Rosen, T.G. Turkington, M.S. Soo, J.A. Baker, and R.E. Coleman, “Detection of primary breast carcinoma with a dedicated large-field-of-view FDG PET mammography device: Initial experience”, Radiology 234, 527–534 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2342040654 [Crossref]

  • [11] I.N. Weinberg, D. Beylin, V. Zavarzin, S. Yarnall, P.Y. Stepanov, E. Anashkin, D. Narayanan, S. Dolinsky, K. Lauckner, and L.P. Alder, “Positron emission mammography: high-resolution biochemical breast imaging”, Technol. Cancer Res. T. 4, 55–60 (2005). [Crossref]

  • [12] M.S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B.C. Wilson, “Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties”, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989). [Crossref]

  • [13] S.R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging”, Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0266-5611/15/2/022 [Crossref]

  • [14] A.E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A.J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R.F. Holcombe, and B.J Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography”, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1427050 [Crossref]

  • [15] D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonald, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain optical mammography: Initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumours”, Appl. Opt. 42, 3170–3186 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.42.003170 [Crossref]

  • [16] D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429–2449 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001 [Crossref]

  • [17] D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: II. Optical properties and tissue parameters of 87 carcinomas”, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2451–2468 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/002 [Crossref]

  • [18] H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. T. 4, 483–496 (2005). [Crossref]

  • [19] M.A. Franceschini, K.T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P.M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.12.6468 [Crossref]

  • [20] L. Götz, S.H. Heywang-Köbrunner, O. Schütz, and H. Siebold, “Optical mammography on preoperative patients (Optische Mammographie an präoperativen Patientinnen)”, Akt. Radiol. 8, 31–33 (1998).

  • [21] H. Dehghani, B.W. Pogue, S.P. Poplack, and K.D. Paulsen, “Multi-wavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results”, Appl. Opt. 42, 135–145 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.42.000135 [Crossref]

  • [22] S.B. Colak, M.B. van der Mark, G.W. ’t Hooft, J.H. Hoogenraad, E.S. van der Linden, and F.A. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 5, 1143–1158 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/2944.796341 [Crossref]

  • [23] D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K.T. Moesta, and P. Schlag, “Development of a time-domain optical mammograph and first in vivo applications”, Appl. Opt. 38, 2927–2943 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.38.002927 [Crossref]

  • [24] A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, F. Messina, R. Cubeddu, and G. Danesini, “Four-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography in the 680–980-nm range”, Opt. Lett. 28, 1138–1140 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.28.001138 [Crossref]

  • [25] T. Yates, J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S.R. Arridge, and M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager”, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503–2517 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/005 [Crossref]

  • [26] J.P. Culver, R. Choe, M.J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain-continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging”, Med. Phys. 30, 235–247 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.1534109 [Crossref]

  • [27] J.C. Hebden and S.R. Arridge, “Imaging through scattering media by the use of an analytical model of perturbation amplitudes in the time domain”, Appl. Opt. 35, 6788–6796 (1996). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.35.006788 [Crossref]

  • [28] S. Carraresi, T.S.M. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration”, Appl. Opt. 40, 4622–4632 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.004622 [Crossref]

  • [29] B. Wassermann, A. Kummrow, K.T. Moesta, D. Grosenick, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “In-vivo tissue optical properties derived by linear perturbation theory for edge-corrected time-domain mammograms”, Opt. Express 13, 8571–8583 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.008571 [Crossref]

  • [30] D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Möller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stößel, B. Wassermann, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography”, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165–1181 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/49/7/006 [Crossref]

  • [31] H.Q. Woodard and D.R. White, “The composition of body tissues”, Brit. J. Radiol. 69, 1209–1218 (1986). http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/0007-1285-59-708-1209 [Crossref]

  • [32] J.W. Tukey, Exploratory Data Analysis, Addison Wesley Publ., Reading, MA, 1977.

  • [33] P. Taroni, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, G.M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography?”, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1203–1215 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/49/7/008 [Crossref]

  • [34] R.O. Duda, P.E. Hart, and D.G. Stork, Pattern Classification, John Wiley, New York, 2001.

  • [35] M. Gurfinkel, A.B. Thompson, W. Ralston, T.L. Troy, A.L. Moore, T.A. Moore, J.D. Gust, D. Tatman, J.S. Reynolds, B. Muggenburg, K. Nikula, R. Pandey, R.H. Mayer, D.J. Hawrysz, and E.M. Sevick Muraca, “Pharmacokinetics of ICG and HPPH-car for the detection of normal and tumour tissue using fluorescence near-infrared reflectance imaging: a case study”, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 94–102 (2000). http://dx.doi.org/10.1562/0031-8655(2000)072<0094:POIAHC>2.0.CO;2 [Crossref]

  • [36] X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with indocyanine green”, Med. Phys. 30, 1039–1047 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.1573791 [Crossref]

  • [37] D.A. Boas, M.A. O’Leary, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, “Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887–4891 (1994). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.11.4887 [Crossref]

  • [38] P. Vaupel, S. Briest, and M. Hoeckel, “Hypoxia in breast cancer: pathogenesis, characterization and biological/therapeutic implications”, Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 152, 334–342 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1563-258X.2002.02032.x [Crossref]

  • [39] R.L.P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H.J.C.M. Sterenborg, “Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy”, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573–2581 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/009 [Crossref]

  • [40] K.T. Moesta, S. Fantini, H. Jess, S. Totkas, M.A. Franceschini, M. Kaschke, and P.M. Schlag, “Contrast features of breast cancer in frequency-domain laser scanning mammography”, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 129–136 (1998). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.429869 [Crossref]

  • [41] P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm”, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464–473 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1695561 [Crossref]

  • [42] X. Cheng, J.M. Mao, R. Bush, D.B. Kopans, R.H. Moore, and M. Chorlton, “Breast cancer detection by mapping haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation”, Appl. Opt. 42, 6412–6421 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.42.006412 [Crossref]

About the article

Published Online: 2008-03-26

Published in Print: 2008-06-01

Citation Information: Opto-Electronics Review, ISSN (Online) 1896-3757, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5. Export Citation

© 2008 SEP, Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

David R. Busch, Regine Choe, Turgut Durduran, and Arjun G. Yodh
PET Clinics, 2013, Volume 8, Number 3, Page 345
Alexander Poellinger
Journal of Biophotonics, 2012, Volume 5, Number 11-12, Page 815
Eric Lapointe, Julien Pichette, and Yves Bérubé-Lauzière
Review of Scientific Instruments, 2012, Volume 83, Number 6, Page 063703
Michael Ghijsen, Yuting Lin, Mitchell Hsing, Orhan Nalcioglu, and Gultekin Gulsen
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, 2011, Volume 2011, Page 1
Molly L. Flexman, Michael A. Khalil, Rabah Al Abdi, Hyun K. Kim, Christopher J. Fong, Elise Desperito, Dawn L. Hershman, Randall L. Barbour, and Andreas H. Hielscher
Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2011, Volume 16, Number 7, Page 076014
Anaïs Leproux, Marjolein van der Voort, Martin B. van der Mark, Rik Harbers, Stephanie M. W. Y. van de Ven, and Ton G. van Leeuwen
Biomedical Optics Express, 2011, Volume 2, Number 4, Page 1007
Dirk Grosenick, Axel Hagen, Oliver Steinkellner, Alexander Poellinger, Susen Burock, Peter M. Schlag, Herbert Rinneberg, and Rainer Macdonald
Review of Scientific Instruments, 2011, Volume 82, Number 2, Page 024302
Mehmet Burcin Unlu, Yuting Lin, and Gultekin Gulsen
Physics in Medicine and Biology, 2009, Volume 54, Number 21, Page 6739
Axel Hagen, Dirk Grosenick, Rainer Macdonald, Herbert Rinneberg, Susen Burock, Peter Warnick, Alexander Poellinger, and Peter M. Schlag
Optics Express, 2009, Volume 17, Number 19, Page 17016
Ronny Ziegler, Tim Nielsen, Thomas Koehler, Dirk Grosenick, Oliver Steinkellner, Axel Hagen, Rainer Macdonald, and Herbert Rinneberg
Applied Optics, 2009, Volume 48, Number 24, Page 4651
S. A. Carp, J. Selb, Q. Fang, R. Moore, D. B. Kopans, E. Rafferty, and D. A. Boas
Optics Express, 2008, Volume 16, Number 20, Page 16064

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in