Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.461
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.604

CiteScore 2017: 0.64

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.249
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.463

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 42, Issue 3


A review of cnidarian epibionts on marine crustacea

Gregorio Fernandez-Leborans
Published Online: 2013-10-03 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13545-013-0092-9


An updated inventory of the cnidarian species living as epibionts on Crustacea was conducted. Cnidarian species that attach themselves to gastropod shells of hermit crabs were also considered. One hundred and forty-eight species of cnidaria were included, with similar numbers of hydrozoans and anthozoans. There were 163 basibiont species that were mostly decapod species. The presence of these epibionts on different crustacean species and their taxonomic positions were indicated. This review is intended to serve as a useful tool for future studies of this type of epibiosis.

Keywords: epibiosis; cnidaria; crustacea

  • [1] Abelló, P. & Macpherson E. (1992). Epibiosis and rhizocephalan infestation patterns in relation to the reproductive biology of Lithodes ferox Filhol, 1885 (Anomura: Lithodidae). J. Crust. Biol. 12, 561–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1548837CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2] Abelló, P., Villanueva R. & Gili J.M. (1990). Epibiosis in deep-sea crab populations as indicator of biological and behavioural characteristics of the host. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc.. U. K. 70, 687–695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400058975CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Acuña, F., Excoffon A, & Scelzo M. (2003). Mutualism between the sea anemone Antholoba achates (Drayton, 1846) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Actinostolidae) and the spider crab Libinia spinosa Milne-Edwards, 1834 (Crustacea: Decapoda, Majidae). Belgian J. Zool. 133; 85–87. Google Scholar

  • [4] Arai, M.N. & Brinckmann-Voss A. (1980). Hydromedusae of British Columbia and Puget Sound. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 204, 1–192. Google Scholar

  • [5] Ates, R.M.L. (1995). Pagurus prideaux and Adamsia palliata are not obligate commensals. Crustaceana, 68, 522–524. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Ates, R.M.L. (2003). A preliminary review of zoanthid-hermit crab symbioses (Cnidaria; Zoantharia/Crustacea; Paguridea). Zool. Verh. (Leiden), 345, 41–48. Google Scholar

  • [7] Ayres-Peres, L. & Mantelatto F.L. (2010). Epibiont ocurrence on gastropod shells used by the hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis (Anomura: Diogenidae) on the northern coast of Sào Paulo, Brazil. Zoologia, 27, 222–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702010000200010CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Bach, C.E., Hazlett B.A. & Rittschof D. (2006). Sex-specific differences and the role of predation in the interaction between the hermit crab, Pagurus longicarpus, and its epibiont, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 333, 181–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2005.12.003CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9] Baeza, J.A. & Stotz W. (2003). Host-use and selection of differently colored sea anemones by the symbiotic crab Allopetrolisthes spinifrons. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 284, 25–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00476-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10] Balss, H. (1924). Ü ber Anpassungen und Symbiose der Paguriden. Eine zusammenfassende übersicht. Z. Morphol. Okol. Tiere, 1, 752–792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00407608CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Bavestrello, G. (1985). Idroidi simbionti di paguri e gasteropodi nella Riviera Ligure di Levante. Oebalia, 11, 349–362. Google Scholar

  • [12] Bavestrello, G., Puce S., Cerrano C., Castellano L. & Arillo A. (2000). Water movement activating fragmentation: a new dispersal strategy for hydractiniid hydroids. J.Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK. 80, 361–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315499001964CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] Bavestrello, G., Cerrano C., Camillo C., Puce S., Romagnoli T., Tazioli S. & Totti C. (2008). The ecology of protists epibiontic on marine hydroids. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK. 88, 1611–1617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315408001665CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14] Bennet, I. (1962). Hydroids on Marine Snails. Aus. Nat. Hist. 14, 93. Google Scholar

  • [15] Blochmann, F. & Hilger C. (1888). Über Gonactinia prolifera Sars, eine durch Quertheilung sich vermehrende Actinie. Morpholog. Jahrbuch. 13, 384–400. Google Scholar

  • [16] Boas, J.E.V. (1926). Zur Kenntnis der Einsiendlerkrebses Paguropsis und seiner eigenartigen Behausung. Selk. Biol. Medd. 5, 1–23. Google Scholar

  • [17] Boero, F. & Fresi E. (1986). Zonation and Evolution of a Rocky Bottom Hydroid Community. P.S.Z.N. I: Marine Ecology 7, 123–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.1986.tb00152.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18] Bouillon, J. (1994). Classe des Hydrozoaires. In: Grassé P.-P. (ed.), Traité de Zoologie, Cnidaires (pp. 29–416). Paris: Masson. Google Scholar

  • [19] Bouillon, J., Medel D. & Peña Cantero A.L. (1997). The taxonomic status of the genus Stylactaria Stechow, 1921 (Hydroidomedusae, Anthomedusae, Hydractiniidae), with the description of a new species. Sci. Mar. 61, 471–486. Google Scholar

  • [20] Bouillon, J., Gravili C., Pagés F., Gili J.-M., Boero F., 2006. An introduction to Hydrozoa. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle 194, 1–591. Google Scholar

  • [21] Bouvier, E.L. (1898). Sur la classification, les originès et la distribution des crabes de la famille des Dorrippidés. Bull. Soc. Philomathique Paris, 91, 54–70. Google Scholar

  • [22] Brooks, W.R. (1989). Hermit crabs alter sea anemone placement patterns for shell balance and reduced predation. J. Exp. Mar. Biol Ecol. 132, 109–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(89)90218-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23] Brooks, W.R. & Mariscal R.N. (1985). Protection of the hermit crab Pagurus pollicaris Say from predators by hydroid-colonized shells. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 87, 111–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(85)90084-XCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Brooks, W.R. & Mariscal R.N. (1986). Population variation and behavioral changes in two pagurids in association with the sea anemone Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur). J.Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 103, 275–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(86)90146-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25] Brooks, W.R. & Rittschof D. (1995). Chemical detection and host selection by the symbiotic crab Porcellana sayana. Invertebr. Biol. 114, 180–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3226890CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26] Bruce, J.R., Colman J.S. & Jones N.S. (1963). Marine Fauna of the Isle of Man and its Surrounding Seas. Liverpool, 1–307pp. Google Scholar

  • [27] Brusca, R.C. & Brusca G.J. (2003). Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc. Google Scholar

  • [28] Bush, A.O., Fernández J.C., Esch G.W. & Seed J.R. (2001). Parasitism: The Diversity and Ecology of Animal Parasites. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Google Scholar

  • [29] Buss, L.W. & Yund P.O. (1989). A sibling species group of Hydractinia in the north-eastern United States. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 69, 857–874. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400032215CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30] Cairns, S.D. & Barnard J.L. (1984). Redescription of Janaria mirabilis, a calcified hydroid from the Eastern Pacific. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 83, 1–11. Google Scholar

  • [31] Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,... 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115. Google Scholar

  • [32] Calder, D.R. (1971). Hydroids and hydromedusae of southern Chesapeake Bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Special Paper in Marine Science, 1, 1–125. Google Scholar

  • [33] Capart, A. (1948). Le Lernaeocera branchialis. La cellule, 52, 159–212. Google Scholar

  • [34] Carlgren, O. (1928). Zur Symbiose zwischen Aktinien und Paguriden. Z. Morphol. Okol. Tiere, 12, 165–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00407632CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [35] Carlgren, O. (1938). South African Actinaria and Zoantharia. K. Sven. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 3, 1–148. Google Scholar

  • [36] Carlgren, O. (1949). A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akad. Handlingar, 4, 1–121. Google Scholar

  • [37] Carrington, J.T. & Lovett E. (1881). Notes and observations on British stalk-eyed Crustacea. Zoologist, 5, 97–101, 137–142, 198–205, 301–307, 358–364, 413–418, 455–461. Google Scholar

  • [38] Caruso, T., Falciai L. & Zupo V. (2003). Decapoda Anomura Paguridea: morpho-functional relationships and influence of epibiotic anemones on shell use along a bathymetric cline. Crustaceana, 76, 149–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854003321824503CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39] Cazaux, G. (1961). Signification et origine de l’association entre Hydractinie et Pagure: Rôle des tropismes larvaires dans le développement de l’Hydraire. Bull. Stat. Biol. Arcachon N.S. 13, 1–5. Google Scholar

  • [40] Cerrano, C., Bavestrello G., Puce S. & Sara M. (1998). Biological cycle of Podocoryna exigua (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from a sandy bottom of the Ligurian Sea. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 78, 1101–1111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400044350CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41] Chintiroglou, Ch. & Doumenc D. (1998). Isanthus Homolophilus sp. nov. (Isanthidae: Actiniaria: Anthozoa) from French Polynesia. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 78, 829–834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400044817CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [42] Chintiroglou, Ch., Doumenc D. & Koutsoubas D. (1992). Allométrie d’une nouvelle association entre le Décapode Anomure Pagurus excavatus (Herbst, 1791) et l’Actinie Acontiaire Sagartiogeton undatus (Múller, 1788). Crustaceana, 62, 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854092X00019CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43] Christensen, H.E. (1967). Ecology of Hydractinia echinata (Fleming) (Hydroidea, Athecata): I. Feeding biology. Ophelia, 4, 245–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00785326.1967.10409623CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [44] Christidis, J., Chintiroglou Ch. & Culley M.B. (1997). A study of the populations of Calliactis parasitica (Couch, 1842) in symbiosis with anomuran decapods in Thermaikos Gulf (N. Aegean Sea). Crustaceana, 70, 227–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854097X00861CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45] Conover, M.R. (1976). The influence of some symbionts on the shell-selection behaviour of the hermit crabs, Pagurus pollicarus [sic] and Pagurus longicarpus. Anim. Behav. 24, 191–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(76)80114-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [46] Corliss, J. O. (1979). The ciliated Protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature, 2nd ed. 1–455. (Pergamon Press, New York, NY). Google Scholar

  • [47] Cowles, R.P. (1920). Habits of tropical crustacea: III. Habits and reactions of hermit crabs associated with sea anemones. Philipp. J. Sci. 15, 81–90. Google Scholar

  • [48] Cuadras, J. & Pereira F. (1977). Invertebrates associated with Dardanus arrosor (Anomura, Diogenidae). Vie Milieu, 27, 301–310. Google Scholar

  • [49] Cunningham, C.W., Buss L.W. & Anderson C. (1991). Molecular and geologic evidence of shared history between hermit crabs and the symbiotic genus Hydractinia. Evolution, 45, 1301–1316. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2409881CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [50] Cutress, C.E. & Ross D.M. (1969). The sea anemone Calliactis tricolor and its association with the hermit crab Dardanus venosus. J. Zool. (Lond.), 158, 225–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1969.tb02143.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [51] Cutress, C., Ross D.M. & Sutton L. (1970). The association of Calliactis tricolor with its pagurid, calappid, and majid partners in the Caribbean. Can. J. Zool. 48, 371–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z70-059CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [52] Dales, R.P. (1957). Interrelations of organisms: A. Commensalisim. Mem. Geol. Soc. Amer. 67, 391–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/MEM67V1-p391CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [53] Daly, M., Ardelean A., Cha H.-R., Campbell A.C. & Fautin D.G. (2004). A new species, Adamsia obvolva (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria), from the Gulf of Mexico, and a discussion of the taxonomy of carcinoecium-forming sea anemones. Bull. Mar. Sci. 74, 385–399. Google Scholar

  • [54] Damiani, C.C. (2003). Reproductive costs of the symbiotic hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Buss and Yund) to its hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus (Say). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 288, 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00005-4CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [55] Dechancé, M. & Dufaure J. (1959). Une nouvelle association entre une Actinie et un Pagure. C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 249, 1566–1568. Google Scholar

  • [56] Di Camillo, C.G., Bo M., Puce S., Tazioli S., Froglic C. & Bavestrello G. (2008). The epibiontic assemblage of Geryon longipes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Geryonidae) from the Southern Adriatic Sea. Ital. J. Zool. 75, 29–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11250000701632279CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [57] Doumenc, D. (1975). Actinies bathyales et abyssales de l’océan Atlantique nord. Famille des Hormathiidae (genres Paracalliactis et Phelliactis) et des Actinostolidae (genres Actinoscyphia et Sicyonis). Bull. Mus. nat. Hist. nat. Paris, 3 ser., 287: Zool. 197, 157–204. Google Scholar

  • [58] Doumenc, A.D. & Van Praët M. (1987). Ordre des Actiniaires. Ordre des Ptychodactiniaires. Ordre des Corallimorphaires. In: P-P- Grasse (ed.), Traité de Zoologie (pp. 257–401). Paris: Masson. Google Scholar

  • [59] Dunn, D.F. & Libermann M.H. (1983). Chitin in sea anemone shells. Science, 221, 137–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.221.4606.157CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [60] Dunn, D.F., Devaney D.M. & Roth B. (1980). Stylobates: a shell-forming sea anemone (Coelenterata, Anthozoa, Actiniidae). Pac. Sci. 34, 379–388. Google Scholar

  • [61] Dvoretsky, A.G. & Dvoretsky V.G. (2008). Epifauna associated with the northern stone crab Lithodes maia in the Barents Sea. Polar Biol. 31, 1149–1152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-008-0467-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [62] Edwards, C. (1972). The hydroids and the medusae Podocoryne areolata, P. borealis and P. carnea. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 52, 97–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400018609CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [63] England, K.W. (1971). Actinaria from Mururoa Atoll Tuamotu, Polynesia (Hormathiidae; Calliactis polypus Sagartiidae: Verrilactis n. gen. paguri). Cah. Pacifique, 15, 23–40. Google Scholar

  • [64] Evans, F. (1978). The Marine Fauna of the Cullercoats District No. 6. Coelenterata and Ctenophora. rep. Dove Mar. Lab. 19, 1–165. Google Scholar

  • [65] Faurot, L. (1932). Actinies et pagures etude de psychologie animale. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. 74, 139–154. Google Scholar

  • [66] Fautin, D.G. (1987). Stylobates loisetteae, a new species of shell-forming sea anemone (Coelenterata: Actiniidae) from western Australia. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 45, 1–7. Google Scholar

  • [67] Fernandez-Leborans, G. & Cárdenas C.A. (2009). Epibiotic communities on juvenile king crabs (Lithodes santolla) from subantarctic areas. Polar Biology, 32, 1693–1703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-009-0669-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [68] Fernandez-Leborans, G. & Gabilondo R. (2005). Hydrozoan and protozoan epibionts on two decapod species, Liocarcinus depurator (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761), from Scotland. Zool. Anz. 244, 59–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2005.04.004CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [69] Fernandez-Leborans, G. & Gabilondo R. (2006). Taxonomy and distribution of the hydrozoan and protozoan epibionts on Pagurus bernhardus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Scotland. Acta Zool. 87, 33–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6395.2006.00218.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [70] Fernandez-Leborans, G. & Gabilondo R. (2008). Invertebrate and protozoan epibionts on the velvet swimming crab Liocarcinus puber (Linnaeus, 1767) from Scotland. Acta Zool. 89, 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6395.2007.00287.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [71] Fernandez-Leborans, G. & Herrero Córdoba M.J. (1997). Epibiosis of two sessile protozoan ciliate species on decapod crustaceans. Cytobios, 91, 143–154. Google Scholar

  • [72] Fernandez-Leborans, G. & Tato-Porto M.L. (2000a). A review of the species of protozoan epibionts on crustaceans. I. Peritrich ciliates. Crustaceana, 73, 643–684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854000504705CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [73] Fernandez-Leborans, G. & Tato-Porto M.L. (2000b). A review of the species of protozoan epibionts on crustaceans. I. Suctorian ciliates. Crustaceana, 73, 1205–1237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854000505209CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [74] Fernandez-Leborans, G., Zitzler K. & Gabilondo R. (2006). Protozoan ciliate epibionts on the freshwater shrimp Caridina (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from the Malili lake system on Sulawesi (Indonesia). J. Nat. Hist. 40, 1983–2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930601010861CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [75] Folino, N.C. & Yund P.O. (1998). The distribution of hydroid sibling species on hermit crabs in estuaries in the Gulf of Maine. Estuaries, 21, 829–836. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1353284CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [76] Frey, R.W. (1987). Hermit crabs: Neglected Factors in Taphonomy and Paleoecology. Palaios, 2, 313–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3514756CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [77] Genzano, G.N. & Rodriguez, G.M. 1998. Asscociation between hydroid species and their substrates from the intertidal zone of Mar del Plata (Argentine). Miscellánea Zoológica, 21, 21–29. Google Scholar

  • [78] Glli, J. M., Wervoort W. & Pages F. (1989). Hydroids from the West African coast: Guinea Bissau, Namibia and South Afnca. Scientia Mar. 53, 67–112. Google Scholar

  • [79] Gili, J.M., Abelló P. & Villanueva R. (1993). Epibionts and intermolt duration in the crab Bathynectes piperitus. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 98, 107–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps098107CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [80] Goto, S. (1910). On two species of Hydractinia living in symbiosis with a hermit crab. J. Exp. Zool. 9, 469–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.1400090302CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [81] Goto, R., Hamamura Y. & Kato M. (2007). Obligate commensalism of Curvemysella paula (Bivalvia: Galeommatidae) with hermit crabs. Mar. Biol. 151, 1615–1622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0518-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [82] Grant, W.C. & Pontier P.J. (1973). Fitness in the hermit crab Pagurus acadianus with reference to Hydractinia echinata. Bull.-Mt. Desert Isl. Biol. Lab. 13, 50–53. Google Scholar

  • [83] Haig, J. & Ball E.E. (1988). Hermit crabs from north Australia and eastern Indonesian waters (Crustacea Decapoda: Anomura: Paguroidea) collected during the 1975 Alpha Helix Expedition. Rec. Austral. Mus. 40, 151–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.40.1988.153CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [84] Hamond, R. (1957). Notes on Hydrozoa of the Norfolk Coast. J. Linnean Soc. (Zoology), 43, 294–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1957.tb01555.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [85] Hand, C. (1975). Behaviour of some New Zealand sea anemones and their molluscan and crustacean hosts. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 9, 529–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1975.9515586CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [86] Hartnoll, R.G. (1971). The relationship of an amphipod and a spider crab with the snakelocks anemone. Reports of the Marine Biological Station, Port Erin, 83, 37–42. Google Scholar

  • [87] Hartog, J.C. den (1990). Associated occurrence of Cyclocoeloma tuberculata Miers, 1880 (Decapoda: Majidae) and species of Discosomatidae (Anthozoa: Corallimorpharia). Zool. Med. Leiden, 64,161–168 Google Scholar

  • [88] Hayashi, R. & Tsuji K. (2007). Spatial distribution of turtle barnacles on the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas. Ecol. Res. 23,121–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11284-007-0349-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [89] Hiro, J. (1939). Notes on the animals found on Macrocheira keimpferi De Haan. III. Hydroids. Annot. Zool. Jap. 18, 167–176. Google Scholar

  • [90] Holt, E.W. (1890). Foreign susbtances attached to crabs. Nature, London, 41, 463–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/041463c0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [91] Imafuku, M., Yamamoto T. & Ohta M. (2000). Predation on symbiont sea anemones by their host hermit crab Dardanus pedunculatus. Mar. Fresh. Behaviour Physiol. 33, 221–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10236240009387094CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [92] Ingle, R.W. (1983). Shallow-water crabs. Synop. British Fauna. New Series 25, 1–206. Google Scholar

  • [93] Ingle, R.W. (1996). Shallow-water crabs. Synop. British Fauna. New Series 25, 2nd ed., 1–243. Google Scholar

  • [94] Ingle, R.W. & Christiansen M.E. (2004). Lobsters, mud shrimps and anomuran crabs. Keys and notes for the identification of species. Field Studies Council for Linnaean Soc. London. Shrewbury: Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Assoc. Google Scholar

  • [95] Jensen, K. & Bender K. (1973). Invertebrates associated with snail shells inhabited by Pagurus bernhardus (L.) (Decapoda). Ophelia, 10, 185–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00785326.1972.10430113CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [96] Jones, D.H. (1966). A gymnoblastic hydroid occurring on Sphyrion lumpi (Kröyer). Ann. Magaz. nat. Hist. 9, 173–181. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [97] Jungersen, H.F.E. (1911). On a new gymnoblastic Hydroid (Ichthyocodium sarcotretis epizoic on a new parasitic Copepod (Sarcotretes scopeli) infesting Scopelus glacialis Rhdt. Vidensk. Meddel. fia den naturh. Foren. 64, 9–33. Google Scholar

  • [98] Karlson, R.H. & Cariolou M.A. (1982). Hermit crab shell colonization by Crepidula convexa Say. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 65, 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(82)90171-XCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [99] Karlson, R.H. & Shenk M.A. (1983). Epifaunal abundance, association, and overgrowth patterns on large hermit crab shells. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 70. 55–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(83)90148-XCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [100] Karplus, G.C., Fiedler G.C. & Ramcharan P. (1998). The Intraspecific Fighting Behavior of the Hawaiian Boxer Crab, Lybia edmondsoni -Fighting with Dangerous Weapons?. Symbiosis, 24, 287–302. Google Scholar

  • [101] Key, M.M., Winston J.E., Volpe J.W., Jeffries W.B. & Voris H.K. (1999). Bryozoan fouling of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus at Beaufort, North Carolina. Bull. mar. Sci. 64, 513–533. Google Scholar

  • [102] Kramp, P.L. (1935). Polydyr (Coelenterata): I. Ferskvandspolypper og Goplepolypper. Dan. Fauna, 41, 1–208. Google Scholar

  • [103] Lavaleye, M.S.S. & Hartog J.C. den (1995). A case of associated occurrence of the crab Lauridromia intermedia (Laurie, 1906) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Dromiidae) and the actinian Nemanthus annamensis Carlgren, 1943 (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Nemanthidae). Zool. Med. Leiden, 69, 121–130 Google Scholar

  • [104] Leloup, E. (1931). Un cas d’épibiose de l’hydropolype, Laomedea geniculata (Linné). Bull. Mus. Roy. HIst. Nat. Belg. 7, 1–3. Google Scholar

  • [105] Lemaitre, R. (1996). Hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from Australia: species of Strobopagurus Lemaitre, 1989, Sympagurus Smith, 1883 and two new genera. Rec. Aust. Mus. 48, 163–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.48.1996.286CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [106] Little-Ostarello, G. (1973). Natural history of hydrocoral Allopora californica Verrill (1866). Biol. Bull. 145, 548–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540636CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [107] Lopez-Victoria, M., Barrios L.M., Kraus H. & Osorio L.A. (2004). Nuevos aspectos sobre las relaciones simbióticas entre Dardanus fucosus (Crustacea: Paguridae), Calliactis tricolor (Cnidaria: Hormathiidae) y Porcellana sayana (Crustacea: Porcellanidae). bol. invemar, 33, 1–4. Google Scholar

  • [108] Maldonado, M. & Uriz M.J. (1992). Relationship between macroalgal functional form groups and substrata stability in a subtropical rocky intertidal system. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 74, 13–34. Google Scholar

  • [109] Marine Biological Association, (1957). Plymouth Marine Fauna. Plymouth I–XLIII, 457 pp. Google Scholar

  • [110] Matthews, D.C. (1959). Observations on ova fixation in the hermit crab Eupagurus prideauxii. Pubbl. Stn. Zool. Napoli, 31, 248–263. Google Scholar

  • [111] McGaw, I.J. (2006). Epibionts of symptric species of Cancer crabs in Barkley sound, British Columbia. J. Crust. Biol. 26, 85–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1651/C-2601.1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [112] McLean, R. (1983). Gastropod shells: a dynamic resource that helps shape benthic community structure. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 69, 151–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(83)90065-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [113] Mercando, N.A. & Lytle C.F. (1980). Specificity in the association between Hydractinia echinata and sympatric species of hermit crabs. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole), 159, 337–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1541098CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [114] Millard, N.A.H. (1975). Monograph on the Hydroida of southern Africa. Ann. S. Afr. Mus 68, 1–513. Google Scholar

  • [115] Mills, C.E. (1976). Podocoryne selena, a new species of hydroid from the Gulf of Mexico, and a comparison with Hydractinia echinata. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole), 151, 214–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540715CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [116] Moser, M. & Taylor S. (1978). Effects of the copepod Cardiodectes medusaeus on the lanternfish Stenobrachius leucopsarus with notes on hypercastratiion by the hydroid Hydrichthys sp. Can. J. Zool. 56, 2372–2376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z78-321CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [117] Muirhead, A., Tyler P.A. & Thurston M.H. (1986). Reproductive biology and growth of the genus Epizoanthus (Zoanthidea) from the north-east Atlantic. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 66, 131–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400039709CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [118] Mulisch, M., Harry O.G., Patterson D.J. & Wyatt C. (1986). Folliculinids (Ciliata: Heterotrichida) from Portaferry, County Down, including a new species of Metafolliculina Dons, 1924. Irish nat. J. 22, 1–7. Google Scholar

  • [119] Nogueira, M.J., De Castro M.R. & Haddad M.A. (2006). Calliactis tricolor (Anthozoa, Acontiaria) epibiosis on Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda) at the South of Paraná and North of Santa Catarina coast. Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba, 35, 233–248. Google Scholar

  • [120] Overstreet, R.M. (1983). Metazoan symbionts of crustaceans. In: Bliss DE, editor, The biology of Crustacea (pp. 155–250). London: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-106406-8.50015-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [121] Overstreet, R.M. (1987). Solving parasite-related problems in cultured crustacea. International J. Parasitol. 17, 309–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(87)90105-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [122] Parulekar, A. (1969). Neoaiptasia commensali, gen. et. sp. nov.: an actiniarian commensal of hermit crabs. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 66, 57–62. Google Scholar

  • [123] Paulay. G., Puglisi M.P. & Starmer J.A. (2003). The non-scleractinian Anthozoa (Cnidaria) of the Mariana Islands. Micronesica, 35–36, 138–155. Google Scholar

  • [124] Puce, S., Cerrano C., Di Camillo C.G. & Bavestrello G. (2008). Hydroidomedusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) symbiotic radiation. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 88, 1715–1721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315408002233CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [125] Reaka, M.L. (1978). The effects of an ectoparasitic gastropod, Caledoniella montrouzieri, upon moulting and reproduction of a stomatopod crustacean, Gonodactylus viridis. Veliger, 21, 251–254. Google Scholar

  • [126] Rees, W.J. (1967). A brief survey of the symbiotic associations of Cnidaria and Mollusca. Proc. Malacol. Soc. Lond. 37, 213–231. Google Scholar

  • [127] Reiss, H., Knäuper S. & Kröncke I. (2003). Invertebrate associations with gastropod shells inhabited by Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae)-secondary hard substrate increasing biodiversity in North Sea soft-bottom communities. Sarsia, 88, 404–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00364820310003235CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [128] Remane, A. (1980). Systematiche Zoologie. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. Google Scholar

  • [129] Roper, R.E. (1913). The marine Polyzoa of Northumberland. Reports of the Dove Marine Laboratory, 2, 36–57. Google Scholar

  • [130] Ross, D.M. & Sutton L. (1961). The response of the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica to shells of the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B Biol. Sci. 155, 266–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1961.0070CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [131] Ross. D.M. & Sutton L. (1961). Detachment of sea anemones by commensal hermit crabs and by mechanical and electrical stimuli. Nature, 217, 380–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/217380a0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [132] Ross, D.M. (1979). A behaviour pattern in Pagurus bernhardus L. towards its symbiotic actinian Calliactis parasitica (Couch). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK. 59, 623–630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002531540004563XCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [133] Ross, D.M. & Zamponi M.O. (1982). A symbiosis between Paracalliactis mediterranea n. sp. (Anthozoa-Actiniaria) and Pagarus variabilis A. Milne-Edwards and Bouvier. Vie Milieu, 32, 175–181. Google Scholar

  • [134] Ross, D.M. (1967). Behavioural and ecological relationships between sea anemones and other invertebrates. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 5, 291–316. Google Scholar

  • [135] Ross, D.M. (1970). The commensal association of Calliactis polypus and the hermit crab Dardanus gemmatus in Hawaii. Can. J. Zool. 48, 351–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z70-056CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [136] Ross, D.M. (1971). Protection of hermit crabs (Dardanus spp.) from octopus by commensal sea anemones (Calliactis spp.). Nature, 230, 401–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/230401a0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [137] Ross, D.M. (1983). Symbiotic relations. In: Bliss, D. (Ed.), The Biology of the Crustacea (pp. 163–212). New York: Academic Press Google Scholar

  • [138] Roule, L. (1900). Description d’une nouvelle espèce Méditerranéenne de zoanthidé, commensale des pagures (Palythoa-Gemmaria-Paguricola). Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 25, 120–125. Google Scholar

  • [139] Ruthensteiner, B., Reinicke G.B. & Straube N. (2008). The Type Material of Hydrozoa described by Eberhard Stechow in the Zoologische Staatssammlung München. Spixiana, 31(1), 3–27 Google Scholar

  • [140] Samuelsen, T.J. (1970). The biology of six species of Anomura (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Raunefjorden, Western Norway. Sarsia, 45, 23–52. Google Scholar

  • [141] Sandford, F. (2003). Population dynamics and epibiont associations of hermit crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguroidea) on Dog Island. Mem. Mus. Vic. 60, 45–52. Google Scholar

  • [142] Schijfsma, K. (1935). Observations on Hydractinia echinata (Flem.) and Eupagurus bernhardus (L.). Arch. Neerl. Zool. 1, 261–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187530134X00071CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [143] Schembri, P.J. & McLay C.L. (1983). An annotated key to the hermit crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) of the Otago region (southeastern New Zealand). New Zealand J. Mar. Fresh. Res. 17, 27–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1983.9515984CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [144] Schejter, L. & Mantelatto F.L. (2009). Shelter association between the hermit crab Sympagurus dimorphus and the zoanthid Epizoanthus paguricola in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Acta Zool., DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2009.00440.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [145] Schuchert, P. (1996). The marine fauna of New Zealand: Athecate hydroids and their medusae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). New Zealand Oceanogr. Inst. Mem. 119, 5–538. Google Scholar

  • [146] Schuchert, P. (2007). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 2. Rev. suisse Zool. 114, 195–396. Google Scholar

  • [147] Schuchert, P. (2008). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 3. Rev. suisse Zool. 115, 221–302. Google Scholar

  • [148] Schuchert, P. (2010). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata part 2. Rev. suisse Zool. 117, 337–555. Google Scholar

  • [149] Silberman, J.D., Collins A.G., Gershwin L.-A., Johnson P.J. & Roger A.J. (2004). Ellobiopsids of the Genus Thalassomyces are Alveolates. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 51, 246–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2004.tb00555.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [150] Silva-Neto, I.D. da, Silva Paiva T. da Pedroso R.J., Alexandre C.J. & Migotto A.E. (2012). Redescription of Licnophora chattoni Villeneuve-Brachon, 1939 (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), associated with Zyzzyzus warreni Calder, 1988 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Eur. J. Protistol. 48, 48–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejop.2011.07.004CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [151] Stachowitsch, M. (1980). The epibiotic and endolithic species associated with the gastropod shells inhabited by the hermit crabs Paguristes oculatus and Pagurus cuanensis. P. S. Z. N. Mar. Ecol. 1, 73–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.1980.tb00223.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [152] Števčič, Z. (1966). Z-ivotni kompleks Rakovice Maja squinado Herbst (life complex of spinous spider crab Maja squinado Herbst). Ekologija, 1, 109–119. Google Scholar

  • [153] Strenth, N.E. & Chace F.A. Jr (1995). New records of natant decapods (Crustacea, Palaemonidae) from the south Texas Coast. Texas J. Sci., a 0128663722. Google Scholar

  • [154] Svoboda, A., Stepanjants S.D. & Ljubenkov J. (2006) The genus Bouillonia (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata). Three species from the northern and southern hemispheres, with a discussion of bipolar distribution of this genus. Zool. Med. Leiden, 80–4, 185–206. Google Scholar

  • [155] Teissier, G. (1965). Cnidaires-Cténaires. Inventaire de la Faune Marine de Roscoff. Trav. Stat. Biolog. Roscoff, 16, 1–64. Google Scholar

  • [156] Templeman, W. (1973). First record of the gymnoblastic hydroid, Ichthyocodium sarcotretis, on the copepod Sphyrion lumpi, from redfish of the northwest Atlantic. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada, 30, 1655–1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f73-265CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [157] Threlkeld, S.T., Chiavelli D.A. & Willey R.L. (1993). The organization of zooplankton epibiont communities. Trends Ecol. Evol. 8, 317–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(93)90238-KCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [158] Urzelai, A., Elizalde M., Capellan T., Esteban I., Quiroga A., Zabala Y. & Ibañez M. (1990). Estudio preliminar de las comunidades de Pagurus alatus Fabricius, 1775 y Parapagurus pilosimanus S. I. Smith, 1879 (Crustacea, Decapoda) y Epizoanthus paguriphilus Verrill, 1883 (Anthozoa, Zoantarida) de la fosa de Cap Breton (Golfo de Vizcaya). Lurralde, 13, 193–206. Google Scholar

  • [159] Vader, W., Johannessen O.H. & Christiansen B.O. (1981). A pelagic isopod, Syscenus infelix overgrown with hydroids. Fauna norv. Ser. A2, 47–48. Google Scholar

  • [160] Van Winkle, D.H., Longnecker K. & Blackstone N.W. (2000). The effects of hermit crabs on hydractiniid hydroids. Mar. Ecol. Publ. Sta. Zool. Napoli, 21, 55–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0485.2000.00693.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [161] Viljoen, S. & Van AS, J.G. (1983). A taxonomic study of sessile peritrichians of a small impoundment with notes on their substrate preferences. J. limnol. Soc. Southern Africa, 9. 33–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03779688.1983.9639409CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [162] Walker, S.E. (1988). Taphonomic significance of hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguridea): epifaunal hermit crab — infaunal gastropod example. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 63, 45–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(88)90090-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [163] Wahl, M. (1989). Marine epibiosis. I. Fouling and antifouling: some basic aspects. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 58, 175–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps058175CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [164] Warren, A. & Robson E.A. (1998). The identity and occurrence of Kerona pediculus (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida), a well-known epi-zoite of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Zool. Verh. 323, 235–245. Google Scholar

  • [165] Widmer, C.L., Cailliet G. & Geller J. (2010). The life cycle of Earleria corachloeae n. sp. (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) with epibiotic hydroids on mid-water shrimp. Mar. Biol. 157, 49–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-009-1294-yCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [166] Willey, R.L., Cantrell P.A. & Threlkeld S.T. (1990). Epibiotic flagellates increase the susceptibility of some zooplankton to fish predation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 952–959. http://dx.doi.org/10.4319/lo.1990.35.4.0952CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [167] Yusa, Y., Yamato S., Marumura M. (2001). Ecology of a parasitic bernacle, Koleolepas avis: relationship to the hosts, distribution, left-right asymmetry and reproduction. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 81: 781–788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315401004593CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-10-03

Published in Print: 2013-09-01

Citation Information: Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, Volume 42, Issue 3, Pages 347–357, ISSN (Online) 1897-3191, ISSN (Print) 1730-413X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13545-013-0092-9.

Export Citation

© 2013 Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdańsk, Poland. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Marina Carreiro-Silva, Oscar Ocaña, David Stanković, Íris Sampaio, Filipe M. Porteiro, Marie-Claire Fabri, and Sergio Stefanni
Frontiers in Marine Science, 2017, Volume 4
Yisrael Schnytzer, Yaniv Giman, Ilan Karplus, and Yair Achituv
PeerJ, 2017, Volume 5, Page e2954

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in