Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Agriculture

1 Issue per year

Covered by: Elsevier - SCOPUS
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Comparison of foliar fertilizers and growth regulators on pre-harvest drop and fruit quality of ‘Thompson Navel’ orange

Yaser Mollapur
  • Department of Horticulture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Seied Mehdi Miri
  • Department of Horticulture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ebrahim Hadavi
  • Department of Horticulture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-12-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2016-0015


An investigation was carried out to determine the ability of foliar fertilizers and growth regulators to prevent pre-harvest drop and enhance navel orange fruit quality. Fifteen year old trees of the Thompson Navel orange variety were sprayed with aqueous solutions of one of the following: methanol (0.13%), calcium nitrate (0.25%), zinc sulfate (1%) + urea (0.5%), fermented sugar- cane extract (2.8%), salicylic acid (1 or 3 mM), citric acid (5 mM), or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (0.002%). Results indicated that foliar treatment with 2,4-D reduced fruit drop (2.6%) as compared to the control (15.2%). Fruit decay was delayed and flavor improved by 5 mM citric acid. Weight loss was reduced after 3mM salicylic acid applica- tion, while methanol (0.13%), salicylic acid (1 and 3 mM) and citric acid (5 mM) caused a delay in fruit coloring.

Keywords: Orange; Fruit drop; Foliar treatments


  • [1] Agusti M., Martinez-Fuentes A., Mesejo C., Citrus fruit quality. Physiological basis and techniques of improvement. Agrociencia., 2002, 6(2): 1-16 Google Scholar

  • [2] Akhlaghi Amiri N., Arzani K., Barzegar M., Asadi Kangarshahi A., Physiology of pre-harvest drop in Thompson Navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Acta Hort., 2012a, 928, 287-290 Google Scholar

  • [3] Akhlaghi Amiri N., Asadi Kangarshahi A., Arzani K. Reducing of citrus losses by spraying of synthetic auxins. Int. J. Agri. Crop Sci., 2012b, 4(22): 1720-1724 Google Scholar

  • [4] Almeida I.M.L.de., Rodrigues J.D., Ono E.O., Application of plant growth regulators at pre-harvest for fruit development of ‘Pera’ oranges. Braz. Arch. Bio. Tech., 2004, 47(4): 511-520 Google Scholar

  • [5] Amro S.M.S., Effect of algae extract and zinc sulfate foliar spray on production and fruit quality of orange tree cv. Valencia. IOSR J. Agri. Veter. Sci., 2015, 8(9): 51-62 Google Scholar

  • [6] Anthony M.F., Coggins C.W., NAA and 3,5,6-TPA control mature fruit drop in California citrus. HortSci., 2001, 36(7): 1296-1299 Google Scholar

  • [7] Babalar M., Asghari M., Talaei A., Khosroshahi A., Effect of pre- and postharvest salicylic acid treatment on ethylene production, fungal decay and overall quality of Selva strawberry fruit. Food Chem., 2007, 105(2): 449-453 Google Scholar

  • [8] Barakai-Golan R., Postharvest disease of fruits and vegetables. Elsevier Science, 2001 Google Scholar

  • [9] Colaric M., Veberic R., Stampar F., Hudina F., Evaluation of peach and nectarine fruit quality and correlations between sensory and chemical attributes. J. Sci. Food Agri., 2005, 85: 2611-2616 Google Scholar

  • [10] Davies F.S., Fruit drop problems of citrus. Gainesville, 1986 Google Scholar

  • [11] Davies F.S., Albrigo L.G., Citrus. CAB International, 1998 Google Scholar

  • [12] De Souza R.B., De Menezes J.A.S., De Souza R., De F.R., Dutra E.D., De Morais Jr M.A., Mineral composition of the sugarcane juice and its influence on the ethanol fermentation. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2015, 175: 209-222 Google Scholar

  • [13] Heins R.D., Blakely N., Influence of ethanol on ethylene biosynthesis and flower senescence of cut carnation. Sci. Hort., 1980, 13(4): 361-369 Google Scholar

  • [14] Ilic Z., Polevaya Y., Tuvia-Alkalai S., Copel A., Fallik E., A short pre-storage hotwater rinse and brushing reduces decay development in tomato, while maintaining its quality. Trop. Agri. Res. Ext., 2001, 4: 1-6 Google Scholar

  • [15] Jaafari N., Hadavi E., Growth and essential oil yield of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as affected by foliar spray of citric acid and salicylic acid. Z Arzeni- Gewurzpfla. 2012, 17 (2): 80-83 Google Scholar

  • [16] Jiang Y., Pen L., Li J., Use of citric acid for shelf life and quality maintenance of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut. J. Food Engineer., 2004, 63(3): 325-328 Google Scholar

  • [17] Khademi Z., Ershadi A., Postharvest application of salicylic acid improves storability of peach (Prunus persica cv. Elberta) fruits. Int. J .Agri. Crop Sci., 2013, 5(6): 651-655 Google Scholar

  • [18] Kim I.S., Choi C.D., Lee H.J., Byun J.K., Effects of aminoethoxyvinylglycine on preharvest drop and fruit quality of ‘Mibaekdo’ peaches. Acta Hort., 2004, 653: 173-178 Google Scholar

  • [19] Ladaniya M.S., Citrus fruit, biology, technology and evaluation. Academic Press, 2008 Google Scholar

  • [20] Latifa A., Idriss T., Hassan B., Mohammed Amine S., El Hassane B., Aoumar Abdellah A.B., Effects of organic acids and salts on the development of Penicillium italicum, The causal agent of citrus blue mold. Plant Path. J., 2011, 10(3): 99-107 Google Scholar

  • [21] Leslie C.A., Romani R.J., Inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis by salicylic acid. Plant Physio., 1988, 88: 833-837 Google Scholar

  • [22] Malundo T.M.M., Shewfelt R.L., Scott J.W., Flavor quality of fresh tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) as affected by sugar and acid levels. Postharvest Bio. Tech., 1995, 6(1-2): 103-110 Google Scholar

  • [23] Martini C., Verruma-Bernardi M.R., Ribeiro Borges M.T.M., Correia Margarido L.A., Ceccato-Antonini S.R., Yeast composition of sugar cane juice in relation to plant varieties and seasonality. Biosci. J., 2011, 27(5): 710-717 Google Scholar

  • [24] Modise D.M., Likuku A.S., Thuma M., Phuti R., The influence of exogenously applied 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on fruit drop and quality of navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L.). Afr. J. Biotech., 2009, 8(10): 2131-2137 Google Scholar

  • [25] Nartvaranant P., Physiological changes in pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars ‘Thong Dee’ and ‘Khao Nam Phueng’. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech., 2012, 34 (4): 367-374 Google Scholar

  • [26] Paliyath G., Murr D.P., Handa A.K., Lurie S., Postharvest biology and technology of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Wiley- Blackwell, 2008 Google Scholar

  • [27] Pao S., Petracek P.D., Shelf life extension of peeled oranges by citric acid treatment. Food Microb., 1997, 14(5): 485-491 Google Scholar

  • [28] Purvis A.C., Barmore C.R., Involvement of ethylene in chlorophyll degradation in peel of citrus fruits. Plant Physio., 1981, 68(4): 854-856 Google Scholar

  • [29] Russo R.O., Organic foliar fertilizer prepared from fermented fruits on growth of Vochsia guatemalensis in the Costa Rican humid tropics. J. Sustainable Agri., 2001, 18(2/3): 161-166 Google Scholar

  • [30] Sharon-Asa L., Shalit M., Frydman A., Bar E., Holland D., Or E., et al. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis, isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene. Plant J., 2003, 36: 664-674 Google Scholar

  • [31] Silva I.G., Martins G.A.de.S., Borges S.V., Marques G.R., Regis I.S., Influence of passion fruit albedo, citric acid, and the pulp/sugar ratio on the quality of banana preserves. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos. 2012, 32(2): 267-273 Google Scholar

  • [32] Simson S.P., Straus M.C., Post-harvest technology of horticultural crops. Oxford Book Company, 2010 Google Scholar

  • [33] Sobrinho V.D.S., Da Silva V.C.F., Cereda M.P., Fermentation of sugar cane juice (Sacharum officinarum) cultivar RB 7515 by wild yeasts resistant to UVC. J. Biotech. Biodiver., 2011, 29(1): 13-21 Google Scholar

  • [34] Sugar D., Righetti T.L., Sanchez E.E., Khemira H., Management of nitrogen and calcium in pear trees for enhancement of fruit resistance to postharvest decay. Hort. Tech., 1992, 2(3): 382-387 Google Scholar

  • [35] Tian S., Qin G., Li B., Wang Q., Meng X., Effects of salicylic acid on disease resistance and postharvest decay control of fruits. Stewart Postharvest Rev., 2007, 3(6): 1-7 Google Scholar

  • [36] Villalobos-Acuna M.G., Biasi W.V., Flores S., Mitcham E.J., Elkins R.B., Willits N.H., Preharvest application of 1-Methylcyclopropene influences fruit drop and storage potential of ‘Bartlett’ pears. HortSci., 2010, 45(4): 610–616 Google Scholar

  • [37] Wolucka B.A., Goossens A., Inze D., Methyljasmonate stimulates the de novo biosynthesis of vitamin C in plant cell suspensions. J. Exp. Bot., 2005, 56: 2527-2538 Google Scholar

  • [38] Yasin Ashraf M., Ashraf M., Akhtar M., Mahmood K., Saleem M., Improvement in yield, quality and reduction in fruit drop in Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) by exogenous application of plant growth regulators, potassium and zinc. Pak. J. Bot., 2013, 45: 433-440 Google Scholar

  • [39] Zeng K., Cao J., Jiang W., Enhancing disease resistance in harvested mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Matisu’) fruit by salicylic acid. J. Sci. Food Agri., 2006, 86(5): 694-698 Google Scholar

  • [40] Zhao Z.H., Liu M.J., Liu P., Liu X.Y., Dai L., Yang L., et al. Effects of citric acid treatments on the postharvest fruit quality of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ‘Linyilizao’. Acta Hort., 2009, 840: 513-516 Google Scholar

  • [41] Zheng Y., Zhang Q., Effects of polyamines and salicylic acid on postharvest storage of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin. Acta Hort., 2004, 632: 317-320 Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-09-02

Accepted: 2016-11-10

Published Online: 2016-12-12

Citation Information: Open Agriculture, Volume 1, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2391-9531, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2016-0015.

Export Citation

©2016 Yaser Mollapur et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in