Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Agriculture

1 Issue per year

Covered by: Elsevier - SCOPUS
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-9531
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Farmers′ perceptions, believes, knowledge and management practices of potato pests in South-Kivu Province, eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo

Théodore Munyuli
  • Corresponding author
  • Laboratory of Entomology & Plant Health Management, Departments of Biology & Environment; National Center for Research in Natural Sciences, CRSN-Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, South-Kivu Province, eastern of DR Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kana Cihire
  • Laboratory of Entomology & Plant Health Management, Departments of Biology & Environment; National Center for Research in Natural Sciences, CRSN-Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, South-Kivu Province, eastern of DR Congo, Democatic Republic of Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dodo Rubabura
  • Laboratory of Entomology & Plant Health Management, Departments of Biology & Environment; National Center for Research in Natural Sciences, CRSN-Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, South-Kivu Province, eastern of DR Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kajivunira Mitima
  • Laboratory of Entomology & Plant Health Management, Departments of Biology & Environment; National Center for Research in Natural Sciences, CRSN-Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, South-Kivu Province, eastern of DR Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Yajuamungu Kalimba
  • Department of Environments and Geography, Institute of Higher Education, ISP-Nyiragongo, Goma, North-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo, Democtratic Republic of Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nabintu Tchombe
  • Department of Food, Nutrition & Dietetics, Institute of Higher Education in Medical Techniques, ISTM-Bukavu, South-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Emmanuel Kizungu Mulangane
  • Centre de Recherche Agro-alimentaire, CRA-Lwiro, South-Kivu Province, eastern of DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ombeni Birhashwira
  • Department of Food, Nutrition & Dietetics, Institute of Higher Education in Medical Techniques, ISTM-Bukavu, South-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Manderena Umoja
  • Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universite Libre des Grands Lacs, ULGL- Bukavu, South-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Eloi Cinyabuguma
  • National Institute for Agricultural Research and Studies, INERA-Mulungu, South-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Théodore Tshilumba Mukadi
  • National Institute for Agricultural Research and Studies, INERA-Gandajika, Lomami Province, Central DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Meschac Tshibingu Ilunga
  • National Institute for Agricultural Research and Studies, INERA-Kipopo, Haut-Katanga Province, Southern DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Remy Tshibingu Mukendi
  • Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Notre Dame de la Lomami, Kabinda, Lomami Province, Central DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-09-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2017-0040

Abstract

Based on previous complaints and reports from farmers to researchers about potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) problems in South-Kivu Province, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (RDCongo), there was a need to understand farmers′ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and current management practice challenges. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for the Province. Hence, using a semi-structured questionnaire, a farm household survey was conducted among 300 potato farmers in six sites belonging to 2 territories (Kabare, Kalehe) of South- Kivu Province from June to August 2015. Insect pests, diseases and price fluctuations were among the highest ranked constraints in potato production by farmers. Cutworms (Agrotis spp.), aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer), and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) were the most severe insect pests in medium altitude zones (1600-1950m). Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard) were the pests of high importance reported from sites of very high altitude (2000-2600m). Major yield losses were mostly attributed to late blight (Phytophthora infestans Mont. de Bary) and or insect pests and reached 65-90% without chemical control in most study sites. On average, farmers had little knowledge about pest characteristics (bio-ecology, behavior,…). Most (71.5%) farmers were not able to correctly identify insect pest species names. Sometimes, two or more species had the same local name. There was a great confusion between damages (attacks) due to pests, diseases and environmental stresses (rains, soil nutrient deficiency) among farmers. Very few (18.5%) farmers interviewed knew with precision some insect pests. Most (80%) farmers did not know what natural enemies of insect pests and IPM were. Seasonal pest outbreak and emerging new pests were phenomenon related to previous long lasting and repetitive civil wars (1995-2016). Farmers (62.8%) perceived that invasion and emergence of new potato pests could be linked to the smoke of bullets, to climate variability and to uncontrolled introduction of new planting materials. There was a confusion between emergency and resurgence of classical pests. In some cases, there was resurgence of classical pests due to resistance to some pesticides. Resistance to pesticide was mainly because farmers were heavily applying pesticides prior to receiving advice from extension workers about wise and safer application of pesticides. The level of severity of potato pest incidence was perceived by farmers as extremely high (68.2%) as compared to the situation 20 years (1995-2016) ago. Current farmers′ main response to controlling pests in potato is to apply hazardous, high toxic insecticides that pollute the environment. The predominant control methods were use of fungicides combined (35.7%) or not (64.4%) to insecticides. Potato production in eastern DRCongo is a pesticide dependent crop, according to farmers. This lack of knowledge about environmentally friendly control methods of pests, called for training of both farmers and extension workers in insect pest identification, collection, biology, behavior, ecology, monitoring and control approaches. Empowering farmers with knowledge about insect pests is essential for the reduction of pesticide misuse and uptake of more environmentally friendly approaches like IPM and related strategies (climate smart and Bt-varieties). Field surveys would need follow-up in order to assess the actual field infestation rates and intensities of each insect pest (determine economic injury threshold per species) and develop warning/alerting methods when there are outbreaks in the potato growing zones of eastern DRCongo. There was a call for breeders to develop new varieties that are biotic- abiotic tolerant and which respond to socioeconomic desire of producers and consumers.

Keywords : Potato; Indigenous knowledge; Pest Status; IPM; South-Kivu Province; eastern DRCongo

References

  • Abamecha M.H., Participatory variety selection and variability of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varieties at Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia, MSc Thesis, Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia, 2013, 100pp.Google Scholar

  • Abate T., van Huis A., Ampofo J.K.O., Pest Management Strategies in Traditional Agriculture: An African Perspective. Annual Review of Entomology, 2000, 45, 631-659Google Scholar

  • Alcón J.A., Impacts of soil management practices on soil fertility in potato-based cropping systems in the Bolivian Andean highlands. PhD dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia, USA, 2010, 274pp.Google Scholar

  • Alyokhin A., Mota-Sanchez D., Baker M., Snyder W.E., Menasha S., Whalon S., Dively G., Moarsi W.F., The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control. Pest Management Science, 2015, 71, 343-356Google Scholar

  • Anonymous, Major Potato Diseases, Insects, and Nematodes, International Potato Center, Lima, Peru, 1996, 61pp., ISBN 92-9060-179-5Google Scholar

  • Biruk M., Response of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Fertilizer Application and Post-Harvest Tuber Treatment with Plant Essential Oil Extracts in North-Eastern Ethiopia, PhD dissertation, Haramaya University , Ethiopia, 2015, 180pp.Google Scholar

  • Dersseh W.M., Gebresilase Y.T., Schulte R.P.O., Struik P.C., The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia: Input, Output and Constraints. Am. J. Potato Res. , 2016, 93, 436 - 447Google Scholar

  • Devaux A, Ordinola M, and Horton D (Edts) (2011) Innovation for Development: The Papa Andina Experience, International Potato Center, Lima, Peru, 441 pages, ISBN: 978-92-9060-410-5Google Scholar

  • Ephrem G., Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Research, 2015, 3(1), 34-42Google Scholar

  • Fernandes F.L., Bacci L., Fernandes M.S., Impact and Selectivity of Insecticides to Predators and Parasitoids. Entomo. Brasilis, 2010, 3(1), 01-10Google Scholar

  • Ghislain M., Lagnaoui A., Walker A., Fulfilling the Promise of Bt Potato in Developing Countries. Journal of New Seeds, 2003, 5(2-3), 93-113, DOI: 10.1300/J153v05n02_02CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gildemacher P.R., Schulte-Geldermann E., Borus D., Demo P., Kinyae P., Mundia P., Struik P.C., Seed Potato Quality Improvement through Positive Selection by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya. Potato Research, 2011, 54, 253-266CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gildemacher P.R., Kaguongo W., Ortiz O., Tesfaye A., Woldegiorgis G., Wagoire W.W., Kakuhenzire R., Kinyae P.M., Nyongesa M., Struik P.C., Leeuwis C., Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis Potato Research, 2009, 52, 173-205CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Giordanengo P., Vincent C., Alyokhin A., Insect Pests of Potato, Global Perspectives on Biology and Management Elsevier Inc, Wyman Street, Waltham, USA, 2013, 633pp., ISBN: 978-0-12-386895-4Google Scholar

  • Guenthner J., Goolsby J., Greenway G., Use and Cost of Insecticides to Control Potato Psyllids and Zebra Chip on Potatoes. Southwestern Entomologist, 2012, 37(3), 263-270CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Halterman D., Guenthner J., Collinge S., Butler N., Douches D., Biotech Potatoes in the 21st Century: 20 Years since the First Biotech Potato. Am. J. Potato Res., 2016, 93, 1-20CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kakuhenzire R., development of decision support tools for integrated management of potato late blight in the highlands of Uganda. PhD dissertation, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, 2009, 175pp.Google Scholar

  • Karanja A.M., Analysis of rainfall variability on irish potato production in Ol-Joro-Orok division, Nyandarua County, Kenya, MSc Thesis, Kenyatta University, 2013, 105pp.Google Scholar

  • Kehinde T., Amusan B., Ayansola A., Oyelade S., Adu A., Status of insect diversity conservation in Nigeria: a review. Ife Journal of Science, 2014, 16(2), 319-330Google Scholar

  • Kirub A. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Seed Potato Tuber Production and Dissemination Experiences, Challenges and Prospects, 12-14 March 2012, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 2013, 338pp.Google Scholar

  • Kolech S.A., Halseth D., De Jong W., Perry K., Wolfe D., Tiruneh F.M., Schulz S., Potato Variety Diversity, Determinants and Implications for Potato Breeding Strategy in Ethiopia. Am. J. Potato Res., 2015, 92, 551-566Google Scholar

  • Kromann P., Pradel W., Cole D., Taipe A., Forbes G.A., Use of the Environmental Impact Quotient to Estimate Health and Environmental Impacts of Pesticide Usage in Peruvian and Ecuadorian Potato Production. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 581-591Google Scholar

  • Kroschel J., Koch W., Studies on the population dynamics of the potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae) in the Republic of Yemen. Journal of Applied Entomology, 1994, 118, 327-341Google Scholar

  • Kumari V., Molecular studies on soluble acid invertase in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Thapar University, Punjab, India, PhD dissertation, 2012, 160pp.Google Scholar

  • Lehtonen M.J., Rhizoctonia solani as a potato pathogen-variation of isolates in Finland and host response, PhD dissertation, University of Helsinki, Finland, 2009, 81pp.Google Scholar

  • Lutaladio N., Castaldi L., Potato: The hidden treasure. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2009, 22, 491-493CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mala WA, Geldenhuys CJ, Prabhu R (2012) Perceptions of Climate Variability and Pest-Disease Incidence on Crops and Adaptive Forest-Agricultural Practices. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 34(1): 53-67CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mancini F., Impact of Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field Schools on health, farming systems, the environment, and livelihoods of cotton growers in Southern India. Doctoral thesis, Biological Farming Systems group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 2006, 124pp., ISBN 90-8504-388-3Google Scholar

  • Mauceri M., Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Technologies: A case study of potato farmers in Carchi, Ecuador. MSc Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA, 2004, 109pp.Google Scholar

  • Meinzen-Dick R.S., Devaux A., Antezana I., Underground assets: potato biodiversity to improve the livelihoods of the poor. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 2009, 7(4), 235-248CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Messiha N.A.S., van Bruggen A.H.C., van Diepeningen A.D., de Vos O.J., Termorshuizen A.J., Tjou-Tam-Sin N.N.A., Janse J.D., Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types. Eur. J. Plant Pathol., 2007, 119, 367-381Google Scholar

  • Midega C.A.O., Nyang’au I.M., Pittchar J., Birkett M.A., Pickett J.A., Borges M., Khan Z.R., Farmers’ perceptions of cotton pests and their management in western Kenya. Crop Protection, 2012, 42, 193-201Google Scholar

  • Mpogole G., Round potato production in southern highlands of Tanzania: market preferences, farmers’ variety selection, and profitability. PhD dissertation, Sokoine University of agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, 2014, 214pp.Google Scholar

  • Mugisha-Kamatenesi M., Deng A.L., Ogendo J.O., Omolo E.O., Mihale M.J., Otim M., Buyungo J.P., Bett P.K., Indigenous knowledge of field insect pests and their management around lake Victoria basin in Uganda. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2008, 2(8), 342-348Google Scholar

  • Munyaneza J.E., Crosslin J.M., Buchman J.L., Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli , in South Central Washington. Am. J. Pot Res, 2009, 86, 513 - 518Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Assessment of the current status of pesticide use, trade and regulation and outline of action plans for safer application of pesticides in DRCongo. A draft consultancy report submitted to The Cadmus Group/GEMS under ther PERSUAP-USAID/RDCongo mission-wide agricultural activities in North-Kivu and South-Kivu Provinces, 2016, 222pp.Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Luther G.C., Kyamanywa S., Effects of cowpea cropping systems and insecticides on arthropod predators in Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Crop Protection, 2007, 26, 114-126Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Kyamanywa S., Luther G.C., Effects of cropping system and insecticide application on the incidence of arthropod parasitoids of cowpea insect pests in Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection, 2009, 4(1), 76-90Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Luther G.C., Kyamanywa S., Effects of groundnut genotypes and insecticides on arthropod predators in Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bulletin of Insectology, 2008a, 67, 14-26Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Kyamanywa S., Luther G.C., Capability of Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to prey on Aphis craccivora K. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in eastern and central Africa. Agronomie africaine, 2008b, 20(1), 57-66Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., On-farm storages participatory evaluation and validation of the capability of native botanicals for control of bean bruchids (Acanthoscelides obtectus L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in South-Kivu province, eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo. Tropicultura, 2009, 27(3), 174-183Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Farmers’ perceptions of pollinators’ importance in coffee production in Uganda. Agricultural Sciences, 2001, 2(3), 318-333Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Kyamanywa S., Luther G.C., Feeding behavior of ladybeetles on Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Eastern and Central Africa. Indus Journal of Biological Sciences, 2006, 3(1), 578-585Google Scholar

  • Munyuli T.M.B., Local inhabitants’ control strategies of crop pests in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo by exploiting the local plant diversity species. Delpinoa, 2002, 44, 65-74Google Scholar

  • Murniece I., Kruma Z., Skrabule I., Vaivode A., Carotenoids and Phenols of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Potato Varieties. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 2013, 4(5), 341-348Google Scholar

  • Nathaniels N.Q.R., Sijaona M.E.R., Shoo J.A.E., Katinila N., IPM for control of cashew powdery mildew in Tanzania. I: Farmers’ crop protection practices, perceptions and sources of information. International Journal of Pest Management, 2003, 49(1), 25-36, DOI: 10.1080/713867836CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nyirenda S.P., Sileshi G.W., Belmain S.R., Kamanula J.F., Mvumi B.M., Sola P., Nyirenda G.K.C., Stevenson P.C., Farmers’ ethno-ecological knowledge of vegetable pests and their management using pesticidal plants in Northern Malawi and Eastern Zambia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2011, 6(6), 1525-1537Google Scholar

  • Obidiegwu J.E., Flath K., Gebhardt C., Managing potato wart: a review of present research status and future perspective. Theor. Appl. Genet., 2014, 127, 763-780Google Scholar

  • Okello J.J., Zhou Y., Kwikiriza N., Ogutu S., Barker I., SchulteGeldermann E., Atieno E., Ahmed J.T., Productivity and food security effects of using of certified seed potato: the case of Kenya’s potato farmers. Agric. & Food Secur., 2017, 6, 25, 9pp., DOI 10.1186/s40066-017-0101-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Okonya J.S., Mwanga R., Syndikus K., Mwanga R.O.M., Kroschel J., Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers’ perceptions of their importance and control practices. SpringerPlus, 2014, 3(1), 303, 10pp.Google Scholar

  • Olanya O.M., El-Bedewy R., Adipala E., Hakiza J.J., Namanda S., Kakuhenzire R., Wagoire W.W., Angiyah T., Karinga J., Ewell P., Lungaho C., Estimation of yield loss caused by late blight and the effects of environmental factors on late blight severity in Kenya and Uganda. African Crop Science Proceedings, 2002, 5, 455-460Google Scholar

  • Ortiz O., Garrett K.A., Heath J.J., Orrego R., Nelson R.J., Management of Potato Late Blight in the Peruvian Highlands: Evaluating the Benefits of Farmer Field Schools and Farmer Participatory Research. Plant Disease, 2004, 88(5), 565-571Google Scholar

  • Ortiz V., Phelan S., Mullins E., A temporal assessment of nematode community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere of cisgenic Phytophthora infestans-resistant potatoes. BMC Ecol., 2016, 16, 55, 1-23, DOI 10.1186/s12898-016-0109-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pacifico D., Paris R., Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance? Sustainability, 2016, 8, 1054, 1-17, doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pandey N.K., Singh D.K., Kumar R., Summer School on Current Trends in Quality Potato Production, Processing & Marketing. Central Potato Research Institute, Indian council of Agricultural Research, Shimla, India, 2014, 262pp.Google Scholar

  • Paredes M (2010) Peasants, Potatoes, Pesticides. Heterogeneity in the context of Agricultural Modernization in Highland Andres in Ecuador, PhD dissertation, Wageningen University, 344 pagesGoogle Scholar

  • Parsa S., Morse S., Bonifacio A., Chancellor T.C., Condori B., Crespo-Perez V., Hobbs S.L.A., Kroschel J., Ba M.N., Rebaudo F., Sherwood S.G., Vanek S.J., Faye E., Herrera M.A., Dangles O., Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, 111(10), 3889-3894Google Scholar

  • Pellegrini F., Evaluation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) adoption in potato production using the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. A qualitative study from central Ecuador. MSc Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, 2013, 70pp.Google Scholar

  • Randriantsalama A.R., Randrianaivoarivony J.M., Ramalanjaona V.L., L’utilisation de la lutte chimique et de la resistance varietale contre le mildiou de la pomme de terre a Madagascar. African Crop Science Journal, 2014, 22(4), 959-968Google Scholar

  • Romero A.G.H., Population densities of pests and natural enemies in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in a diverse strip cropping system in the Netherlands, MSc Thesis, Wageningen University, Netherlands, 2016, 57pp.Google Scholar

  • Rondon S.I., the Potato tuberworm: A Literature Review of Its Biology, Ecology, and Control. Am. J. Pot. Res., 2010, 87, 149 - 166Google Scholar

  • Salami A.O., Popoola O.O., Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2007, 52(1), 17-31Google Scholar

  • Scott G.J., Suarez V., Growth rates for potato in India and their implications for industry. Potato Journal, 2011, 38(2), 100-112Google Scholar

  • Scott G.J., Suarez V., Limits to Growth or Growth to the Limits? Trends and Projections for Potatoes in China and Their Implications for Industry. Potato Research, 2012, 55, 135-156Google Scholar

  • Segura H.R., Barrera J.F., Morales H., Nazar A., Farmers’ Perceptions, Knowledge, and Management of Coffee Pests and Diseases and Their Natural Enemies in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology, 2004, 97(5), 1491-1499CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sileshi G., Teriesa J., Tuber damage by potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in the field in eastern Africa. International Journal of Pest Management, 2001, 47 (2), 109-113CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Singh D., Kumar S., Singh R.P., Assessment of adoption level of potato growers and their adoption gap in potato production technology. Journal of Rural & Agricultural Research, 2008, 8(2) 40-43Google Scholar

  • Sinzogan A.A.C., Van Huis A., Kossou D.K., Jiggins J., Vodouhe S., Farmers’ knowledge and perception of cotton pests and pest control practices in Benin: results of a diagnostic study. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 2004, 52(3-4), 285-303CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Steyn J.M., Haverkort A.J., Franke A.C., Engelbrecht F.A., van der Waals J.E., Kruger K., Impact of different climate change scenarios on future potato production in South Africa: eastern Free State, Limpopo & Sandveld. Final Report, 2014, 55pp.Google Scholar

  • Tantowijoyo W., van de Fliert E., All about potatoes , an ecological guide to potato integrated crop management. International Potato Center (CIP) & FAO Regional Vegetable IPM Program in South and Southeast Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, 2006, 90pp.Google Scholar

  • Tanzubil P.B., Insect pests of sweet potato in the Sudan savanna zone of Ghana. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2015, 3(2), 124-126Google Scholar

  • Travis Elli M., The Impact of Text Messages on Adoption and Knowledge of Integrated Pest Management Practices: A Randomized Control Trial Study of Potato Farmers in Carchi, Ecuador. MSc Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA, 2015, 118pp.Google Scholar

  • Unger J., Evaluation of local knowledge applied by farmers towards management of crop pests and diseases in the Masaka region, Uganda, MSc Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2014, 100pp.Google Scholar

  • Venter C., Inheritance of freezing stress in South African potato (Solanum tuberosum) germplasm, MSc Thesis, University of the Free State, Bioemfontein, RSA, 2006, 121pp.Google Scholar

  • Were H.K., Kabira J.N., Kinyua Z.M., Olubayo F.M., Karinga J.K., Aura J., Lees A.K., Cowan G.H., Torrance L ., Occurrence and Distribution of Potato Pests and Diseases in Kenya. Potato Research, 2013, 56(4), 325-342CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Williamson S., Little A., Ali M.A., Kimani M., Meir C., Oruko L., Aspects of cotton and vegetable farmers’ pest management decision-making in India and Kenya. International Journal of Pest Management, 2003, 49(3), 187-198CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-01-09

Accepted: 2017-04-11

Published Online: 2017-09-02

Published in Print: 2017-08-28


Citation Information: Open Agriculture, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 362–385, ISSN (Online) 2391-9531, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2017-0040.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in