Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Agriculture

1 Issue per year

Covered by: Elsevier - SCOPUS
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-9531
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Economic Evaluation of Cookie made from blend of Brewers′ Spent Grain (BSG), Groundnut cake and Sorghum Flour

Babatunde Olawoye
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Damilola Mercy Adeniyi
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Abimbola Olamide Oyekunle / Oseni Kadiri
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Samson Olumide Fawale
Published Online: 2017-09-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2017-0043

Abstract

Bakery and pastry products such as cookies are usually produced from wheat flour and as such contribute to high foreign exchange for tropical countries where such cereal is not cultivated. In view of this, we evaluated the engineering economics for the utilization of dried brewers′ spent grain, groundnut cake and sorghum flour in the industrial production of cookies. The production was based on the assumption that the cash flow was uniform over the plant life (i.e. 10 years) with no salvage value. The equipment required for the production process was identified and estimates obtained from equipment manufactures. The production of the cookies was based on constant mass flow rate of 90 packets/min. The effects of uncertainties on cookie production were evaluated by varying the operation days (330, 300 and 250 days) and also by varying the price of some key variables required for the production processes. The results indicate that the capital cost (fixed and working capital) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$1.39×106 and US$10.08×106/year, respectively. The after tax annual revenue was US$1.63×106/yr. The return on investment (ROI), single payback period (SPBP), discounted payback period, gross margin and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 63%, 1.58 years, 2.08 years, 23% and 77.52%, respectively. The result also showed that the production plant is feasible and could be operated for 330, 300 and 250 days. The difference between operation times lies in the profitability, which decreases as the number of days reduces. Based on the result of this analysis, brewers’ spent grain, groundnut cake, and sorghum flour can be utilized in industrial production of cookies with guaranteed profitability.

Keywords : Economic evaluation; Brewers′ spent grain; Groundnut cake; Sorghum flour; Return of investment; Internal rate of return

References

  • Agama-Acevedo E., Islas-Hernandez J.J., Pacheco-Vargas G., Osorio-Diaz P., Bello-Perez L.A., Starch digestibility and glycemic index of cookies partially substituted with unripe banana flour, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2012, 46, 177-182Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Coulson J.M. and Richardson J.F., Chemical Engineering, vol. 6, Fourth Edition. Pergamon Press, New York, 2005Google Scholar

  • Dabija A. and Sion I., Spent Grains Qualitative Estimation - By products of Beer Industry, Processes and Technologies, 2005, 11(2), 267-270Google Scholar

  • Fastnaught C.E., Barley fiber. In: Handbook of Dietary Fiber (edited by Cho S, Dreher ML, Cho SS). New York: Marcel Dekker, 2001Google Scholar

  • Fillaudeau L., Blanpain-Avet P., Daufin, G., Water, wastewater and waste management in brewing industries, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2006, 14, 463- 471CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Huige N.J., Brewery by-products and effluents, in: Hardwick, W.A. (Ed.), Handbook of Brewing. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994Google Scholar

  • Igbabul B.D., Benbella M.I., Etietop N. U., Physicochemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from composite flours of wheat, cocoyam and African yam beans, Journal of Food Research, 2015, 4(2), 150-158Google Scholar

  • Ilori M.O., Layokun S.K., Idowu A.O., Solomon O.B., Economics of small scale ethanol production from breadfruit and cassava via plant enzyme and acid hydrolysis, Technical Quarterly, 2015, 33, 1, 39 - 43Google Scholar

  • Kadiri O., John T.K, Olawoye B., Kadiri A.P., Economic Studies on the Production of Fruit Juice from a Locally Sourced Fruit ‘African Star Apple’. Turkey Journal of Agriculture- Food Science and Technology, 2016, 4(6) 438-445Google Scholar

  • Mussatto S.I., Fernandes M., Mancilha I.M., Roberto I.C.,. Effects of medium supplementation and pH control on lactic acid production from brewer’s spent grain, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 2008, 40, 437-444CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • National Bureau of Statistics, 2016, http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/report/ accessed December, 2016Google Scholar

  • Omoba O.S., Awolu O.O., Olagunju A.I., Akomolafe A.O., Optimization of Plantain - Brewers’ Spent Grain Biscuit Using Response Surface Methodology, Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 2013, 2(2) 665-681Google Scholar

  • Öztürk S., Özboy O., Cavidoglu I., Köksel H., Effects of Brewers’ spent grains on the qualityand dietary fibre content of cookies, Journal of Institutional Brewery, 2002, 108(1) 23-27Google Scholar

  • Peters M., Timmerhaus K., West R., Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2003Google Scholar

  • Tang D., Yin G., He Y., Hu S., Li B., Li L., Liang H., Borthakur D., Recovery of protein from brewer’s spent grain by ultrafiltration, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 2009, 48, 1 -5Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tang J., Wei H., Jun F., Zhixiang L., Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste, Bioresource Technology, 2016, 202, 107-112Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Taiwo K.A., Akanbi C.T., Ajibola O.O., Production of cowpeas in tomato sauce: Economic comparison of packaging in canning and retort pouch systems. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 1997, 20, 337-348CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Townsley P.M., Preparation of commercial products from brewer’s waste grain and trub. MBAA Technical Quarterly, 1979, 16, 130-134Google Scholar

  • Zacharias B.M., and George D.S., Food Plant Economics. CRC Press, New York, 2008Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-02-11

Accepted: 2017-05-31

Published Online: 2017-09-02

Published in Print: 2017-08-28


Citation Information: Open Agriculture, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 401–410, ISSN (Online) 2391-9531, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2017-0043.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in