Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Agriculture

1 Issue per year

Covered by: Elsevier - SCOPUS
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-9531
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The Nitrogen Contained in Carbonized Poultry Litter is not Plant Available

Christoph Steiner
  • The University of Georgia, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Driftmier Engineering Center, Athens, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Keith Harris / Julia Gaskin
  • Crop and Soil Sciences Dept, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ K.C. Das
  • The University of Georgia, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Driftmier Engineering Center, Athens, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-08-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2018-0030

Abstract

Pyrolysis of biomass, reduces its volume, mass, odour, and potential pathogens, while concentrating nutrients in the resulting biochar. However, the plant availability of nutrients in particular of nitrogen remains largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the nutrient availability of carbonized poultry litter. A nutrient poor soil was either fertilized with poultry litter or poultry litter carbonized at 500°C at the rates of 1.5, 3 and 6 t/ha. These organic amendments were compared with corresponding rates of mineral fertilizers (NH4NO3, KCl, CaHPO4, MgSO4) in a pot experiment. After four successive harvests of ryegrass (Lolium sp.) in a greenhouse we analyzed plant nutrient uptake and nutrient concentrations in the soil. While all treatments showed a linear increase in plant growth and nitrogen uptake, the plants fertilized with carbonized poultry litter did not show such a response. The carbonized poultry litter treatment produced more biomass than the unfertilized control, but the tissue concentration of nitrogen was below that of the control. Mehlich 1 extractable nutrients in the soil showed that there is more available phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the soil fertilized with the carbonized poultry manure, but these available nutrients were not utilized due to the nitrogen limitation to plant growth. The results clearly show that nitrogen contained in carbonized poultry litter is not available for plants

Keywords: black carbon; carbon sequestration; fertilization; nutrient availability; pyrolysis

References

  • Cantrell K., Ro K., Mahajan D., Anjom M., Hunt P.G., Role of Thermochemical Conversion in Livestock Waste-to-Energy Treatments: Obstacles and Opportunities, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2007, 46, 8918-8927Google Scholar

  • Cantrell K.B., Hunt P.G., Uchimiya M., Novak J.M., Ro K.S., Impact on pyrolysis temperature and manure source on pysiochemical characteristics of biochar, Bioresour. Technol., 2012, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852411016956?via%3DihubGoogle Scholar

  • Chan K.Y., Zwieten L.V., Meszaros I., Downie A., Joseph S., Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments, Aust. J. Soil Res., 2008, 46, 437-444Google Scholar

  • Clough T., Condron L., Kammann C., Muller C., A Review of Biochar and Soil Nitrogen Dynamics, Agronomy, 2013, 3, 275Google Scholar

  • Gaskin J.W., Steiner C., Harris K., Das K.C., Bibens B., Effect of Low-Temperature Pyrolysis Conditions on Biochar for Agricultural Use, Trans. ASABE, 2008, 51, 2061-2069Google Scholar

  • Gaunt J.L., Lehmann J., Energy balance and emissions associated with biochar sequestration and pyrolysis bioenergy production, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42, 4152-4158Google Scholar

  • Glaser B., Lehmann J., Steiner C., Nehls T., Yousaf M., Zech W., Potential of pyrolyzed organic matter in soil amelioration. In: J. Yuren (Ed.) 12th ISCO Conference (26-31 May 2002, Beijing, China), Tsinghua University Press, 2002, 421-427Google Scholar

  • Gollehon N., Caswell M., Ribaudo M., Kellogg R., Lander C., Letson D., Confined Animal Production and Manure Nutrients, Agriculture Information Bulletin, 2001, 771, 39Google Scholar

  • Knicker H., Conzalez-Vila F.J., Polvillo O., Gonzalez J.A., Almendros G., Fire-induced transformation of C and N- forms in different organic soil fractions from a Dystric Cambisol under a Mediterranean pine forest (Pinus pinaster), Soil Biol. Biochem., 2005, 37, 701-718Google Scholar

  • Kuzyakov Y., Subbotina I., Chen H., Bogomolova I., Xu X., Black carbon decomposition and incorportaion into soil microbial biomass estimated by 14C labeling, Soil Biol. Biochem., 2009, 41, 210-219Google Scholar

  • Lehmann J., da Silva Jr. J.P., Steiner C., Nehls T., Zech W., Glaser B., Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments, Plant and Soil, 2003, 249, 343-357Google Scholar

  • Lehmann J., Gaunt J., Rondon M., Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems - a review, Mitig. Adapt. Strat. Glob. Change, 2006, 11, 403-427Google Scholar

  • Mehlich A., Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, and NH4., North Carolina Soil Test Division (Mimeo 1953), North Carolina Dep. of Agric., Raleigh, 1953Google Scholar

  • Probert M.E., Delve R.J., Kimani S.K., Dimes J.P., Modelling nitrogen mineralization from manures: representing quality aspects by varying C:N ratio of sub-pools, Soil Biol. Biochem., 2005, 37, 279-287Google Scholar

  • Schnitzer M.I., Monreal C.M., Jandl G., Leinweber P., Fransham P.B., The conversion of chicken manure to biooil by fast pyrolysis II. Analysis of chicken manure, biooils, and char by curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Cp Py-GC/ MS), J. Environ. Sci. Health., Part B, 2007, 42, 79-95Google Scholar

  • Smith J.L., Collins H.P., Bailey V.L., The effect of young biochar on soil respiration, Soil Biol. Biochem., 2010, 42, 2345-2347Google Scholar

  • Song W., Guo M., Quality variations of poultry litter biochar generated at different pyrolysis temperatures, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2012, 94, 138-145Google Scholar

  • Steiner C., Slash and char as alternative to slash and burn - Soil charcoal amendments maintain soil fertility and establish a carbon sink, In: Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Geoscience, University of Bayreuth, Germany, Bayreuth, 2007, 187Google Scholar

  • Steiner C., Considerations in Biochar Characterization. In: M. Guo, Z. He, S.M. Uchimiya (Eds.), Agricultural and Environmental Applications of Biochar: Advances and Barriers, Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, 2016Google Scholar

  • Steiner C., Das K.C., Melear N., Lakely D., Reducing Nitrogen Loss During Poultry Litter Composting Using Biochar, J. Environ. Qual., 2010, 39, 1236-1242Google Scholar

  • Steiner C., Teixeira W.G., Lehmann J., Nehls T., de Macedo J.L.V., Blum W.E.H., Zech W., Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil, Plant and Soil, 2007, 291, 275-290Google Scholar

  • Tagoe S.O., Horiuchi T., Matsui T., Effects of carbonized and dried chicken manures on the growth, yield, and N content of soybean, Plant and Soil, 2008, 306, 211-220Google Scholar

  • USEPA, Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils, In: Environ. Monitoring Systems Lab., Office of Research and Development, USEPA, Cincinnati, OH, 1996.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-02-07

Accepted: 2018-06-26

Published Online: 2018-08-25


Citation Information: Open Agriculture, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 284–290, ISSN (Online) 2391-9531, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2018-0030.

Export Citation

© by Christoph Steiner et al., published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Delphine Manka'abusi, Christoph Steiner, Volker Haering, Abdul-Halim Abubakari, Bernd Marschner, and Andreas Buerkert
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in