Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …
Open Access

Open Archaeology

Editor-in-Chief: Harding, Anthony

Covered by:
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Essential Tensions: A Framework for Exploring Inequality Through Mortuary Archaeology and Bioarchaeology

Colin P. Quinn / Jess Beck
Published Online: 2016-05-16 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opar-2016-0002


Research on the emergence of institutionalized inequality has traditionally maintained an analytical divide between lived institutions that affect daily life and performed institutions materialized in mortuary contexts. Here, we argue that convergence or divergence between lived and performed contexts reveals key aspects of past social organization. When combined, mortuary archaeology and bioarchaeology provide a methodological framework well suited to evaluate the coherence or dissonance of such institutions. Three case studies from prehistoric Europe highlight how new insights gained by studying tension between institutions, identities and experiences across social dimensions can transform our understanding of the development of institutionalized inequality.

Keywords: Social organization; human osteology; coherence; dissonance; Neolithic; Copper Age; Bronze Age; Iberia; Ireland; Transylvania


  • Adams, R. M. (2012). Ancient Mesopotamian urbanism and blurred disciplinary boundaries. Annual Review of Anthropology, 4, 1-20. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ambrose, S. H., Buikstra, J. E., & Krueger, H. W. (2003). Status and gender differences in diet at Mound 72, Cahokia, revealed by isotopic analysis of bone. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 22, 217-226. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Arponen, V. P. J., Müller, J., Hofmann, R., Furholt, M., Ribeiro, A., Horn, C., & Hinz, M. (2015). Using the capability approach to conceptualise inequality in archaeology: The case of the Late Neolithic Bosnian site Okolište c. 5200–4600 BCE. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 1-20, published online 14 May 2015. Google Scholar

  • Barrett, J. C. (1990). The monumentality of death: The character of Early Bronze Age mortuary mounds in southern Britain. World Archaeology, 22(2), 179-189. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Beck, J. (2015). Part of the family: Age, identity and burial in Copper Age Iberia. In A. Osterholtz (Ed.), Theoretical approaches to analysis and interpretation of commingled human remains. (pp. 47-73). Cham: Springer International. Google Scholar

  • Beck, L. A. (1995). Regional approaches to mortuary analysis. New York: Plenum Press. Google Scholar

  • Beck, R. A., Bolender, D. J., Brown, J. A., & Earle, T. K. (2007). Eventful archaeology: The place of space in structural transformation. Current Anthropology, 48(6), 833-860. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bell, E. E. (2002). Engendering a dynasty: A royal woman in the Margarita tomb, Copan. In T. Arden (Ed.), Ancient Maya women. (pp. 89-104). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Google Scholar

  • Bentley, R., Wahl, J., Price, T., & Atkinson, T. C. (2008). Isotopic signatures and hereditary traits: snapshot of a Neolithic community in Germany. Antiquity, 82, 290- 304. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bickle, P., Hofmann, D., Bentley, R., Hedges, R., Hamilton, J., Laiginhas, F., Nowell, G., Pearson, D., Grupe, G., & Whittle, A. (2011). Roots of diversity in a Linearbandkeramik community: isotope evidence at Aiterhofen (Bavaria, Germany). Antiquity, 85, 1243-1258. Google Scholar

  • Binford, L. (1971). Mortuary practices: Their study and potential. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, 25, 6-29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bloch, M. (1968). Tombs and conservatism among the Merina of Madagascar. Man, 3(1), 94-104. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bolender, D. J. (Ed.) (2010). Eventful archaeologies: New approaches to social transformation in the archaeological record. Buffalo: SUNY Press. Google Scholar

  • Bradley, R. (1998). The significance of monuments. London: Routledge Press. Google Scholar

  • Brown, J. A. (1971). Approaches to the social dimensions of mortuary practices. Washington DC: Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology. Google Scholar

  • Brück, J. (2004a). Early Bronze Age burial practices in Scotland and beyond: Differences and similarities, In I. Shepherd, G. Barclay (Eds.), Scotland in Ancient Europe. (pp. 179-188). Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Google Scholar

  • Brück, J. (2004b). Material metaphors: The relational construction of identity in Early Bronze Age burials in Ireland and Britain. Journal of Social Archaeology, 4, 307-333. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Brück, J. (2006). Fragmentation, personhood and the social construction of technology in Middle and Late Bronze Age Britain. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 16, 297-315. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cannon, A. (1989). The historical dimension in mortuary expressions of status and sentiment. Current Anthropology, 30(4), 437-458. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cerezo-Roman, J. (2014). Pathways to personhood: Cremation as a social practice among the Tucson Basin Hohokam. In I. Kuijt, C. Quinn & G. Cooney (Eds.), Transformation by fire: The archaeology of cremation in cultural context. (pp. 148-167). Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Google Scholar

  • Cerezo-Roman, J., & Williams, H. (2014). Future directions for the archaeology of cremation. In I. Kuijt, C. P. Quinn & G. Cooney (Eds.), Transformation by fire: The archaeology of cremation in cultural context, (pp.240-255). Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Google Scholar

  • Chapman, R. (2008). Producing inequalities: Regional sequences in Later Prehistoric southern Spain. Journal of World Prehistory, 21(3-4), 195-260. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chapman, R. (1995). Ten years after - megaliths, mortuary practices, the territorial model. In L. A. Beck (Ed.), Regional approaches to mortuary analyses. (pp. 29-51). New York: Plenum. Google Scholar

  • Chesson, M. S. (2015). Reconceptualizing the Early Bronze Age southern Levant without cities: Local histories and walled communities of EB II-III society. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, 28(1), 51-79. Google Scholar

  • Childe, V. G. (1930). The Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Childe, V. G. (1951). Social Evolution. New York: Schuman. Google Scholar

  • Ciugudean, H. (1995). The Later Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age tumulus-burials in central and south-western Transylvania (I). Apulum, 32, 13-32. Google Scholar

  • Ciugudean, H. (1996). Epoca Timpurie a Bronzului în Centrul şi Sud-Vestul Transilvaniei. Bucharest: Ministerul Invatamantului. Google Scholar

  • Ciugudean, H. (1997). The Later Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age tumulus-burials in central and south-western Transylvania (II). Apulum, 34, 43-47. Google Scholar

  • Ciugudean, H. (2011). Mounds and mountains: Burial rituals in Early Bronze Age Transylvania. In S. Berecki, R. Németh & B. Rezi (Eds.), Bronze Age rites and rituals in the Carpathian Basin: Proceedings of the international colloquium from Târgu Mureş, (pp.21-57). Târgu Mureş: Mega. Google Scholar

  • Conklin, B. A., & Morgan, L. M. (1996). Babies, bodies, and the production of personhood in North America and a native Amazonian society. Ethos, 24(4), 657-694. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cook, D. C. (1984). Subsistence and health in the Lower Illinois Valley: Osteological evidence. In M. Cohen & G. Armelagos (Eds.), Paleopathology at the origins of agriculture. (pp. 235-269). Orlando: Academic Press. Google Scholar

  • Cooney, G. (2014). Role of cremation in mortuary practices in the Irish Neolithic. In I. Kuijt, C. Quinn & G. Cooney (Eds.), Transformation by fire: The archaeology of cremation in cultural context. (pp. 189-206). Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Google Scholar

  • Cooney, G., & Grogan, E. (1994). Irish prehistory: A social perspective. Dublin: Wordwell. Google Scholar

  • Cotter, C. (2012). The western stone forts project: Excavations at Dún Aonghasa and Dún Eoghanachta. Dublin: Wordwell. Google Scholar

  • Crawford, S. (2000). Children, grave goods and social status in Early Anglo-Saxon England. In J. Sofaer Deverenski (Ed.), Children and material culture. (pp. 169-179). London: Routledge. Google Scholar

  • Davis-Kimball, J. (2002). Warrior women: An archaeologist’s search for history’s hidden heroines. New York: Warner Books. Google Scholar

  • DeWitte, S. N., & Stojanowski, C. M. (2015). The osteological paradox 20 years later: Past perspectives, future directions. Journal of Archaeological Research, 23(4), 397-450. Google Scholar

  • Díaz-del-Río, P. (2004). Factionalism and collective labor in Copper Age Iberia. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 61(2), 85-98. Google Scholar

  • Díaz-del-Río, P. (2006). An appraisal of social inequalities in central Iberia (c. 5300-1600 CAL BC). In P. Diaz-del-Río & L. García Sanjuán (Eds.), Social inequality in Iberian Late Prehistory. (pp. 67-76). Oxford: Archaeopress. Google Scholar

  • Diaz-del-Río, P. (2011). Labor in the Making of Copper Age Iberian Lineages. In K. Lillios (Ed.), Comparative archaeologies: The American Southwest (AD 900-1600) and the Iberian Peninsula (3000-1500 BC). (pp. 37-56). Oxford: Oxbow Books. Google Scholar

  • Díaz-del-Río, P., & García Sanjuán, L. (Eds.). (2006). Social Inequality in Iberian Late Prehistory. Oxford: Archaeopress. Google Scholar

  • Doody, M. (2008). The Ballyhoura Hills project. Discovery Programme Monograph. Dublin: Wordwell. Google Scholar

  • Duffy, P. (2010). Complexity and autonomy in Bronze Age Europe: Assessing cultural developments in Eastern Hungary. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Google Scholar

  • Duffy, P. (2015). Site size hierarchy in middle-range societies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 37, 85-99. Google Scholar

  • Earle, T.K. (2002). Bronze Age economics: The beginnings of political economies. Boulder, CO: Westview. Google Scholar

  • Earle, T.K., & Kristiansen, K. (2010). Organizing Bronze Age societies: The Mediterranean, central Europe, and Scandinavia compared. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Fernández-Crespo, T., & de-la-Rúa, C. (2015). Demographic evidence of selective burial in the megalithic graves of northern Spain. Journal of Archaeological Science, 53, 604-617. Google Scholar

  • Forenbaher, S. (1999). Production and exchange of bifacial flaked stone artifacts during the Portuguese Chalcolithic. Oxford: Archaeopress. Google Scholar

  • Fowler, C. (2005). Identity politics: Personhood, kinship, gender and power in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. In E. Casella & C. Fowler (Eds.), The archaeology of plural and changing identities: Beyond identification. (pp. 109-134). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Google Scholar

  • García Sanjuán, L. (2006). Funerary ideology and social inequality in the Late Prehistory of the Iberian south-west (c. 3300-850 Cal BC). In P. Diaz-del-Río & L. García Sanjuán (Eds.), Social inequality in Iberian Late Prehistory. (pp. 149-169). Oxford: Archaeopress. Google Scholar

  • García Sanjuán, L., & Murillo-Barroso, M. (2013). Social complexity in Copper Age Southern Iberia (c. 3200-2200 Cal BC): Reviewing the ‘state’ hypothesis at Valencina de La Concepción (Seville, Spain). In M. Cruz Berrocal, L. García Sanjuán & A. Gilman (Eds.), The prehistory of Iberia: Debating early social stratification and the state. (pp. 181-217). New York: Routledge. Google Scholar

  • García Sanjuán, L., Luciáñez Triviño, M., Schumacher, T., Wheatley, D., & Banerjee, A. (2013). Ivory craftsmanship, trade and social significance in the southern Iberian Copper Age: the evidence from the PP4-Montelirio sector of Valencina de la Concepción (Seville, Spain). European Journal of Archaeology, 16(4), 610-635. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gerling, C., Heyd, V., Pike, A., Bánffy, E., Dani, J., Köhler, K., Kulcsár, G., Kaiser, E., & Schier, W. (2012). Identifying kurgan graves in eastern Hungary: A burial mound in light of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis. In J. Burger, E. Kaiser & W. Schier (Eds.), Population dynamics in prehistory and early history: new approaches using stable isotopes and genetics. (pp. 165-176). Boston: De Gruyter. Google Scholar

  • Gerling, C., & Ciugudean, H. (2013). Insights into the Transylvanian Early Bronze Age using strontium and oxygen isotope analyses: A pilot study. In V. Heyd, G. Kulcsár & V. Szeverényi (Eds.), Transitions to the Bronze Age: Interregional interaction and socio-cultural change in the Third Millennium BC Carpathian Basin and neighbouring regions. (pp. 181-202). Budapest: Archaeolingua. Google Scholar

  • Gilman, A. (1981). The development of social stratification in Bronze Age Europe. Current Anthropology, 22(1), 1-23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gilman, A. (2013). Were There States during the Later Prehistory of Southern Iberia? In M. Cruz Barrocal, L. García Sanjuán & A. Gilman (Eds.), The prehistory of Iberia: Debating early social stratification and the state. (pp. 1-46). New York: Routledge. Google Scholar

  • Grogan, E. (2005). The North Munster project. Discovery Programme Monograph No. 6. Bray: Wordwell. Google Scholar

  • Gronenborn, D. (2006). Climate change and socio-political crises: Some cases from Neolithic Central Europe. Journal of Conflict Archaeology, (2)1, 13-32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Harding, A. (1984). Aspects of social evolution in the Bronze Age. In J. Bintliff (Ed.), European social evolution: Archaeological perspectives. (pp. 135-145). Bradford: University of Bradford. Google Scholar

  • Harding, A. (2011). The Bronze Age. In S. Milisauskas (Ed.), European prehistory: A survey. Second Ed. (pp. 327-403). New York: Springer. Google Scholar

  • Harrison, R. (1985). The “policultivo ganadero”, or the secondary products revolution in Spanish Agriculture, 5000-1000 BC. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 51, 75-102. Google Scholar

  • Harrod, R. P., (2012). Centers of control: Revealing elites among the Ancestral Pueblo during the “Chaco Phenomenon. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2(2-3), 125-135. Google Scholar

  • Hawass, Z., Gad, Y. Z., Ismail, S. Khairat, R., Fathalla, D., Hasan, N., Ahmed, A., Elleithy, H., Ball, M., Gaballah, F., Wasef, S., Fateen, M., Amer, H., Gostner, P., Selim, A., Zink, A., & Pusch, C. M. (2010). Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamun’s family. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(7), 638-647. Google Scholar

  • Hawkey, D.E., & Merbs, C.F. (1995). Activity-induced musculoskeletal stress markers (MSM) and subsistence strategy changes among Ancient Hudson Bay Eskimos. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 5, 324-338. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Honch, N. V., Higham, T. F. G., Chapman, J., Gaydarska, B., & Hedges, R. E. M. (2006). A palaeodietary investigation of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) in human and faunal bones from the Copper Age cemeteries of Varna I and Durankulak, Bulgaria. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33, 1493-1504. Google Scholar

  • Inomata, T., (2006). Politics and theatricality in Mayan society. In T. Inomata & L. Coben (Eds.), Archaeology of performance: Theaters of power, community, and politics. (pp. 187-222). Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press. Google Scholar

  • Keswani, P. (2004). Mortuary ritual and society in Bronze Age Cyprus. London: Equinox. Google Scholar

  • Kienlin, T. L. (2010). Traditions and transformations: Approaches to Eneolithic (Copper Age) and Bronze Age metalworking and society in eastern central Europe and the Carpathian Basin. BAR International Series 2184. Oxford: Archaeopress. Google Scholar

  • Kienlin, T. L., & Zimmerman, A. (Eds.). (2012). Beyond elites: Alternatives to hierarchical systems in modelling social formations. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt. Google Scholar

  • Klaus, H. D. (2012). The bioarchaeology of structural violence: A theoretical model and a case study. In D. Martin (Ed.) The bioarchaeology of violence. (pp. 29-62). Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. Google Scholar

  • Klaus, H. D., & Tam, M. E. (2009). Contact in the Andes: Bioarchaeology of systemic stress in colonial Mórrope, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 138(3). 356-368. Google Scholar

  • Kristiansen, K., & Earle T. K. (2015). Neolithic versus Bronze Age social formations: A political economy approach. In K. Kristiansen, L. Šmejda & J. Turek (Eds.), Paradigm found: Archaeological theory - present, past and future. (pp. 234-247). Oxford: Oxbow. Google Scholar

  • Kristiansen, K., & Larsson, T. B. (2005). The rise of Bronze Age society: Travels, transmissions and transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Kuijt, I. (1996). Negotiating equality through ritual: A consideration of Late Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period mortuary practices. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 15, 313-336. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kuijt, I. 2000. Keeping the peace: Ritual, skull caching, and community integration in the Levantine Neolithic. In I. Kuijt (Ed.), Life in Neolithic farming communities: Social organization, identity, and differentiation. (pp. 137-163). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Google Scholar

  • Kuijt, I. (2008). The Regeneration of life: Neolithic structures of symbolic remembering and forgetting. Current Anthropology, 49, 171-197. Google Scholar

  • Kuijt, I., & Quinn, C. P. (2013). Biography of the Neolithic body: tracing pathways to cist II, Mound of the Hostages, Tara. In M. O’Sullivan, C. Scarre & M. Doyle (Eds.), Tara: From the past to the future: Towards a new research agenda. (pp. 130-143). Bray: Wordwell & UCD School of Archaeology. Google Scholar

  • Kuijt, I., Quinn, C. P., & Cooney, G. (Eds.). (2014). Transformation by fire: The archaeology of cremation in cultural context. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Google Scholar

  • Larsen, C. S., Griffin, M. C., Hutchinson, D. L., Noble, V. E., Norr, L., Pastor, R. F., Ruff, C. B., Russell, K. F., Schoeninger, M. J., Schultz, M., Simpson, S. W., & Teaford, M. F.. (2001). Frontiers of contact: Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida. Journal of World Prehistory, 15(1), 69-123. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lillios, K. T. (2015). Practice, process, and social change in third millennium BC Europe: A view from the Sizandro Valley, Portugal. European Journal of Archaeology, 18(2), 245-258. Google Scholar

  • Lillios, K. T., Waterman, A. J., & Artz, J. A. (2010). The Neolithic-Early Bronze Age mortuary rockshelter of Bolores, Torres Vedras, Portugal. Journal of Field Archaeology, 35(1), 19-39. Google Scholar

  • Liston, M. A., & Rotroff, S. I. (2013). Babies in the well: Archaeological evidence for newborn disposal in Hellenistic Greece. In J. Grubs, T. Parkins & R. Bell (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Childhood and Education in the Classical World. (pp. 1-16). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

  • Littleton, J., & Allen, H. (2007). Hunter-gatherer burials and the creation of persistent places in southeastern Australia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 26, 283-298. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lull, V. (2000). Argaric society: death at home. Antiquity, 74, 581-590. Google Scholar

  • Lull, V., Micó Pérez, R., Herrada, C. R., and Risch, R. (2005). Property relations in the Bronze Age of south-western Europe: An archaeological analysis of infant burials from El Argar (Almeria, Spain). Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 71, 247-268. Google Scholar

  • Marcus, J., & Flannery, K. V. (2004). The coevolution of ritual and society: New C14 dates from ancient Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 101, 18257-18261. Google Scholar

  • Martin, D. L., Harrod, R. P. & Fields, M. (2010). Beaten down and worked to the bone: Bioarchaeological investigations of women and violence in the ancient Southwest. Landscapes of Violence, 1(1), 1-19. Google Scholar

  • Mathers, C. (1984). Beyond the grave: The context and wider implications of mortuary practice in south-eastern Spain. In T. Blagg, R. Jones & S. Keay (Eds.), Papers in Iberian Archaeology. (pp. 13-46). Oxford: British Archaeological Reports. Google Scholar

  • McClure, S. B., García, O., Roca de Togores, C., Culleton, B. J., & Kennett, D. J. (2011). Osteological and paleodietary investigation of burials from Cova de La Pastora, Alicante, Spain. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(2), 420-428. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mills, B. J. (2004). The establishment and defeat of hierarchy: inalienable possessions and the history of collective prestige structures in the Pueblo Southwest. American Anthropologist, 106, 238-251. Google Scholar

  • Moore, A. (2009). Hearth and home: The burial of infants within Romano-British domestic contexts. Childhood in the Past, 2(1), 33-54. Google Scholar

  • Mount, C. (2013). The context of the Early Bronze Age cemetery in the Mound of the Hostages. In M. O’Sullivan, C. Scarre & M. Doyle (Eds.), Tara: From the past to the future: Towards a new research agenda. (pp. 184-195). Bray: Wordwell & UCD School of Archaeology. Google Scholar

  • Mummert, A., Esche, E., Robinson, J., & Armelagos, G. J. (2011). Stature and robusticity during the agricultural transition: Evidence from the bioarchaeological record. Economics and Human Biology, 9(3), 284-301. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nicodemus, A. (2014). Bronze Age economies of the Carpathian Basin: Trade, craft production, and agro-pastoral intensification. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Google Scholar

  • Nocete, F. (2006). The first specialised copper industry in the Iberian Peninsula: Cabezo Juré (2900-2200 BC). Antiquity, 80, 646-657. Google Scholar

  • Nocete, F., Lizcano, R., Peramo, A., & Gómez, E. (2010). Emergence, collapse and continuity of the first political system in the Guadalquivir Basin from the fourth to the second millennium BC: The long-term sequence of Úbeda (Spain). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 29(2), 219-237. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change, and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Orschiedt, J. & Haidle, M. N. (2006).The LBK enclosure at Herxheim: Theatre of war or ritual centre?: References from osteoarchaeological investigations. Journal of Conflict Archaeology, 2(1), 153-168. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • O’Shea, J. M. (1984). Mortuary variability: An archaeological investigation. Orlando: Academic Press. Google Scholar

  • O’Shea, J. M. (1996). Villagers of the Maros: Portrait of an Early Bronze Age society. New York: Plenum Press. Google Scholar

  • O’Shea, J. M. (2011). A river runs through it: Landscape and the evolution of Bronze Age networks in the Carpathian Basin. Journal of World Prehistory, 24, 161-174. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • O’Shea, J. M. and Barker, A. W. (1996). Measuring social complexity and variation: A categorical imperative? In J. Arnold (Ed.), Emergent Complexity: The Evolution of Intermediate Societies. (pp. 13-24). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory. Google Scholar

  • O’Sullivan, M. (2005). Duma na nGiall: The Mound of the Hostages, Tara. Bray: Wordwell & UCD School of Archaeology. Google Scholar

  • O’Sullivan, M., Scarre, C., & Doyle, M. (Eds.). (2013). Tara: From the past to the future: Towards a new research agenda. Bray: Wordwell & UCD School of Archaeology Google Scholar

  • Papalas, C.A. (2008). Bronze Age metallurgy of the Eastern Carpathian Basin: A holistic exploration. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Tempe. Google Scholar

  • Pare, C. F. (2000). Bronze and the Bronze Age. In C. Pare (Ed.), Metals make the world go round: The supply and circulation of metals in Bronze Age Europe. (pp. 1-37). Oxford: Oxbow Books. Google Scholar

  • Parker-Pearson, M. (1993). The powerful dead: Archaeological relationships between the living and the dead. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 3, 203-229. Google Scholar

  • Parker-Pearson, M. (1999). The archaeology of death and burial. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press. Google Scholar

  • Parker-Pearson, M. (2003). Materiality and ritual: The origins of stone tombs in southern Madagascar. In Z. Crossland, G. Sodikoff & W. Griffin (Eds.), Lova/Inheritance: Past and Present in Madagascar. (pp. 127-157). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Google Scholar

  • Parkinson, W. A. (2002). Integration, interaction, and tribal “cycling”: The transition to the Copper Age on the Great Hungarian Plain. In W. Parkinson (Ed.), The archaeology of tribal societies. (pp. 391-438). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory. Google Scholar

  • Parkinson, W. A., & Gyucha, A. (2012). Long-term social dynamics and the emergence of hereditary inequality: A prehistoric example from the Carpathian Basin. In T.L. Kienlin & A. Zimmerman (Eds.), Beyond elites: Alternatives to hierarchical systems in modelling social formations. (pp. 243-250). Bonn: Rudolf Habelt. Google Scholar

  • Petroutsa, E. I., Richards, M. P., & Manolis, S. K. (2007). Stable isotope analysis of human remains from the Early Helladic site of Perachora, Korinth, Greece. In C. Mee & J. Renard (Eds.), Cooking up the past: Food and culinary practices in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Aegean. (pp. 290-296). Oxford: Oxbow. Google Scholar

  • Popa, C. I., Rişcuţa, N. C. & Iosif, F. V. (2009). Cercetări arheologice la Balşa şi Mada (jud. Hunedoara) şi câteva observaţii privind necropolele tumulare din Munţii Apuseni. Apulum, 46, 257-286. Google Scholar

  • Porčić, M. (2012). Social complexity and inequality in the Late Neolithic of the Central Balkans: reviewing the evidence. Documenta Praehistorica, 39, 167-183. Google Scholar

  • Powell, M. (1992). In the best of health? Disease and trauma among the Mississippian elite. In A. Barker & T.R. Pauketat (Eds.), Lords of the southeast: Social inequality and the native elites of southeastern North America. (pp. 81-97). Washington DC: Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association. Google Scholar

  • Quinn, C. P. (2015). Returning and reuse: Diachronic perspectives on multi-component cemeteries and mortuary politics at Middle Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Tara, Ireland. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 37, 1-18. Google Scholar

  • Quinn, C. P., & Kuijt, I. (2013). The tempo of life and death during the Early Bronze Age at the Mound of the Hostages, Tara. In M. O’Sullivan, C. Scarre & M. Doyle (Eds.), Tara: From the past to the future: Towards a new research agenda. (pp. 196-206). Dublin: Wordwell & UCD School of Archaeology. Google Scholar

  • Raczky, P., & Anders, A. (2008). Late Neolithic spatial differentiation at Polgár-Csőszhalom, eastern Hungary. In D. W. Bailey, A. Whittle, & D. Hofmann (Eds.), Living well together? Settlement and materiality in the Neolithic of South-East and Central Europe. (pp. 35-53). Oxford: Oxbow. Google Scholar

  • Rathbun, T. A., & Steckel, R. H. (2002). The health of slaves and free blacks in the East. In J. Rose & R. Steckel (Eds.), The backbone of history: Health and nutrition in the Western Hemisphere. (pp. 208-222). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Renfrew, C. (1973). Monuments, mobilization and social organization in Neolithic Wessex. In C. Renfrew (Ed.), The explanation of culture change: Models in prehistory. (pp. 539-558). Gloucester: Duckworth. Google Scholar

  • Renfrew, C. (Ed.). 1983. The megalithic monuments of western Europe. London: Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

  • Robbins Schug, G., Gray, K., Mushrif-Tripathy, V. & Sankhyan, A. R. (2012). A peaceful realm? Trauma and social differentiation at Harappa. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2(2-3), 136-147. Google Scholar

  • Robbins Schug, G., Blevins, K. E., Cox, B., Gray, K., and Mushrif-Tripathy, V. (2013). Infection, disease, and biosocial processes at the end of the Indus civilization. PLoS ONE, 8(12), 1-20. Google Scholar

  • Romero-Vargas, S., Ruiz-Sandoval, J. L., Sotomayor-González, A. , Revuelta-Gutiérrez, R., Celis-López, M. A., Gómez-Amador, J. L., García-González, U., López-Serna, R., García-Navarro, V., Mendez Rosio, D., Correa-Correa, V. & Gómez-Llata, S. (2010). A look at Mayan artificial cranial deformation practices: morphological and cultural aspects. Neurosurgery Focus, 29(6), 1-5. Google Scholar

  • Ruby, B. J., Carr, C., & Charles, D. K. (2005). Community organizations in the Scioto, Mann, and Havana Hopewellian regions: A comparative perspective. In C. Carr & C. D. Troy (Eds.), Gathering Hopewell. (pp. 119-176). New York: Springer. Google Scholar

  • Saxe, A. A. (1970). Social dimensions of mortuary practices. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Google Scholar

  • Schmidt, C. W., & Symes, S. A. (2008). The analysis of burned human remains. San Diego: Academic Press. Google Scholar

  • Schurr, M. R., & Cook, D. C. (2014). The temporal and cultural contexts of the enigmatic cremations from the Yokem Site, Illinois, USA. In I. Kuijt, C. Quinn & G. Cooney (Eds.), Transformation by fire: The archaeology of cremation in cultural context. (pp. 67-92). Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Google Scholar

  • Shanks, M., & Tilley, C. (1982). Ideology, symbolic power and ritual communication: a reinterpretation of Neolithic mortuary practices. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Symbolic and structural archaeology. (pp. 129-154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Shennan, S. (1982). Ideology, change and the European Early Bronze Age. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Symbolic and structural archaeology. (pp. 155-161). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Sheridan, A., Jay, M., Montgomery, J., Pellegrini, M., & Cahill Wilson, J. (2013). Tara boy: local hero or international man of mystery? In M. O’Sullivan, C. Scarre & M. Doyle (Eds.), Tara: From the past to the future: Towards a new research agenda. (pp. 207-232). Bray: Wordwell & UCD School of Archaeology. Google Scholar

  • Sherratt, A. G. (1993). What would a Bronze-Age world system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in Later Prehistory. Journal of European Archaeology, 1, 1-57. Google Scholar

  • Shuler, K. A. (2011). Life and death on a Barbadian sugar plantation: historic and bioarchaeological views of infection and mortality at Newton Plantation. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 21(1), 66-81. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Skeates, R. (1991). Caves, cults and children in Neolithic Abruzzo, Central Italy. In R. Gowland & C. Knüsel (Eds.), Social archaeology of funerary remains. (pp. 122-134). Oxford: Oxbow Books. Google Scholar

  • Sosna, D., Galeta, P., Šmejda, L., Sladek, V., & Bruzek, J. (2013). Burials and graphs: Relational approach to mortuary analysis. Social Science Computer Review, 31(1), 56-70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Spence, M. W., & White, C. D. (2009). Mesoamerican bioarchaeology: Past and future. Ancient Mesoamerica, 20, 233-240. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tainter, J. A. (1980). Behavior and status in a Middle Woodland Mortuary population from the Illinois Valley. American Antiquity, 45(2), 308-313. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ucko, P. J. (1969). Ethnography and archaeological interpretation of funerary remains. World Archaeology, 1(2), 263-280. Google Scholar

  • Usher, B. M., Weets, J. D., & Wanglund, C. (2002). Can we determine kinship systems? Testing models of genetic patterns for cemetery analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 117(S34), 159. Google Scholar

  • Waddell, J, (1990). The Bronze Age burials of Ireland. Galway: Galway University Press. Google Scholar

  • Waddell, J. (2010). The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland. Third ed. Dublin: Wordwell. Google Scholar

  • Walker, P. L., Bathurst, R. R., Richman, R., Gjerdrum, T., &. Andrushko, V. A. (2009). The causes of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia: A reappraisal of the iron-deficiency-anemia hypothesis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(2), 109-125. Google Scholar

  • Waterman, A.J., Silva, A.M., & Tykot, R.H. (2014). Stable isotopic indicators of diet from two Late Prehistoric burial sites in Portugal: An investigation of dietary evidence of social differentiation. Open Journal of Archaeometry, 2(1), 22-27. Google Scholar

  • Weiss, E. (2007). Muscle markers revisited: Activity pattern reconstruction with controls in a central California Amerind population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 133, 931-940. Google Scholar

  • Whallon, R. (1989). Elements of cultural change in the Later Paleolithic. In P. Mellars & C. Stringer (Eds.), The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans. (pp. 433-454). Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

  • Whallon, R. (2006). Social networks and information: Non-“utilitarian” mobility among hunter-gatherers. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 25(2), 259-270. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Whitley, J. (2002). Too many ancestors. Antiquity, 76, 119-126. Google Scholar

  • Wiessner, P. (2002). The vines of complexity: Egalitarian structures and the institutionalization of inequality among the Enga. Current Anthropology, 43, 233-269. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Williams, H. (2015). Towards an archaeology of cremation. In C. Schmidt & S. Symes (Eds.), The Analysis of Burned Human Remains. (pp. 259-294). San Diego: Academic Press. Google Scholar

  • Wood, J. W., Milner, G. R., Harpending, H. C., & Weiss, K. M. (1992). The osteological paradox: Problems of inferring prehistoric health from skeletal samples. Current Anthropology, 33(4), 343-370. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Woodburn, J. (1982). Social dimensions of death in four African hunting and gathering societies. In M. Bloch & J. Parry (Eds.), Death and the regeneration of life. (pp. 187-211). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Zafra de la Torre, N., Hornos Mata, F., & Castro López, M. (1999). A macro-village as the origin of the peasant way of life: Marroquíes Bajos (Jaén, Spain) C. 2500-2000 Cal. BC. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 56(1), 77-102. Google Scholar

  • Zafra de la Torre, N., Castro López, M., & Hornos Mata, F. (2003). Succession and simultaneity in a big settlement: chronology of the macro-village of Marroquíes Bajos (Jaén, Spain) c. 2500-2000 cal BC. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 60(1), 79-90. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-08-15

Accepted: 2016-03-01

Published Online: 2016-05-16

Citation Information: Open Archaeology, Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2300-6560, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opar-2016-0002.

Export Citation

© 2016 Colin P. Quinn, Jess Beck. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in