Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Archaeology

Editor-in-Chief: Harding, Anthony

1 Issue per year


Covered by:
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index
ERIH PLUS

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-6560
See all formats and pricing
More options …

How Do We Explain ‛Autistic Traits’ in European Upper Palaeolithic Art?

Penny Spikins / Callum Scott / Barry Wright
Published Online: 2018-05-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opar-2018-0016

Abstract

Traits in Upper Palaeolithic art which are also seen in the work of talented artists with autism, including most obviously an exceptional realism, remain to be explained. However any association between the famously evocative animal depictions created in the European Upper Palaeolithic and what is commonly seen as a ‘disorder’ has always been contentious. Debate over these similarities has been heated, with explanations ranging from famous works of Upper Palaeolithic art having been created by individuals with autism spectrum conditions, to being influenced by such individuals, to being a product of the use of psychotropic drugs. Here we argue that ‘autistic traits’ in art, such as extreme realism, have been created by individuals with a cognitive extreme of local processing bias, or detail focus. The significance of local processing bias, which is found both as a feature of autism spectrum conditions and in artists with exceptional talent at realistic depiction who aren’t autistic, has implications for our understanding of Upper Palaeolithic society in general, as well as of the roles played by individuals with autism spectrum conditions.

Keywords : Upper Palaeolithic; Ice Age; prehistoric art; autism; autism spectrum condition; talent; local processing bias; exceptional realism; social influence

References

  • Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., Wheelwright, S., Scahill, V., Short, L., Mead, G., & Smith, A. (1998). Autism occurs more often in families of physicists, engineers, and mathematicians. Autism: the international journal of research and practice 2(3), 296-301. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.178.132&rep=rep1&type=pdf.Google Scholar

  • Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, Males and Females, Scientists and Mathematicians. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 31(1), 5-17. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bednarik, R. G.( 2013). Brain Disorder and Rock Art. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 23(01), 69-81. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bednarik, R. G. (2016). Myths about Rock Art. Oxford, UK: Archaeopress. https://market.android.com/details?id=book-QaZ9vgAACAAJ.Google Scholar

  • Behrmann, M., Thomas, C., & Humphreys, K. (2006). Seeing it differently: visual processing in autism. Trends in cognitive sciences 10(6), 258-264. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Belmonte, M. K., Allen, G., Beckel-Mitchener, A., Boulanger, L. M., Carper, R. A., & Webb, S. J. (2004). Autism and abnormal development of brain connectivity. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(42), 9228-9231.Google Scholar

  • Bentley, A. M. & Deregowski, J. B. (1987). Pictorial experience as a factor in the recognition of incomplete pictures. Applied cognitive psychology 1(3), 209-216. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bird-David, N. (2006). Animistic epistemology: Why do some hunter-gatherers not depict animals? Ethnos 71(1), 33-50. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bleed, P. (1986). The Optimal Design of Hunting Weapons: Maintainability or Reliability. American Antiquity 51(4), 737-747. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bonvin, C., Horvath, J., Christe, B., Landis, T., & Burkhard, P. R. (2007). Compulsive singing: another aspect of punding in Parkinson’s disease. Annals of neurology 62(5), 525-528. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Briskman, J., Frith, U., & Happé, F. (2001). Exploring the Cognitive Phenotype of Autism: Weak “Central Coherence” in Parents and Siblings of Children with Autism: II. Real-life Skills and Preferences. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines 42(3), 309-316. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Campitelli, G. & Gobet, F. (2011). Deliberate Practice. Current directions in psychological science 20(5), 280-285. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Canesi, M., Rusconi, M. L., Isaias, I. U., & Pezzoli. G.(2012). Artistic productivity and creative thinking in Parkinson’s disease. European journal of neurology: the official journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies 19(3), 468-472. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Conard, N. J. (2003). Palaeolithic ivory sculptures from southwestern Germany and the origins of figurative art. Nature 426(6968). nature.com. 830-832. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • De Rios, M. D. & Janiger, O. (2003). LSD, spirituality, and the creative process: Based on the groundbreaking research of Oscar Janiger, MD. Maine USA: Park Street Press.Google Scholar

  • Dissanayake, E. (2015). What Is Art For? University of Washington Press: Washington, USAGoogle Scholar

  • Drake, J. E. (2014). Knowing how to look predicts the ability to draw realistically. The British journal of developmental psychology 32(4), 397-414. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Drake, J. E., edash, A., Coleman, K., Haimson, J., & Winner, E. (2010). “Autistic” Local Processing Bias also Found in Children Gifted in Realistic Drawing. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 40(6), 762-773. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Drake, J. E. & Winner, E. (2013). Children gifted in drawing. Gifted Education International 29(2), 125-139. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Drake, J. E. & Winner, E. (2017). Predicting Artistic Brilliance. Scientific American 26, 2-18. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Faughn, C., Marrus, N., Shuman, J., Ross, S. R., Constantino, J. N., Pruett Jr, J.R., & Povinelli, D. J. (2015). Brief Report: Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 45(5), 1483-1488. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fockert, J. W. de & Cooper, A. (2014). Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing. Cognition & emotion 28(3), 541-549. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fritz, C., & Tosello, G. (2000). Observations Techniques Sur Le Panneau Des Chevaux de La Grotte Chauvet (Ardèche): L’exemple Des Rhinocéros Affrontés. INORA: International Newsletter on Rock Art 26. Ministère de la Culture: 23-30.Google Scholar

  • Fritz, C., & Tosello, G. (2007). The hidden meaning of forms: methods of recording Paleolithic parietal art. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14(1), 48-80.Google Scholar

  • Fritz, C., Tosello, G., & Conkey, M. W. (2015). Reflections on the Identities and Roles of the Artists in European Paleolithic Societies. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 23(4), 1307-1332. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gaugler, T., Klei, L., Sanders, S. J., Bodea, C. A., Goldberg, A. P., Lee, A. B., Mahajan, … Buxbaum, J. D (2014). Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation. Nature genetics 46(8), 881-885. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gualtieri, C. T. (2014). Autism and Schizophrenia Are Disorders of Evolvability. Open journal of medical psychology (2014). http://file.scirp.org/Html/7-2250080_42577.htm.Google Scholar

  • Guerra-Doce, E. (2015). Psychoactive Substances in Prehistoric Times: Examining the Archaeological Evidence. Time and Mind 8(1), 91-112. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hambrick, D. Z., Oswald, F. L., Altmann, E. M., Meinz, E. J., Gobet, F., & Campitelli, G. (2014). Deliberate practice: Is that all it takes to become an expert? Intelligence 45, 34-45. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289613000421.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Happé, F., Frith, U., & Briskman, J. (2001). Exploring the Cognitive Phenotype of Autism: Weak “Central Coherence” in Parents and Siblings of Children with Autism: I. Experimental Tests. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines 42(3), 299-307. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Happé, F.& Frith, U. (20060. The weak coherence account: detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 36(1), 5-25. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Happé, F.& Ronald, A. (2008). The “fractionable autism triad”: a review of evidence from behavioural, genetic, cognitive and neural research. Neuropsychology review 18(4), 287-304. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Happe, F. & Vital, P. (2009). What aspects of autism predispose to talent? Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 364(1522), 1369-1375. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Haworth, K. (2006). Upper Paleolithic art, autism, and cognitive style: Implications for the evolution of language. Semiotica 162, 127-174.Google Scholar

  • Hodgson, D. & Watson, B. (2015). The visual brain and the early depiction of animals in Europe and Southeast Asia. World archaeology 47(5), 776-791. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Huguet, G., Benabou, M., & Bourgeron, T. (2016). The Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders. In Paolo Sassone-Corsi & Yves Christen (Eds.), A Time for Metabolism and Hormones (pp. 101-129). (Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions). Springer International Publishing.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Humphrey, N. (1998). Cave Art, Autism, and the Evolution of the Human Mind. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 8(02), 165-191. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Humphrey, N. (2002). Commentary on Michael Winkelman, “Shamanism and Cognitive Evolution.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 12(1), 91-93. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Muth, A., Hönekopp, J., & Falter, C. M. (2014). Visuo-spatial performance in autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(12), 3245-3263.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Iossifov, I., O’Roak, B. J., Sanders, S. J., Ronemus, M., Krumm, N., Levy, D., Stessman, H. A., … Wigler, M. (2014). The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder. Nature 515(7526), 216-221. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Janiger, O. & De Rios, M. D. (1989). LSD and creativity. Journal of psychoactive drugs 21(1), 129-134.Google Scholar

  • Kellman, J. (1998). Ice Age Art, Autism, and Vision: How We See/How We Draw. Studies in Art Education 39(2), 117-131. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kind, C.-J., Ebinger-Rist, N., Wolf, S., Beutelspacher, T., & Wehrberger, K. (2014). The smile of the Lion Man. Recent excavations in Stadel Cave (Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany) and the restoration of the famous Upper Palaeolithic figurine. Quartär 61. academia.edu. 129-145. http://www.academia.edu/download/41188807/Kind_etal_LionMan_QU_61.pdf.Google Scholar

  • Klei, L., Sanders, S. J., Murtha, M. T., Hus, V., Lowe, J. K., Willsey, A. J, Moreno-De-Luca, D, … , Devlin, B. (2012). Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism. Molecular autism 3(9). doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Koldewyn, K., Jiang, Y. V., Weigelt, S., & Kanwisher, N. (2013). Global/local processing in autism: not a disability, but a disinclination. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 43(10), 2329-2340. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lewis, J. (2013). A cross-cultural perspective on the significance of music and dance to culture and society insight from BaYaka pygmies. In Michael A. Arbib (Ed.), Language, Music, and the Brain (pp. 45-65). Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Liu, L., Lei, J., Sanders, S. J., Willsey, A. J., Kou, Y, Cicek, A. E, Klei, L., … , Roeder, K. (2014). DAWN: a framework to identify autism genes and subnetworks using gene expression and genetics. Molecular autism 5(1). 22. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lorenz, T. & Heinitz, K. (2014). Aspergers-Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome. PloS one, 9(6), p.e100358.Google Scholar

  • Marques-Bonet, T. & Eichler, E. E. (2009). The evolution of human segmental duplications and the core duplicon hypothesis. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology 74, 355-362. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Marrus, N., Faughn, C., Shuman, J., Petersen, s. E., Constantino, J. N., Povinelli, D. J., & Pruett Jr., J. R. (2011). Initial Description of a Quantitative, Cross-Species (Chimpanzee-Human) Social Responsiveness Measure. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 50(5), 508-518. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Meilleur, A.-A. S., Jelenic, P., & Mottron, L. (2015). Prevalence of clinically and empirically defined talents and strengths in autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 45(5), 1354-1367. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Morphy, H. (2014). Animals Into Art. Abingdon, Uk: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Mottron, L. & Belleville, S. (1993). A study of perceptual analysis in a high-level autistic subject with exceptional graphic abilities. Brain and cognition, 23(2), 279-309.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: an update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 36(1), 27-43. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Müller-Oehring, E. M., Schulte, T., Raassi, C., Pfefferbaum, A., &Sullivan, E.V. (2007). Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size. Brain Research, 1142, 189-205.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Muth, A., Hönekopp, J., & Falter, C. M. (2014). Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 44(12), 3245-63.Google Scholar

  • Navon, D. (1977). Forest before trees: The precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognitive psychology 9(3), 353-383.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Oksenberg, N., Stevison, L., Wall, J.D., & Ahituv, N. (2013). Function and regulation of AUTS2, a gene implicated in autism and human evolution. PLoS genetics 9(1). e1003221. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Landa, R. J., Brian, J., Bryson, S., Charman, T., Chawarska, K., Macari, S. L., Messinger, D., Stone, W. L., & Zwaigenbaum, L. (2015). Diagnostic stability in young children at risk for autism spectrum disorder: a baby siblings research consortium study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(9), 988-998.Google Scholar

  • Pickard, Catriona, Ben Pickard & Clive Bonsall. 2011. Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Prehistory. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 21(03), 357-364. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Polimanti, R. & Gelernter, J. (2017). Widespread signatures of positive selection in common risk alleles associated to autism spectrum disorder. PLoS genetics 13(2). e1006618. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pring, L., Ryder, N., Crane, L., & Hermelin, B. (2010). Local and global processing in savant artists with autism. Perception 39(8). pec.sagepub.com. 1094-1103. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Reyes-García, V., Pyhälä, A., Díaz-Reviriego, I., Duda, R., Fernández-Llamazares, A., Gallois, S., Guèze, M., & Napitupulu, L. (2016). Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies. PloS one 11(1). e0145265. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rivero, O. (2016). Master and Apprentice: Evidence for Learning in Palaeolithic Portable Art. Journal of Archaeological Science 75, 89-100.Google Scholar

  • Robinson, E. B., Pourcain, B. St., Anttila, V., & Kosmicki, J. A. (2016). Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population. Genetics. nature.com. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v48/n5/abs/ng.3529.html.Google Scholar

  • Robinson, E. B., Koenen, K. C., McCormick, M. C., Munir, K., Hallett, V., Happé, F., Plomin, R., & Ronald, A. (2012). A multivariate twin study of autistic traits in 12-year-olds: testing the fractionable autism triad hypothesis. Behavior genetics 42(2), 245-255. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ronemus, M., Iossifov, I., Levy, D., & Wigler, M. (2014). The role of de novo mutations in the genetics of autism spectrum disorders. Nature reviews. Genetics 15(2), 133-141. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rosti, R. O., Sadek, A. A., Vaux, K. K., & Gleeson, J.G. (2014). The genetic landscape of autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56(1), 12-18.Google Scholar

  • Rozin, P. (2010). The weirdest people in the world are a harbinger of the future of the world. The Behavioral and brain sciences 33(2-3), 108-109. http://journals.cambridge.org/article_S0140525X10000312.Google Scholar

  • Russell-Smith, S. N., Maybery, M. T., Bayliss, D. M., & Adelln, A. H. Sng. (2012). Support for a link between the local processing bias and social deficits in autism: an investigation of embedded figures test performance in non-clinical individuals. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 42(11), 2420-2430. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Schartner, M. M., Carhart-Harris, R. L., Barrett, A. B., Seth, a. K., & Muthukumaraswamy, S. D. (2017). Increased spontaneous MEG signal diversity for psychoactive doses of ketamine, LSD and psilocybin. Scientific reports 7. 46421. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., & Herskovits, M. J. (1966). The influence of culture on visual perception. Indianapolis, USA: Bobbs-Merrill. http://www.web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/socialperception14.pdf.Google Scholar

  • Sessa, B. (2008). Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? Journal of psychopharmacology 22(8), 821-827. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sinclair, A. (2015). All in a day’s work? Early conflicts in expertise, life history and time management. In F. Coward, R. Hosfield, M. Pope & F. Wenban-Smith (Ed.), Settlement, Society and Cognition in Human Evolution, 94-116. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Spikins, P. (2009). Autism, the integrations of “difference”and the origins of modern human behaviour. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(02), 179-201. http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0959774309000262.Google Scholar

  • Spikins, P. (2015). How Compassion Made Us Human: The Evolutionary Origins of Tenderness, Trust and Morality. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword.Google Scholar

  • Spikins, P. & Wright, B. (2016). The Prehistory of Autism. Rounded Globe. https://roundedglobe.com/books/9673edbf-0ba5-47b1-97bd-16ef244fd148/The%20Prehistory%20of%20Autism/.Google Scholar

  • Spikins, P., Wright, B., & Hodgson, D. (2016). Are there alternative adaptive strategies to human pro-sociality? The role of collaborative morality in the emergence of personality variation and autistic traits. Time and Mind 9(4), 289-313. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stevenson, R. A., Sun, S. Z., Hazlett, N., Cant, J. S., Barense, M, D., & Ferber, S. (2016). Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Default Local Processing in Individuals with High Autistic Traits Does Not Come at the Expense of Global Attention. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Thorpe, N. (2016). The Palaeolithic Compassion Debate-Alternative Projections of Modern-Day Disability into the Distant Past. Care in the Past: Archaeological and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Oxbow Books: Oxford: 93.Google Scholar

  • Tréhin, P. (2003). Palaeolithic art and autistic savant syndrome. Autism Europe Conference, Lisbon 2003. Unpublished presentation.Google Scholar

  • Uskul, A. K., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2008). Ecocultural basis of cognition: farmers and fishermen are more holistic than herders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(25), 8552-8556. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Van der Hallen, R., Evers, K., Brewaeys, K., Van den Noortgate, W., & Wagemans, J. (2015). Global processing takes time: A meta-analysis on local-global visual processing in ASD. Psychological Bulletin 141(3), 549-573Google Scholar

  • Volkmar, F. R. & McPartland, J. C. (2014). From Kanner to DSM-5: autism as an evolving diagnostic concept. Annual review of clinical psychology, 10, 193-212.Google Scholar

  • Wakabayashi, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Uchiyama, T., Yoshida, Y., Kuroda, M., & Wheelwright, S. (2007). Empathizing and systemizing in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions: cross-cultural stability. Journal of autism and developmental disorders 37(10), 1823-1832. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Warrier, V., Bethlehem, R. A. I., Geschwind, D., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2016). Genetic overlap between educational attainment, schizophrenia and autism. bioRxiv. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wiltshire, S. (1989). Cities. London, UK: Dent.Google Scholar

  • Wiltshire, S. & Sir Casson, H. M. (1987). Drawings. London, UK: Dent.Google Scholar

  • Winner, E. (2000). The origins and ends of giftedness. The American psychologist 55(1), 159-169. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11392860.Google Scholar

  • Winner, E. & Drake, J. E. (2013). The rage to master: The decisive role of talent in the visual arts. In Scott B Kaufman (Ed.), The complexity of greatness: Beyond talent or practice (pp. 333-366). Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Woolfenden, S., Sarkozy, V., Ridley, G., & Williams, K. (2012). A systematic review of the diagnostic stability of autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 6(1), 345-354.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Yoshida, K., Go,Y., Kushima, I., Toyoda, A., Fujiyama, A., Imai, H., Saito,N., Iriki, A., Ozaki, N., & Isoda, M. (2016). Singleneuron and genetic correlates of autistic behavior in macaque. Science Advances 2(9). e1600558. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zaidel, D. W. (2014). Creativity, brain, and art: biological and neurological considerations. Frontiers in human neuroscience 8.389. doi:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zaidel, D. W. (2015). Neuropsychology of Art: Neurological, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Perspectives. Psychology Press. Hove, UK.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-04-28

Accepted: 2017-12-12

Published Online: 2018-05-12


Citation Information: Open Archaeology, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 262–279, ISSN (Online) 2300-6560, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opar-2018-0016.

Export Citation

© 2018. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in