Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Political Science

Editor-in-Chief: de Mucci, Raffaele

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2543-8042
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Harmony and Discord: Development of Political Parties and Social Fragmentation in Hong Kong, 1980-2017

Andrew Chun Kit Yu
Published Online: 2019-08-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/openps-2019-0006

Abstract

This paper seeks to examine why political parties in Hong Kong are fragmented and how the development of political parties in Hong Kong leads to social discord. Political parties started to emerge in Hong Kong in the 1980s. They had a golden opportunity to develop in the 1990s due to political reform, but why are political parties in Hong Kong still small, weak, with poor reputations and weak support? The author points out five factors that lead to the malfunction of political parties in Hong Kong. Although some factors are caused by the political parties themselves, the author argues that they are, all in all, constitutional or institutional factors, as they are long-term restraints directly set by the government since the colonial era. Due to the failure of party development in Hong Kong caused by constitutional and institutional restraints, the author will also discuss how this failure has lead to the political and social discord in the past two decades since the handover and the future.

Keywords: Political Party; Hong Kong Society; social discord; social fragmentation; election; history of political development in Hong Kong

References

  • Butenhoff, L., Social movements and political reform in Hong Kong (California: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999)Google Scholar

  • Chan, M. K., China’s Hong Kong transformed: retrospect and prospects beyond the first decade (Hong Kong: City University Press, 2008)Google Scholar

  • Chan, M. K., The Challenge of Hong Kong’s Reintegration with China: Modern Diasporic Femininity (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1997)Google Scholar

  • Choy, C. K. and Lau, S. L., ‘The executive-legislative relations in Hong Kong before 1997’, Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences, 8 (1996) pp. 237-66Google Scholar

  • Choy, C. K., ‘Political parties and political participation in Hong Kong’, in Y. S. Lam, eds., Political participation in Hong Kong: Theoretical issues and historical legacy (Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press, 1999) pp. 121-48Google Scholar

  • Choy, C. K., ‘The divisive effect of the proportional representation system: From inter-party competition to intra-party competition’, in H. C. Kuan, S. K. Lau, T. Wong, eds., Out of the shadow of 1997? The 2000 Legislative Council election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2002) pp. 99-123Google Scholar

  • Chung, T. Y. (2014). Simple comments on local parties. Retrieved in April, 2018 from The University of Hong Kong, Public Opinion Programme: http://hkupop.hku.hk/english/columns/columns95.html

  • Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (2017). Research reports. Retrieved in April, 2018 from http://www.dab.org.hk/page.php?t=7&st=7&mid=7,7,7

  • Epstein, L., Political parties in western democracies (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1980)Google Scholar

  • Fong, B. C., Hong Kong’s governance under Chinese sovereignty: The failure of the state-business alliance after 1997 (New York: Routledge, 2014)Google Scholar

  • Gunther, R., and Diamond, L., ‘Species of political parties a new typology’, Party Politics, 9:2 (2003) pp. 167-99CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hermans, F., Democracy or anarchy (New York: Johnson Reprint, 1970)Google Scholar

  • Kreuzer, M, ‘Electoral mechanisms and electioneering incentives: Vote-getting strategies of Japanese, French, British, German and Austrian conservatives’, Party Politics, 6:4 (2000) pp. 487-504CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kuan, H. C., and Lau, S. K., ‘Cognitive mobilization and electoral support for the Democratic Party in Hong Kong’, Electoral Studies, 21:4 (2002) pp. 561-82CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kuan, H. C., Lau, S. K., Louie, K. S., and Wong, T. K. Y., Power transfer and electoral politics: the first legislative election in the Hong Kong special administrative region (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1999)Google Scholar

  • Lam, W. M., Understanding the Political Culture of Hong Kong: The Paradox of Activism and Depoliticization (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2004)Google Scholar

  • Lau, S. K., and Liu, Z., Society and politics in Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1984)Google Scholar

  • Leung, B., and Cheng, J., Hong Kong SAR: In pursuit of domestic and international order (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1997)Google Scholar

  • Li, P. K., Political order and power transition in Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1997)Google Scholar

  • Lo, S. H., The politics of democratization in Hong Kong (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1997)Google Scholar

  • Loh, C., Functional Constituencies: A Unique Feature of the Hong Kong Legislative Council (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2006)Google Scholar

  • Loh, C., Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010)Google Scholar

  • Ma, N., ‘Factionalism in the Democratic Party and the 2000 election’, in H. C. Kuan, S. K. Lau, T. Wong, eds., Out of the shadow of 1997? The 2000 Legislative Council election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2002) pp. 125-159Google Scholar

  • Ma, N., ‘Political parties and elections’, in W. M. Lam, L. T. Liu, and W. Wong, eds., Contemporary Hong Kong government and politics (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2012) pp. 159-177Google Scholar

  • Ma, N., and Choy, C. K., ‘The impact of electoral rule change on party campaign strategy: Hong Kong as a case study’, Party Politics, 9:3 (2003) pp. 347-67CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ma, N., Political development in Hong Kong: State, political society, and civil society (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2007)Google Scholar

  • Raiklin, E., ‘On the Relevance of the Principal Programs of the Leading Post-Soviet Russian Political Parties’, in B. Wejnert, eds., Linking Environment, Democracy and Gender (Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012) pp. 73-103Google Scholar

  • Schattschneider, E. E., Party government (New York: Rinehart, 1942)Google Scholar

  • Scott, I., Public administration in Hong Kong: Regime change and its impact on the public sector (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic, 2005)Google Scholar

  • The Chinese University of Hong Kong (2013). Survey findings on evaluation of political parties in Hong Kong. Retrieved in April 2018 from http://www.cpr.cuhk.edu.hk/en/press_detail.php?1=1&id=1595&s=

  • The Democratic Party (2017). Research. Retrieved in April 2018 from http://www.dphk.org/index.php?route=news/category&path=1

  • Tsang, S., Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1995)Google Scholar

  • Voter Registration (2013). Voter registration statistics. Retrieved in April 2018 from http://www.voterregistration.gov.hk/eng/statistic20133.html

  • Wong, S. H. W., Electoral politics in post-1997 Hong Kong (Singapore: Springer, 2015)Google Scholar

  • Wong, T. H., Hegemonies compared: State formation and Chinese school politics in postwar Singapore and Hong Kong (New York: Routledge, 2002)Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2019-06-04

Accepted: 2019-06-21

Published Online: 2019-08-28

Published in Print: 2019-01-01


Citation Information: Open Political Science, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 53–63, ISSN (Online) 2543-8042, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/openps-2019-0006.

Export Citation

© 2019 Andrew Chun Kit Yu, published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License. BY 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in