Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …
New journal!

Open Information Science

Editor-in-Chief: Sturges, Paul

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2451-1781
See all formats and pricing
More options …

An Exploratory Journey of Cultural Visual Literacy of “Non-Conforming” Gender Representations from Pre-Colonial Sub- Saharan Africa

Bharat Mehra
  • Corresponding author
  • Professor & EBSCO Endowed Chair in Social Justice, School of Library and Information Studies, University of AlabamaTuscaloosa
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Paul A. Lemieux III
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information, Department of CommerceAsheville
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Keri Stophel
Published Online: 2019-04-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opis-2019-0001

Abstract

This article is an exploratory journey of cultural visual literacy of “non-conforming” gender representations from pre-colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. It provides select research-based visual evidence of “non-conforming” genders and sexual orientations in traditional cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa as represented in its popular press, scholarly literature, and government and United Nations publications, amongst other sources. These have been selectively described in the context of key cultural themes that include (alphabetically listed): art, folklore, gender behavior, language, marriage, religion, and, sexual activity. The article provides a glimpse of data that were collected during a collaborative project selected by the University of Tennessee’s Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy to partner in the U.S. Department of State’s Diplomacy Lab program of engaged scholarship involving two information science graduate students and a faculty member. A few insights from the exploratory journey of the cultural visual literacy of “non-conforming” gender representations are also reported.

Keywords: “non-conforming” gender representations; pre-colonial; Sub-Saharan Africa

References

  • Achebe, N. (2003). “And she became a man”: King Ahebi Ugbabe in the history of Enugu-Ezike, Nsukka Division, 1880–1948, Southeastern Nigeria. In L. A. Lindsay & S. Miescher (Eds.), Men and masculinities in modern Africa, (pp. 52–68). Westport, CT: Heinemann.Google Scholar

  • Achebe, N. (2011). The female king of colonial Nigeria. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar

  • Aldrich, R. (2003). Colonialism and homosexuality. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Badru, P., and Sackey, B. M. (2013). Islam in Africa south of the Sahara: Essays in gender relations and political reform. Toronto, Canada: Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar

  • Bannerji, H. (2002). Inventing Subjects: Studies in Hegemony, Patriarchy and Colonialism (Anthem South Asian Studies). London, United Kingdom: Anthem Press.Google Scholar

  • Behrend, H. (2011). Resurrecting cannibals: The Catholic church, witch-hunts, and the production of pagans in western Uganda. Suffolk, NY: James Currey.Google Scholar

  • Bidstrup, S. (2015, March 11). Homosexuality in prehistoric Africa [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://ugandagayonmove.wordpress.com/2015/03/11/homosexuality-in-prehistoric-africa/

  • Boakye, B. (2018). “The fascinating history of Africa’s female husbands.” face2face Africa: Culture, April 5. Retrieved from https://face2faceafrica.com/article/fascinating-history-africas-female-husbands.

  • Bonham, M. S. (2014). Champions: Biographies of global LGBTQ pioneers. Toronto, Canada: Bonham.Google Scholar

  • Brown, T. C. (2012). The Primitive, the Aesthetic, and the Savage: An Enlightenment Problematic. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar

  • Cadornega, A. O. (1940). História geral das guerras angolanas, 1680 [General history of the Angolan Wars, 1680] (Vol. 3). Lisbon, Portugal: Agência Geral das Colónias.Google Scholar

  • Chitando, E., and van Klinken, A. (2016). Christianity and Controversies over Homosexuality in Contemporary Africa (1st edition). (Religion in Modern Africa). Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Christensen, J. B. (1954). Double descent among the Fanti. G. A. Highland (Ed.). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.Google Scholar

  • Colson, E. (1958). Marriage and the family among the plateau Tonga of northern Rhodesia. Manchester, United Kingdom: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar

  • Cooke, N. A. (2017). Posttruth, Truthiness, and Alternative Facts: Informtion Behavior and Criticl Information Consumption for a New Age. The Library Quarterly: Informatiion, Community, Policy. 87(3), 211-221.Google Scholar

  • Cromwell, J. (1999). Transmen and FTMs: Identities, bodies, genders, and sexualities. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar

  • Dahlstrom, M. (2016, May 9). Ahebi Ugbabe (d. 1948, Nigeria) [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://genderinafricanbiography.wordpress.com/2016/05/09/ahebi-ugbabe-d-1948-nigeria/

  • Dlamini, B. (2006). Homosexuality in the African context. Agenda 20(67), 128–136. doi:10.1080/10130950.2006.9674706CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Durkheim, E., and Mauss, M. (1967). Primitive Classification Translated and Introduction by Rodney Needham (Original Année Sociologique, 1903). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

  • Eliason, M. J., and Chinn, P. (2017). LGBTQ Cultures: What Health Care Professionals Need to Know About Sexual and Gender Diversity (3rd Edition). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.Google Scholar

  • Epprecht, M. (2013a). Sexuality and social justice in Africa: Rethinking homophobia and forging resistance. London, United Kingdom: Zed Books.Google Scholar

  • Epprecht, M. (2013b). “Achebe, Nwando – The Female King of Colonial Nigeria.” Retrieved November 13, 2018, from file:///C:/Users/Angela/Downloads/etudesafricaines-14460-209-210-achebe-nwando-the-female-king-of-colonial-nigeria%20(2).pdfGoogle Scholar

  • Erasing 76 Crimes. (2017). Anti-homosexuality bill. Retrieved from https://76crimes.com/tag/anti-homosexuality-bill/

  • Eskridge, W. N., Jr. (1993). A history of same-sex marriage. Virginia Law Review, 79, 1419–1513. doi:10.2307/1073379CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Evans–Pritchard, E. E. (1937). Witchcraft, oracles and magic among the Azande. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar

  • Evans–Pritchard, E. E. (1951). Kinship and marriage among the Nuer. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar

  • Evans–Pritchard, E. E. (1974). Man and woman among the Azande. New York, NY: Faber & Faber.Google Scholar

  • Facos, M. (2009). Symbolist Art in Context. (1st edition). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar

  • Falola, T. O. (2018). The role of Nigerian women. In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/role-of-Nigerian-women-1360615

  • Fox, J., Ralston, R. A., Cooper, C. K., and Jones, K. A. (2015). Sexualized Avatars Lead to Women’s Self-Objectification and Acceptance of Rape Myths. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(3), 349-362.Google Scholar

  • Gabay, C. (2019). Imagining Africa: Whiteness and the Western Gaze. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Gibson, E. (2018). Feminasty: The Complicated Woman’s Guide to Surviving the Patriarchy Without Drinking Herself to Death. New York City: Grand Central Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Giovanni, E. D. (2014). Cultural Otherness and Global Communication in Walt Disney Films at the Turn of the Century. The Translator, 9(2), 207-223.Google Scholar

  • Google. (2018). About Tour Builder. Tour Builder Beta: A Google Earth Experiment. Retrieved https://tourbuilder.withgoogle.com/about/faq.

  • Greenberg, D. F. (1988). The construction of homosexuality. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

  • Greenblatt, E. (ed.). (2011). Serving LGBTIQ Library and Archives Users: Essays on Outreach, Service, Collections and Access. Jefferson NC: MacFarland & Company, Inc.Google Scholar

  • Hanna, J. L. (2017). One Student at a Time: A Reflection of Support for a First-Year GSA Club and its Impact on Perceived Acceptance for LGBTQ Students. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 90(3), 98-102.Google Scholar

  • Haude, L. (2018). Serving LGBTQ Teens: A Practical Guide for Librarians. (Practical Guides for Librarians, No. 44). Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar

  • Henige, D. (2006). Historical Evidence and Argument. (1st edition). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar

  • Herskovits, M. J. (1937). A note on ‘woman marriage’ in Dahomey. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 10, 335–341. doi:10.2307/1155299Google Scholar

  • Heschel, S., and Ryad, U. (2018). The Muslim Reception of European Orientalism: Reversing the Gaze (1st edition). (Routledge Studies in Modern History). Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Hoad, N. W. (2007). African intimacies: Race, homosexuality, and globalization. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar

  • Iaccino, L. (2014, January 30). Gay Ugandan king proves that homosexuality is African. International Business Times. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/gay-ugandan-king-proves-that-homosexuality-african-1434416.

  • Johnston, R. J., Gregory, D., and Pratt, G. (2000). The Dictionary of Human Geography (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Jordan, W. D. (1974). The White Man’s Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States (Galaxy Books). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Kofi, A. (2015, June 28). Homosexuality not un-African: Africa’s gays argue [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://aboriginalwriter.wordpress.com/2015/06/28/homosexuality-not-un-african-africas-gays-argue/

  • Krige, E. J. (1937). Note on the Phalaborwa and their Morula complex. Bantu Studies, 11, 357–66. doi:10.1080/02561751.1937.9676060CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kunczik, M. (1996). Images of Nations and International Public Relations (First edition). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Kuhar, R. (2013). In the Name of Hate: Homophobia as a Value. Southeastern Europe, 37, 1-16.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lerner, G. (1987). The Creation of Patriarchy (Women and History, Volume 1), (Reprint ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Lev, A. I. (2004). Transgender emergence: Therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. New York: The Haworth Clinical Practice Press.Google Scholar

  • Lockman, Z. (2009). Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism (The Contemporary Middle East) (2nd ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Low, D. A. (2009). Fabrication of empire: The British and the Uganda kingdoms, 1890–1902. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Luirink, B., and Maurick, M. (2016). Homosexuality in Africa: A Disturbing Love (1st edition). Ultrecht, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Aspekt B.V.Google Scholar

  • Macfie, A. L. (2001). Orientalism: A Reader. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar

  • Marion, F. (1964). New African saints: The twenty-two martyrs of Uganda. Milan, Italy: Ancora.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B. (ed.). (forthcoming). LGBTQ+ Librarianship in the 21st Century: Emerging Directions of Advocacy and Community Engagement in Diverse Information Environments (Advances in Librarianship Series). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B. (2018). Emerging Voices in Diversity and Inclusion Leadership: Applications of the Strategic Diversity Manifesto (Editorial). Special Issue: From Diversity Theory to Diversity in Action. International Journal of Information, Diversity, and Inclusion, 2(4): 2018.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B. (2017). Mobilization of Rural Libraries towards Political and Economic Change in the Aftermath of the 2016 Presidential Election. The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy (Special Issue: Aftermath: Libraries, Democracy, and the 2016 Presidential Election), 87(4), 369-390.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B. (2016). Cultural Re-Interpretation of Race/Ethnicity and Sexuality: A Gay South Asian “Voice” From Between a Rock and a Hard Place. In Diane L. Barlow and Paul T. Jaeger (eds.), Celebrating the James Partridge Award: Essays Toward the Development of a More Diverse, Inclusive, Equitable Field of Library and Information Science (Advances in Librarianship Series) (pp. 169-193), Volume 42. Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing (December 2016).Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B., and Elder, A. (2018). Benefits to Collection Development Librarians from Collaborating with “Community- Embedded” Librarians-In-Training, Collection Management, 43(2): 120-137.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B., and Gray, L. (2014). “Don’t Say Gay” in the State of Tennessee: Libraries as Virtual Spaces of Resistance and Protectors of Human Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) People, LGBTQ Users Special Interest Group [Theme: Addressing the Silence: How Libraries can Serve Their LGBTQ Users] (pages 23), Proceedings of the World Library and Information Congress: 80th International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) General Conference and Council [Conference Theme: Libraries, Citizens, Societies: Confluence for Knowledge], August 16-22, 2014, Lyon, France. Retrieved http://library.ifla.org/1011/1/151-mehra-en.pdf.

  • Mehra, B., Haley, E., and Lane, D. (2015). Culturally Appropriate Information Support Services for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) South Asians: Representing Multiple Shades of Identity based on Sexual Orientation and Ethnicity. In: J. Hawley (ed.). Expanding the Circle: Creating an Inclusive Environment in Higher Education for LGBTQ Students and Studies (pp. 317-339). New York: SUNY Press (January 2016).Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B., and Hernandez, L. (2017). Rural and Urban Queering Alliances Out of the Library towards Legal Protection of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning People in India. In R. Montague and L. McKeever (eds.). Queer Library Alliance: Global Reflections and Imaginings (pp. 125-169). Sacramento, CA: Library Juice Press.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B., and Hernandez, L. (2016). Libraries as agents of human rights protection and social justice on behalf of sexual minorities in India: An action-based manifesto for progressive change. In U. Gorham, N. G. Taylor, & P. T. Jaeger (Eds.), Perspectives on libraries as institutions of human rights and social justice (pp. 147–182). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B., Lemieux III, P. A., Burwell, C., Hixson, T., Partee II, R. P., Stophel, K., and Wood, N. E. (2018a). Expanding LIS Education in the U.S. Department of State’s Diplomacy Lab Program: GIS and LGBTI Advocacy in Africa and Latin America. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 59(3), 4-16.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B., Lemieux III, P. A., Burwell, C., Hixson, T., Partee II, R. P., Stophel, K., and Wood, N. E. (2018b). Expanding LIS Education in the U.S. Department of State’s Diplomacy Lab Program: GIS and LGBTI Advocacy in Africa and Latin America. Proceedings of the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) Annual Conference: The Expanding LIS Education Universe (Compiled by Peiling Wang, Ashlea Green, & Shimelis Assefa) Denver, Colorado, February 6-9, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018, from https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/98929

  • Mehra, B., Merkel, C., and Bishop, A. P. (2004). Internet for Empowerment of Minority and Marginalized Communities, New Media & Society, 6(5), 781-802.Google Scholar

  • Mehra, B., and Tidwell, W. T. (2014). Mapping the Infoscape of LIS Courses for Intersections of Health-Gender and Health- Sexual Orientation Topics. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, Summer June 2014, 55(3), 191-211.Google Scholar

  • Meyerowitz, E. L. R. (1958). The Akan of Ghana: Their ancient beliefs. London, United Kingdom: Faber & Faber.Google Scholar

  • Munday, J. T. (1940). Some traditions of the Endwa clan of northern Rhodesia. Bantu Studies, 14, 435–454.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Murray, S. O. (1998). Homosexuality in “traditional” sub-Saharan Africa and contemporary South Africa. In W. Roscoe & S. O.Google Scholar

  • Murray (Eds.) Boy–wives and female husbands: Studies in African homosexualities. New York, NY: St. Martins.Google Scholar

  • Murray, S. O., & Roscoe, W. (Eds.). (1998). Boy–wives and female husbands: Studies in African homosexualities. Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

  • Nakamura, L. (2014). ‘I WILL DO EVERYthing That Am Asked’: Scambaiting, Digital Show-Space, and the Racial Violence of Social Media. Journal of Visual Culture, 13(3), 257-274.Google Scholar

  • Nakamura, L. (2008). Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minneapolis Press.Google Scholar

  • Naz, D. (2014). Genderqueer: And other gender identities. Los Angeles, CA: Rare Bird Books.Google Scholar

  • Nestle, J. (2002). GenderQueer: Voices from beyond the sexual binary. Los Angeles, CA: Alyson.Google Scholar

  • Norberg-Schulz, C. (1991). Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli.Google Scholar

  • Obamwonyi, H. (2016). The homosexual nature of Africa’s past [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.swaliafrica.com/the-homosexual-nature-of-africas-past/

  • Oboler, R. S. (1980). Is the female husband a man? Woman/woman marriage among the Nandi of Kenya. Ethnology, 19, 69–88. doi:10.2307/3773320CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Osterhammel, J. (2015). The transformation of the world: A global history of the nineteenth century (P. Camiller, Trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

  • Paramo, M. (2017). LGBT Inclusive Public School Curriculum: A Gradual Process, Support vs. Opposition, and Effects on LGBT Youth. In Ashley Loup (Editor-in-Chief), The American Papers (pp. 43-50). Fullerton, CA: The American Studies Student Association, California State University.Google Scholar

  • Parrinder, E. G. (1980). Sex in the world’s religions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Parrinder, E. G., Closs, A., Fox, J. R., & Strehlow, T. G. H. (1971). Religions of illiterate people. In C. J. Bleeker & G. Windgren (Eds.), Historia religionum: Handbook for the history of religions: Religions of the present, Vol. II (pp. 550–641). Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar

  • Paulat, L. (2014, February 23). The myth of African homosexuality [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.care2.com/causes/the-myth-of-african-homosexuality.html

  • Pew Research Center. (2010). Sub-Saharan Africa religion database [Interactive database]. Retrieved from http://www.pewforum.org/interactives/africa/country/51/

  • Pryor, J. T. (2018). Visualizing Queer Spaces: LGBTQ Students and the Traditionally Heterogendered Institution. Journal of LGBT Youth, 15(1), 32-51.Google Scholar

  • Roberts, S. (2013, July 29). President Mugabe: “Never, never, never will we support homosexuality in Zimbabwe.” Pink news. Retrieved from https://www.pinknews.co.uk/2013/07/29/president-mugabe-never-never-never-will-we-supporthomosexuality-in-zimbabwe/

  • Said, E. W. (1978). Orientalism (25th Anniversary Edition). New York, NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar

  • Saidi, C. (2010). Women’s authority and society in early East-central Africa. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar

  • Sarbah, J. M. (2018). Fanti customary laws: A brief introduction to the principles of the native laws and customs of the Fanti and Akan districts of the Gold Coast.Google Scholar

  • Schieble, M. (2014). Reading Images in American Born Chinese through Critical Visual Literacy. English Journal, 103(5), 47-52.Google Scholar

  • Sexual Minorities Uganda. (2014). Expanded criminalisation of homosexuality in Uganda: A flawed narrative: Empirical evidence and strategic alternatives from an African perspective [Report]. Retrieved from https://caladvocacyblog.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/expanded-criminalisation-of-homosexuality-in-uganda-january-2014.pdf

  • Silver, D., and Massanari, A. (eds.). (2006). Critical Cyber-Culture Studies. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar

  • Stanciu, E. (2014). Urban Space and Queer Identities: The LGBTQ Film Festival as Heterotopia. AnALize: Revista de Studii Feministe. 3(17), 159-177.Google Scholar

  • Steck, A. K., and Perry, D. R. (2016). Fostering Safe and Inclusive Spaces for LGBTQ Students: Phenomenographic Exploration of High School Administrators’ Perceptions about GSAs. Journal of LGBT Youth, 13(4), 352-377.Google Scholar

  • Stewart, C. (2014, January 30). 21 varieties of traditional African homosexuality [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://76crimes.com/2014/01/30/21-varieties-of-traditional-african-homosexuality/

  • Sweet, J. H. (2009). Mutual misunderstandings: Gesture, gender and healing in the African Portuguese world. Past & Present, 203(4), 128–143.Google Scholar

  • Tamale, S. (2014, April 26). Opinion: Homosexuality is not un-African. Aljazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/4/homosexuality-africamuseveniugandanigeriaethiopia.html

  • Taylor, M. (2014, March 24). From Mwanga to Museveni: Sex, politics and religion in Uganda. African Arguments. Retrieved from https://africanarguments.org/2014/03/24/from-mwanga-to-museveni-sex-politics-and-religion-in-uganda-bymagnus-taylor/

  • Tessmann, G. (1921). Homosexuality among the negroes of Cameroon and a Pangwe tale. (B. Rose, Trans.). In S. O. Murray & W. Roscoe (Eds.), Boywives and female husbands: Studies of African homosexualities (pp. 149–162). New York, NY: St. Martin’s.Google Scholar

  • Toomey, P. (2016). Gay Sub-Saharan Rock Art in Zim: Ancient rock art in Zimbabwe proves that homosexuality isn’t foreign to African culture.” JHB Live, June 6. Retrieved from http://www.jhblive.com/Stories-in-Johannesburg/article/gay-sub-saharan-rock-art-in-zim/82927.

  • United Nations Statistics Division. (2018). Standard country or area codes for statistical use (M49) [List]. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/

  • van Klinken, A., and Chitando, E. (2016). Public Religion and the Politics of Homosexuality in Africa (1st edition). (Religion in Modern Africa). Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Viegas, Artur. (ed.). (1930). Japa˜o, China…Angola, Guine´…nos anos de 1600 a 1609, (3 vols.), I. Coimbra: Coimbra University Press.Google Scholar

  • Wagaman, M. A., Obejero, R. C., and Gregory, J. S. (2018). Countering the Norm, (Re)authoring Our Lives: The Promise Counterstorytelling Holds as a Research Methodology With LGBTQ Youth and Beyond. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1-11. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1609406918800646.Crossref

  • Wanjiru, A. (2014, October 11). 10 cases of homosexuality in pre-colonial Africa [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://afriticles.blogspot.com/2014/10/10-cases-of-homosexuality-in-pre.html

  • Watson, L. W., and Johnson, J. M. (2013). Authentic Leadership: An Engaged Discussion of LGBTQ Work as Culturally Relevant. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Weeks, J. (2005). Remembering Foucault. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 14(1/2), 186-201.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Weeks, J. (2002). Sexuality and Its Discontents: Meanings, Myths, and Modern Sexualities (1st ed.). London, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Weissenberger, G., and Duane, J. J. (2011). Federal Rules of Evidence: Rules, Legislative History, Commentary, and Authority (Seventh edition). Danvers, MA: LexisNexis.Google Scholar

  • Wilhelm, A. (2008). Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the third sex: Understanding homosexuality, transgender identity, and intersex conditions through Hinduism. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris.Google Scholar

  • Wilson, K. (2011). ‘Race’, Gender and Neoliberalism: Changing Visual Representations in Development. Third World Quarterly, 32(2), 315-331.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Winkelstein, J. A. (2012). “Public Libraries and Homeless LGBTQ Youth: Creating Safe Spaces Through Cultural Competence. “ Ph. D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/1594.

  • Wong, D. (2016). Homosexuality in Africa: A Cultural Debate. Seattle, WA: Amazon Digital Services LLCGoogle Scholar

  • Yuracko, K. A. (2016). Gender Nonconformity and the Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

  • Zabus, C. (2013). Out in Africa: Same-sex desire in sub-Saharan literatures and cultures. Suffolk, United Kingdom: James Currey.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-11-26

Accepted: 2019-01-15

Published Online: 2019-04-01

Published in Print: 2019-01-01


Citation Information: Open Information Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1–21, ISSN (Online) 2451-1781, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opis-2019-0001.

Export Citation

© 2019 Bharat Mehra et al., published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License. BY 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in