Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Linguistics

Editor-in-Chief: Ehrhart, Sabine

1 Issue per year


Covered by:
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index
ERIH PLUS

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-9969
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Being a former Second World War partisan: Reported speech and the expression of local identity

Federica Guerini
Published Online: 2015-01-16 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/opli-2014-0010

Abstract

This paper presents a qualitative analysis of narrative sequences extracted from a sample of semistructured interviews to a group of former Second World War partisans living in the Camonica valley (in the province of Brescia), for a total of roughly 15 hours of recordings. The analysis combines the interpretative frameworks of conversation analysis and interactional sociolinguistics with the study of reported speech and of the strategies of voice representation in dialogic and narrative texts. Special attention is devoted to the use of code-switching as a ‘contextualisation cue’ (Gumperz 1982) in order to mark portions of reported speech and set them off from the surrounding talk or from the main flow of a narrative episode, even in the absence of explicit recourse to verba dicendi or other quotation devices. Our findings show that code-switching may serve as a quotative marker, whereby speakers index the beginning of the reported utterances and shape the characters alternating in a dialogic sequence by drawing on the various linguistic resources at their disposal.

Keywords: Code-switching; Bresciano dialect; Italian; conversation analysis; quotative markers

References

  • Alfonzetti, Giovanna. 1992. Il discorso bilingue. Italiano e dialetto a Catania. Milano, Franco Angeli.Google Scholar

  • Alfonzetti, Giovanna. 2012. I giovani e il code-switching in Sicilia [Youths and code-switching in Sicily]. Materiali e ricerche 31. Palermo: Centro di Studi Linguistici e Filologici Siciliani.Google Scholar

  • Auer, Peter. 1984. Bilingual Conversation. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Auer, Peter. 1995. The pragmatics of code-switching: a sequential approach. In Lesley Milroy & Pieter Muysken (eds.), One Speaker, Two Languages. Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching. 115–135. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Auer, Peter. 2011. Code-switching, conversational structure and social identities. In Raffaella Bombi, Mari D’Agostino, Silvia Dal Negro & Rita Franceschini (eds.), Lingue e culture in Contatto. In memoria di Roberto Gusmani. 27–45. Perugia: Guerra. Google Scholar

  • Bailey, Benjamin. 2007. Language alternation as a resource for identity negotiations among Dominican American bilinguals. In Peter Auer (ed.), Style and Social Identities. Alternative Approaches to Linguistic Heterogeneity, 29–55. Berlin / New York: De Gruyter. Google Scholar

  • Bakhtin, Micheal M. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar

  • Bhatia Tej Krishan & William C. Ritchie. 1999. The bilingual child. In William C. Ritchie & Tej Krishan Bhatia (eds.). Handbook of Child Language Acquisition. 569–641. San Diego: Academic Press. Google Scholar

  • Berruto, Gaetano. 1985. «’l pulman l-è nen ch-a cammina tanto forte». Su commutazione di codice e mescolanza dialetto-italiano [«The bus is not going too fast». On code-switching and Italian-dialect mixing]. Vox Romanica 44. 59–76.Google Scholar

  • Berruto, Gaetano. 1997. Code-switching and code-mixing. In Martin Maiden & Mair Parry (eds.), The Dialects of Italy, 394–400. London / New York: Routledge. Google Scholar

  • Berruto, Gaetano. 2005. Dialect/standard convergence, mixing, and models of language contact: the case of Italy. In Peter Auer, Frans Hinskens & Paul Kerswill (eds.), Dialect Change. The Convergence and Divergence of Dialects in Contemporary Societies, 81–95. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Berruto, Gaetano. 2012a. Sul ruolo dei complementatori nella commutazione di codice [On the role of complementizers in code-switching]. In Vincenzo Orioles (ed.), Per Roberto Gusmani. Linguistica storica e teorica. Vol. II, 27–41. Udine: Forum. Google Scholar

  • Berruto, Gaetano. 2012b. Lingua nazionale e dialetti a 150 anni dall’Unità d’Italia [National language and Italo-Romance dialects 150 years after political unity]. In Pietro A. Di Pretoro & Rita Unfer Lukoschik (eds.). Lingua e letteratura italiana 150 anni dopo l’Unità [The Italian language and literature 150 years after political unity]. Atti del Convegno di Studi presso l’Università di Zurigo, 30 marzo – 1 aprile 2011. Muenchen, Meidenbauer. 95–111. Google Scholar

  • Blommaert, Jan. 2005. Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bonfadini, Giovanni. 1989. Il dialetto bresciano: modello cittadino e varietà periferiche [Bresciano dialect: the urban model and the peripheral varieties]. Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia XIV. 41–92.Google Scholar

  • Bonfadini, Giovanni. 2010. Lombardi, dialetti [The Lombard dialects]. In Raffaele Simone (ed.), Enciclopedia dell’Italiano Treccani. On-line version. http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/dialetti-lombardi_(Enciclopedia-dell’Italiano) (accessed 8 April 2014).Google Scholar

  • Calaresu, Emilia. 2004. Testuali Parole. La dimensione pragmatica e testuale del discorso riportato [Textual words. The pragmatic and textual dimension of reported speech]. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar

  • Clift, Rebecca. 2007. Getting there first: non narrative reported speech in interaction. In Elizabeth Holt & Rebecca Clift (eds.), Reporting Talk. Reported Speech in Interaction, 120–149. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Coulmas, Florian. 1986. Reported speech: some general issues. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), Direct and Indirect Speech, 1–28. Berlin / New York: Mouton De Gruyter. Google Scholar

  • Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth. 2007. Assessing and accounting. In Elizabeth Holt & Rebecca Clift (eds.), Reporting Talk. Reported Speech in Interaction, 81–119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Coupland, Nikolas. 2001. Language, situation and the relational self: theorizing dialect-style in sociolinguistics. In Penelope Eckert & John R. Rickford (eds.), Style and Sociolinguistic Variation, 185–210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • D’Agostino, Mari. 2007. Sociolinguistica dell’Italia contemporanea [A sociolinguistic profile of contemporary Italy]. Bologna, Il Mulino.Google Scholar

  • De Mauro, Tullio. 2003[1963]. Storia linguistica dell’Italia unita [Linguistic history of united Italy]. Roma-Bari, Laterza.Google Scholar

  • De Mauro, Tullio. 2014. Storia linguistica dell’Italia repubblicana. Dal 1946 ai nostri giorni [Linguistic history of republican Italy. From 1946 to the present]. Roma-Bari, Laterza.Google Scholar

  • Erving-Tripp, Susan. 2001. Variety, style-shifting and ideology. In Penelope Eckert & John R. Rickford (eds.), Style and Sociolinguistic Variation, 44–56. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Fava Elisabetta & Anna Palmerini. 2005. Tra italiano e lombardo orientale: aspetti di bilinguismo e diglossia [Between Italian and Eastern Lombard: aspects of bilingualism and diglossia]. In Klaus Hölker & Christiane Maass (eds.), Aspetti dell’italiano parlato, 205–279. Münster: LIT.Google Scholar

  • Fónagy, Ivan. 1986. Reported speech in French and Hungarian. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), Direct and Indirect Speech, 255–309. Berlin / New York: Mouton De Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Foresti, Fabio. 2003. Le varietà linguistiche e il “language planning” durante il fascismo: un bilancio degli studi (1977-2001) [Language varieties and language planning during the Fascist period: an overview of the existing studies (1977-2001)]. In Fabio Foresti (ed.). Credere, Obbedire, Combattere. Google Scholar

  • Il regime linguistico nel Ventennio, 11–25. Bologna: Pendragon. Google Scholar

  • Francescato, Giuseppe. 1986. Per una sottocategorizzazione dei verba dicendi [On the classification of verbs of saying]. In Klaus Lichem, Edith Mara & Susanne Knaller (Hrsg.), Aspetti della sintassi dell’italiano contemporaneo, 85–91. Tübingen: Narr. Google Scholar

  • Goffman, Erving. 1974. Frame Analysis. An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar

  • Goffman, Erving. 1981. Forms of Talk. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Google Scholar

  • Goodwin, Charles. 2007. Interactive footing. In Elisabeth Holt & Rebecca Clift (eds.). Reporting Talk. Reported Speech in Interaction, 16–46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Grassi Corrado, Sobrero Alberto & Tullio Telmon. 2003. Introduzione alla dialettologia italiana. Roma-Bari, Laterza.Google Scholar

  • Grosjean, François. 2001. The bilingual’s language modes. In Janet Nicol (ed.), One mind, two languages. Bilingual language processing,1–22. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar

  • Guerini, Federica. 2011. Language policy and ideology in Italy. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 210. 109–126.Google Scholar

  • Guerini Federica & Silvia Dal Negro (eds.). 2011. Italian Sociolinguistics: twenty years on. [Special Issue]. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 210.Google Scholar

  • Guerini, Federica. 2013. «Me en ʤer'manja ge ndo ˈmia, io sto qui!» Commutazione di codice e organizzazione della conversazione nelle testimonianze degli ex partigiani in Valle Camonica [«I am not going to Germany, I am going to stay here!» Code-switching as a conversational strategy in the narrations of former partisans from the Camonica Valley]. Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia XXXVII. 77–105.Google Scholar

  • Gumperz, John. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Gumperz John & Jenny Cook-Gumperz. 2007. A postscript: Style and identity in interactional sociolinguistics. In Peter Auer (ed.). Style and Social Identities. Alternative Approaches to Linguistic Heterogeneity, 477–501. Berlin / New York: Mouton De Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Günthner, Susanne. 2007. The construction of otherness in reported dialogue as a resource for identity work. In Peter Auer (ed.). Style and Social Identities. Alternative Approaches to Linguistic Heterogeneity, 418–443. Berlin / New York: Mouton De Gruyter. Google Scholar

  • Haakana Markku. 2007. Reported thought in complaint stories. In Elizabeth Holt & Rebecca Clift (eds.), Reporting Talk. Reported Speech in Interaction, 150–177. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Holt, Elizabeth. 1996. Reporting on talk: the use of direct reported speech in conversation. Research on Language and Social Interaction 29(3). 219–245.Google Scholar

  • Holt, Elizabeth. 2000. Reporting and reacting: Current responses to reported speech. Research on Language and Social Interaction 33. 425–454. Google Scholar

  • Holt, Elizabeth. 2007. «I’m eyeing your chop up mind»: reporting and enacting. In Elizabeth Holt & Rebecca Clift (eds.), Reporting Talk. Reported Speech in Interaction, 47–80. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Jones, Graham M. & Bambi B. Schieffelin. 2009. Enquoting voices, accomplishing talk: Uses of be + like in Instant Messaging. Language & Communication 29. 77–113.Google Scholar

  • Klein, Gabriella. 1986. La politica linguistica del fascismo [The language policy of the Fascist regime]. Bologna, il Mulino. Google Scholar

  • Lavinio Cristina. 1998. Tipi di parlato e discorso riportato [Types of speech and reported discourse]. In Maria Teresa Navarro Salazar (ed.). Italica Matritensia, 299–313. Firenze: Franco Cesati Editore. Google Scholar

  • Le Page Robert & Andrée Tabouret-Keller. 1985. Acts of Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Li, Charles. N. 1986. Direct and Indirect Speech: a functional study. In Florian Coulmas (ed.). Direct and Indirect Speech, 29–45. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar

  • MacAulay, Ronald. 2005. Talk that Counts: Age, Gender and Social Class Differences in Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Mayes, Patricia. 1990. Quotation in Spoken English. Studies in Language 14. 325–363.Google Scholar

  • Mortara Garavelli, Bice. 1985. La parola d’altri [Other people’s words]. Palermo: Sellerio.Google Scholar

  • Mortara Garavelli, Bice. 1995a. Il discorso indiretto: risvolti teorici [Indirect speech: theoretical aspects]. In Mortara Garavelli Bice. Ricognizioni. Retorica, grammatica, analisi dei testi, 51–63. Napoli: Morano. Google Scholar

  • Mortara Garavelli, Bice. 1995b. Il discorso riportato [Reported speech]. In Lorenzo Renzi, Gianpaolo Salvi & Anna Cardinaletti (eds.). Grande Grammatica Italiana di Consultazione. Vol. III, 426–468. Bologna: Il Mulino. Google Scholar

  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Social Motivations for Codeswitching. Evidence from Africa. Oxford: Claredon Press.Google Scholar

  • Rampton, Ben. 1995. Crossing: Language and Ethnicity among Adolescents. London / New York: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Romaine, Susan & Deborah, Lange. 1991. The use of like as a marker of reported speech and thoughts: a case of grammaticalization in progress. American Speech 66(3). 227–279.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ruffino, Giovanni. 2006. L’indialetto ha la faccia scura [The dialect has a dark face]. Palermo: Sellerio.Google Scholar

  • Sakita, Tomoko I. 2002. Reporting Discourse, Tense, and Cognition. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar

  • Sanga, Glauco. 1997. Lombardy. In Martin Maiden & Mair Parry (eds.), The Dialects of Italy, 253–259. London / New York: Routledge. Google Scholar

  • Schenkein, Jim (ed.). 1978. Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

  • Schiffrin, Deborah. 1987. Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Singler, John V. 2001. Why you can’t do a VARBUL study of quotatives and what such a study can show us. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 7(3). 257–278. Google Scholar

  • Thompson, Geoff. 1996. Voices in the text. Discourse perspectives on language reports. Applied Linguistics 12. 365–382. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Vološinov, Valentin Nikolaevic. 1971. Reported speech. In Ladislav Matejka & Krystyna Pomorska (eds.). Reading in Russian Poetics: Formalist and Structuralist Views, 149–175. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Google Scholar

  • Yule, George. 1993. Vera Hayden’s dilemma, or the indirection of direct speech. In Mushira Eid & Gregory K. Iverson (eds.). Principles and Prediction: The Analysis of Natural Language, 233–242. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-06-03

Accepted: 2014-12-05

Published Online: 2015-01-16


Citation Information: Open Linguistics, ISSN (Online) 2300-9969, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/opli-2014-0010.

Export Citation

© 2015 Federica Guerini. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in