Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Linguistics

Editor-in-Chief: Ehrhart, Sabine

1 Issue per year


Covered by:
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index
ERIH PLUS

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-9969
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Syriac into Middle Iranian: A Translation Studies Approach to Sogdian and Pahlavi Manuscripts within the Church of the East

Chiara Barbati
Published Online: 2015-07-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2015-0012

Abstract

Based on a corpus coming from the Turfan oasis (in present-day Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China) and consisting of Christian Middle Iranian literature in several languages (Middle Persian, Syriac and Sogdian) and scripts (East Syriac, Pahlavi and secular Sogdian), the present paper is aimed at identifying and outlining the translation techniques for the transmission of religious knowledge, based on a literary tradition as well as on a manuscript tradition, from one context to another. The religious knowledge is that which belongs to the “Church of the East” and which is written in its official liturgical language, i.e. Syriac in East Syriac script. The general context is that of the missionary activities of the “Church of the East” along the Silk road between late Antiquity and early Middle Age. The particular context is that of the converted Iranian communities.

Keywords: Translation Studies; Middle Iranian Languages; Eastern Christianity

References

  • Barbati, Chiara. 2010. The Christian Sogdian manuscript C 5 as an example of translation literature. In Macuch, M. et al. (eds.), Ancient and Middle Iranian Studies. Proceedings of the 6th European Conference of Iranian Studies, held in Vienna, September 18–22. 07. Iranica 19, pp. 1–10. Google Scholar

  • Barbati, Chiara. 2013. The Christian Mediaeval Iranian Codicology: an Unexplored Territory. Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter 5, pp. 7–9. Google Scholar

  • Barbati, Chiara. 2014a. Notes on Christian Sogdian terminology with special references to the Sogdian gospel lectionary C 5. Nāme-ye-Irān-e Bāstān, International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies 12, pp. 105–120. Google Scholar

  • Barbati, Chiara. 2014b. The Emergence of the Allographic Phenomenon within the Christian Sogdian Tradition. In den Heijer, J. et al. (eds.), Scripts beyond Borders. A Survey of Allographic Traditions in the Euro-Mediterranean World. Leuven: Peeters, pp. 257–278. Google Scholar

  • Barbati, Chiara. Forthcoming. E 5. A New Edition. Vienna. Google Scholar

  • Baum, Wilhem, Dietmar Winkler. 2003. The Church of the East. London & New York: Routledge & Curzon. Google Scholar

  • Berti, Vittorio. 2006. Cristiani sulle vie dell’Asia tra VIII e IX secolo. Ideologia e politica missionaria di Timoteo I, patriarca siro-orientale (780–823). Quaderni di storia religiosa 13, pp. 117–156. Google Scholar

  • Borbone, Pier Giorgio. 2006. I blocchi con croci e iscrizione siriaca da Fangshan. Orientalia Christiana Periodica 72, pp. 167–187. Google Scholar

  • Bräunlein, Peter J. 2009. Image Transmission as Image Act. Christian Images, Emotions and Religious Conversion in the Philippines. In Mersmann, Birgit, Alexandra Schneider (eds.), Transmission Image. Visual Translation and Cultural Agency, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 11–37. Google Scholar

  • Brock, Sebastian. 1975. Some Aspects of Greek Words in Syriac. In Ditriech, A. (ed.), Synkretismus im syrischen-persischen Kulturgebiet. Bericht über ein Symposion in Reinhausen bei Göttingen in der Zeit vom 4. Bis 8. Oktober 1971. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 80–108. Google Scholar

  • Brock, Sebastian. 1996. The ‘Nestorian’ Church: a lamentable misnomer. Bulletin of the John Rylands University of Manchester 78(3), pp. 23–35. Google Scholar

  • Brockelmann, Carl. 1928. Lexycon Syriacum. Halle: Niemeyer. Google Scholar

  • Brown, Leslie W. 1956. The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Cantera, Alberto. 2004. Studien zur Pahlavi-Übersetzung des Avesta. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Google Scholar

  • Cereti, Carlo. 2003. Le croci di San Tommaso e la letteratura cristiana in lingue medioiraniche. In Fontana, Maria Vittoria, Bruno Genito (eds.), Studi in onore di Umberto Scerrato per il suo settantacinquesimo compleanno. Napoli: Università degli studi di Napoli L’Orientale, vol. 1., pp. 193–206. Google Scholar

  • Chiesa, Paolo (ed.). 2011. Guglielmo di Rubruk. Viaggio in Mongolia. Milano: Fondazione Lorenzo Valla & Mondadori. Google Scholar

  • Ciancaglini, Claudia A. 2008. Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Google Scholar

  • Dauvillier, Jean. 1957. Guillaume de Rubrouck et les communautés chaldéennes d’Asie centrale au Moyen Age. L’Orient syrien 2, pp. 223–242. Google Scholar

  • Dickens, Mark. 2009. The Syriac Bible in Central Asia. In Hunter, Erica C. D. (ed.), The Christian Heritage of Iraq. Collected papers from the Christianity of Iraq I–V Seminar Days. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, pp. 92–120. Google Scholar

  • Dickens, Mark. 2013. Scribal Practices in the Turfan Christian Community. Journal of the Canadian Society for Syriac Studies 13, pp. 3–28. Google Scholar

  • Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond. 2006. The Pahlavi Psalter in Relation to its Source. Studies on the Inner Asian Languages 21, pp. 1–19. Google Scholar

  • Gignoux, Philippe. 1969. L’auteur de la version pehlevie du Psautier serait-il nestorien?. In Mémorial Mgr Gabriel Khouri-Sarkis. Louvain: Imprimerie Orientaliste, pp. 233–244. Google Scholar

  • Gignoux, Philippe. 2001. Une croix de procession de Hérat inscrite en pehlevi. Le Muséon 114, pp. 291–304. Google Scholar

  • Gillman, Ian, Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. 1999. Christians in Asia before 1500. Richmond: Curzon. Google Scholar

  • Gulácsi, Zsuzsanna. 2005. Mediaeval Manichaean Book Art. A Codicological Study of Iranian and Turkic Illuminated Book Fragments from 8th–11th Century East Central Asia. Leiden & Boston: Brill. Google Scholar

  • Hansen, Valerie. 2012. Homeland of the Sogdians, the Silk Road Traders. In The Silk Road. A new History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 113–139. Google Scholar

  • Hatch, William P. (1946) An Album of Dated Manuscripts. Boston: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Google Scholar

  • Hunter, Erica C. D. 1996. The Church of the East in Central Asia. Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 78(3), pp. 129–142. Google Scholar

  • Hunter, Erica C. D., Mark Dickens. 2014. Syriac manuscripts in the Berlin Turfan Collection. Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag. Google Scholar

  • Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim. 1979. Das Kreuzessymbol in der zentralasiatischen Religionsbewegung. Zeitschrift für Religions und Geistesgeschichte 31, pp. 99–115. Google Scholar

  • La Vaissière, Étienne de. 2005. Sogdian Traders. A History. Leiden & Boston: Brill. Google Scholar

  • Lala Comneno, Maria Adelaide. 1995. Cristianesimo nestoriano in Asia centrale nel primo millennio: testimonianze archeologiche. Orientalia Christiana Periodica 61, pp. 495–535. Google Scholar

  • Lazard, Gilbert. 1978. Remarques sur les styles des anciennes traductions persanes du Coran et de la Bible. Bulletin d’études orientales 30, pp. 45–49. Google Scholar

  • Le Coz, Raymond. 2010. Histoire de l’Eglise d’Orient. Paris: Cerf. Google Scholar

  • Leroy, Jules. 1964. Les manuscrits syriaques à peintures conservés dans les bibliothèques d’Europe et d’Orient. Paris: Geuthner. Google Scholar

  • Mersmann, Birgit. 2004. Bildkulturwissenschaft als Kulturbildwissenschaft?Von der Notwendigkeit eines inter- und transkulturellen Iconic Turn. Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 49, pp. 91–109. Google Scholar

  • Moule, Arthur Christopher. 1931. The Use of the Cross among the Nestorians in China. T’oung Pao 28, pp. 78–86. Google Scholar

  • Müller, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl. 1913. Soghdische Texte I. Berlin: Verlag der Königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Google Scholar

  • Nida, Eugene. 1994. The Sociolinguistics of Translating Canonical Religious Texts. Traduction, Terminologie, Rédaction 7, pp. 191–217. Google Scholar

  • Nida, Eugene. 2004. Principles of correspondence. In Venuti, Lawrence (ed.), The Translation Studies Reader. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 153–167. Google Scholar

  • Orsatti, Paola. 2007. La documentazione siro-persiana. In Appunti per una storia della lingua neopersiana. Parte I. Roma: Sapienza Università di Roma, pp. 128–147. Google Scholar

  • Parry, Ken. 1996. Images in the Church of the East: the evidence from Central Asia and China. Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 78(3), pp. 143–162. Google Scholar

  • Pelliot, Paul. 1973. Recherches sur les chrétiens d’Asie Centrale et d’Extrème-Orient. Paris: Éditions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac. Google Scholar

  • Pinggéra, Karl. 2011. Die Apostolische Kirche des Ostens der Assyrer. In Lange, Christian, Karl Pinggéra (eds.), Die altorientalischen Kirchen. Glaube und Geschichte. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, pp. 21–40. Google Scholar

  • Quenzer, Jörg B. 2014. Introduction. In Quenzer, Jörg B. et al. (eds.), Manuscript Cultures: Mapping the Field. Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 1–7. Google Scholar

  • Reck, Christiane. 2008. A Survey of the Christian Sogdian Fragments in Sogdian Script in the Berlin Turfan Collection. In Jullien, Christelle (ed.), Chrétiens en terre d’Iran II: Controverses des chrétiens dans l’Iran sassanide. Leuven: Peeters, pp. 191–205. Google Scholar

  • Schwartz, Martin. 1974. Sogdian fragments of the Book of Psalms. Altorientalische Forschungen 1, pp. 257–261. Google Scholar

  • Schwartz, Martin, Nicholas Sims-Williams. 2014. A Sogdian Psalter. In Sims-Williams, Nicholas (ed.), Biblical and other Christian Sogdian texts from the Turfan Collection. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 7–53. Google Scholar

  • Shaked, Shaul. 1990. Bible.iv. Middle Persian translations. In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, vol. 4, pp. 206–207. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1985. The Christian Sogdian Manuscript C2. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1988. Syro-Sogdica III: Syriac elements in Sogdian. In Sundermann, Werner et al. (eds), A Green Leaf, Papers in Honour of Professor James P. Asmussen. Leiden: Brill, pp. 145–156. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1990. Bulayïq. In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, vol. 4, p. 545. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1992. Sogdian and Turkish Christians in the Turfan and Tun-huang manuscripts. In Cadonna, Alfredo (ed.), Turfan and Tun-huang: the texts. Firenze: Olschki, pp. 43–61. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1996. Deylam, John of. In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica. Costa Mesa: Mazda, vol. 7, pp. 336–337. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 2004. A Greek-Sogdian bilingual from Bulayïq. In La Persia e Bisanzio: Convegno internazionale (Roma, 14–18 ottobre 2002). Roma: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, pp. 623–631. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 2009. Christian literature in Middle Iranian languages. In Ronald E. Emmerick, Maria Macuch (eds.), The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran, A History of Persian Literature, vol. 1, New York, pp. 266-287. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 2011. A new fragment of the Book of Psalms in Sogdian. In Bibel, Byzanz und christlicher Orient: Festschrift für Stephen Gerö zum 65. Geburstag, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 187, Leuven, pp. 461-465. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 2012. Iranian Manuscripts in Syriac Script in the Berlin Turfan Collection. Stuttgart: Steiner. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 2013. A Christian Sogdian Hymn in Sogdian script. In Askold Ivantchik (ed.) Tribute to Gregory Bongard-Levin, Monumentum Gregorianum, Moscow, pp. 172-177. Google Scholar

  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 2014. Biblical and other Christian Sogdian Texts from the Turfan Collection. Turnhout: Brepols. Google Scholar

  • Suermann, Harald. 2004. Timotheos I, † 823. In Klein, Wassilios (ed.), Syrische Kirchenväter. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, pp. 152–167. Google Scholar

  • Sundermann, Werner. 1981. Nachlese zu F. W. Κ. Müllers „Soghdischen Texten I“. 3. Teil. Altorientalische Forschungen 8, pp. 169–226. Google Scholar

  • Walker, Joel T. 2010. Ascetic Literacy: Books and Readers in East-Syrian Monastic Tradition. In Börm, Henning, Josef Wiesehöfer (eds.), Commutatio et contentio. Studies in the Late Roman, Sasanian, and Early Islamic Near East. In memory of Zeev Rubin. Düsseldorf: Wellem, pp. 307–346. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-02-25

Accepted: 2015-04-09

Published Online: 2015-07-02


Citation Information: Open Linguistics, ISSN (Online) 2300-9969, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2015-0012.

Export Citation

© 2015 Chiara Barbati. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in