Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Linguistics

Editor-in-Chief: Ehrhart, Sabine

1 Issue per year


Covered by:
Elsevier - SCOPUS
Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index
ERIH PLUS

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-9969
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Language Orientations and the Sustainability of Arbanasi Language in Croatia – A Case of Linguistic Injustice

Klara Bilić Meštrić / Lucija Šimičić
Published Online: 2017-06-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2017-0008

Abstract

Despite numerous positive aspects of the global development of language-as-right orientation, we argue that its application is rooted in methodological nationalism, i.e. the idea of society being equal to a nationstate (Chernilo 2006), and the monoglot ideology based on the idea of one proper version of a historically and politically privileged dialect carrying the status of a language. This dominant preconception of social phenomena thus leaves many varieties in a legislative vacuum. As a consequence, language rights, often in the form of more or less mandatory legal instruments, concern only a (politically established) few. When this institutional inadequacy is paired with the existing orders of indexicality, then these varieties face marginalisation processes that render language use even more unsustainable. To address the issue of language sustainability, we analyse the language-as-right, language-as-resource and language-as-problem orientations in Croatia on the case of the Arbanasi, a community of descendants of Catholic albanophones who settled in the periphery of Zadar in the 18th century and whose group identity is marked by significant language loss. We analyse how speakers and community members themselves perceive marginalisation processes, especially concerning linguistic (in)justice that stems from the policies that hinder sustainability of Arbanasi language use in the long run.

Keywords : language sustainability; language orientations; language policy and planning; Arbanasi

References

  • Barančić, Maximiljana. 2014. Leksik arbanaškoga govora u Zadru kao odraz jezičnih dodira. PhD thesis. Zadar: University of Zadar, Croatia.Google Scholar

  • Bilić Meštrić, Klara. 2015. The Bayashi Language and Identity - Commodification and Objectification Practices in Education: a Case Study. In: Mlinarević, Vesnica, Maja Brust Nemet & Jozef Bushati (eds.), Intercultural Education - The Position of Roma in Education, 307-321. Osijek: University Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Faculty of Teacher Education.Google Scholar

  • Bilić Meštrić, Klara. 2017. Habitus of Multilingual Children and Youths in Urban Areas in Eastern Croatia. In: Pink, William T. & George W. Noblit (eds.), Second International Handbook of Urban Education, 279-295. Springer.Google Scholar

  • Blommaert, Jan. 2005. Situating language rights: English and Swahili in Tanzania revisited. Journal of Sociolinguistics 9 (3). 390-417.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Blommaert, Jan. 2010. The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 2005. Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar

  • Chernilo, Daniel. 2006. Social theory’s methodological nationalism myth and reality. European Journal of Social Theory 9 (1). 5-22.Google Scholar

  • Comanaru, Ruxandra S. & Jean-Marc Dewaele. 2015. A bright future for interdisciplinary multilingualism research. International Journal of Multilingualism 12 (4). 404-418.Google Scholar

  • Ćurković, don Mijo. 1922. Povijest Arbanasa kod Zadra, Šibenik.Google Scholar

  • De Varennes, Fernand. 1997. To speak or not to speak: The rights of persons belonging to linguistic minorities, working paper prepared for the UN Working Group on the Rights of Minorities. Geneva, Switzerland, 18 April, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.5/1997/WP.6. www. unesco.org/most/In2pol3.htm (19.10.2016).Google Scholar

  • De Varennes, Fernand. 2007. Language rights as an integral part of human rights. In: Koenig, Matthias & Paul de Guchteneire (eds.), Democracy and human rights in multicultural societies, 115-125. Paris: Ashgate Press and UNESCO.Google Scholar

  • Ehala, Martin. 2013. Principles of language sustainability. In: Lang, Valter & Kalevi Kull (eds.), Estonian Approaches to Culture Theory, 88-106. Tartu: University of Tartu Press.Google Scholar

  • Ehala, Martin & Anastassia Zabrodskaja. 2014. Hot and cold ethnicities in the Baltic states. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 35 (1). 76-95.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Erber, Tullio. 1939. La colonia albanese di Borgo Erizzo presso Zara. De Schönfeld.Google Scholar

  • Grenfell, Michael & David James. 1998. Bourdieu and education: Acts of practical theory. Psychology Press. .Google Scholar

  • Hornberger, Nancy H. 1998. Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives. Language in Society 27 (04). 439-458.Google Scholar

  • Hornberger, Nancy H. 2006. Frameworks and Models in Language Policy and Planning. In: Ricento, Thomas (ed.), An Introduction to Language Policy - Theory and Method, 24-41. Malden, Oxford, Carlton: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar

  • Kloss, Heinz. 1977. The American Bilingual Tradition. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.Google Scholar

  • Kontra, Miklos. 2000. Towards intercultural competence in Europe. Sociolinguistica 14. 168-173.Google Scholar

  • Krstić, Kruno. 1988. Doseljenje Arbanasa u Zadar. Zadar: Mjesna zajednica Arbanasi.Google Scholar

  • Lewis, Paul M. & Gary F. Simons. 2010. Assessing endangerment: expanding Fishman’s GIDS. Revue roumaine de linguistique 55 (2). 103-120.Google Scholar

  • Lo Bianco, Joseph. 2001. Language and literacy policy in Scotland. Stirling, Scotland: University of Stirling, Scottish Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.Google Scholar

  • Lo Bianco, Joseph. 2008. Preface. In: Tan, Peter K. W. & Rani Rubdy (eds.), Language as Commodity - Global Structures, Local Marketplaces. London - New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar

  • Macías, Reynaldo. 1979. Language choice and human rights in the United States. In: Alatis, James (ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 86-101. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar

  • May, Stephen. 1998. Just How Safe is Australia’s Multilingual Language Policy? A Response to Michael Clyne. In: Wright, Susan & Helen Kelly-Holmes (eds.), Managing language diversity, 54-57. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar

  • May, Stephen. 2005. Language rights: Moving the debate forward. Journal of Sociolinguistics 9 (3). 319-347.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mehmedbegović, Dina. 2011. A Study in Attitudes to Languages in England and Wales - Who Needs the Languages of Immigrants? Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Ministry of Culture of The Republic of Croatia. 2011. Strategy for Protection, Conservation and Sustainable Economic Use of Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Croatia http://www.min-kulture.hr/userdocsimages/bastina/STRATEGIJA_BASTINE_VRH.pdf (19.10.2016).Google Scholar

  • Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edition. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. http://www.unesco.org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas.Google Scholar

  • Petrovic, John E. 2005. The conservative restoration and neoliberal defenses of bilingual education. Language Policy 4. 395-416.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Petrovic, John E. 2010. Language Minority Education in the United States: Power and Policy. In: Petrovic, John (ed.). International perspectives on bilingual education: Policy, practice, and controversy, 3-19. Charlotte, NC: International Age Publishing, Inc.3.Google Scholar

  • Ricento, Thomas. 2000. Historical and theoretical perspectives in language policy and planning. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4 (2). 196-213.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ricento, Thomas. 2005. Problems with the ‘language-as-resource’ discourse in the promotion of heritage languages in the USA. Journal of Sociolinguistics 9 (3). 348-368.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ricento, Thomas. 2006. Language Policy: Theory and Practice - An Introduction. In: Ricento, Thomas (ed.), An Introduction to Language Policy - Theory and Method, 10-24. Malden, Oxford, Carlton: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar

  • Ruíz, Richard. 1984. Orientations in language planning. NABE journal 8 (2). 15-34.Google Scholar

  • Ruíz, Richard. 2010. Reorienting language-as-resource. In: Petrovic, John (ed.). International perspectives on bilingual education: Policy, practice, and controversy, 155-172. Charlotte, NC: International Age Publishing, Inc.3.Google Scholar

  • Sallabank, Julia. 2013. Attitudes to Endangered Languages. Identities and Policies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Silverstein, Michael. 1996. Monoglot “Standard” in America - Standardization and Metaphors of Linguistic Hegemony. In: Brenneis, Donald & Roland K. Macaulay (eds.), The Matrix of Language: Contemporary Linguistic Anthropology, 284-306. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar

  • Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Robert Phillipson (eds.), in collaboration with Mart Rannut. 1994. Linguistic Human Rights. Overcoming linguistic discrimination. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Šimičić, Lucija. (forthcoming) Language maintenance of a minority within a minority: The position of Italians in continental Croatian rural setting. In: Di Salvo, M. & P. Moreno (eds.). Multilingualism and Migration. Italian communities abroad. Cambridge Scholar.Google Scholar

  • Šimičić, Lucija & Nikola Vuletić. 2016. Une langue sans futur, une identité bien vivante : représentations de la communauté arbënishtë. Circula: revue d’idéologies linguistiques - rivista di ideologie linguistiche - revista de ideologías lingüísticas. 140-162.Google Scholar

  • Tan, Peter K. W. & Rani Rubdy. 2008. Language as Commodity - Global Structures, Local Marketplaces. London - New York: Cotinuum international Publishing Group.Google Scholar

  • Vuletić, Nikola. 2014. Les minorités linguistiques invisibles et/ou cachées de la Croatie : les communautés linguistiques arbënishtë, istro-roumaine et istriote. In: Djordjević Léonard, Ksenija (ed.), Les minorités invisibles: diversité et complexité (ethno)sociolinguistiques, 182-192. Paris: Michel Houdiard Éditeur.Google Scholar

  • Westly, Erica. 2011. The Bilingual Advantage. Scientific American Mind 22 (3). 38-41.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-10-22

Accepted: 2017-03-01

Published Online: 2017-06-01

Published in Print: 2017-01-26


Citation Information: Open Linguistics, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 145–156, ISSN (Online) 2300-9969, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2017-0008.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in