Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Theology

Editor-in-Chief: Taliaferro, Charles

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Rediscovery of Early Twentieth-Century Ecotheology

Panu Pihkala
Published Online: 2016-04-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opth-2016-0023


In this article, I examine the early history of Christian environmentalism (“ecotheology”) in the twentieth century. I delineate four strands of early ecotheology: agrarian ecotheology; social Christianity; British contributions; and “post-liberal” foundations for later ecotheological movements. I show that ecotheology was a slowly-rising movement, which had notable proponents. I argue that these early ecotheologians are significant for several reasons. First, these writings support the view that there are momentous roots of environmentalism in the late 19th and early 20th Century. Second, these texts reveal important information about the relation of Christian and other environmentalism. Third, early ecotheologians contributed to discussion about themes which would later form distinctive environmental disciplines, such as environmental aesthetics, education, ethics, history and philosophy. Their thoughts offer interesting reflections pointing to these fields. Fourth, the contributions by the early ecotheologians are not only historically interesting, but they have relevance for the current discussion. These theologians were in a special position to notice the major changes brought by technological development in the twentieth century and they provided important critical reflections about these issues. Because they developed their thought independently, they display creative thinking, although often in an unfinished manner.

Keywords: environmental theology; religion and nature; religion and ecology; environmental history; social ethics


  • Allchin, A. M. “The Theology of Nature in the Eastern Fathers and among Anglican Theologians.” In Man and Nature, edited by Hugh Montefiore, 143-154. London: Collins, 1975. Google Scholar

  • Azelvandre, John P. Forging the Bonds of Sympathy: Spirituality, Individualism and Empiricism in the Ecological Thought of Liberty Hyde Bailey and its Implications for Environmental Education. Dissertation. New York University, 2001. Google Scholar

  • Bailey, Liberty Hyde. The Holy Earth. New York: The Christian Rural Fellowship, 1943 [1915]. Google Scholar

  • Bakken, Peter W. The Ecology of Grace: Ultimacy and Environmental Ethics in Aldo Leopold and Joseph Sittler. Dissertation. University of Chicago, 1991. Google Scholar

  • Bakken, Peter W., Joan Gibb Engel, and J. Ronald Engel. Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: A Critical Guide to the Literature. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995. Google Scholar

  • Barbour, Ian G. Issues in Science and Religion. London: SCM Press, 1966. Google Scholar

  • Bartholomew, Craig G. Where Mortals Dwell: A Christian View of Place for Today. Baker Academic, 2011. Google Scholar

  • Bergmann, Sigurd. Religion, Space, and the Environment. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2014. Google Scholar

  • Bergonzi, Bernard. “Belloc, (Joseph) Hilaire Pierre René (1870–1953).” In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Online Edition. Oxford University Press, 2004. Google Scholar

  • Bergonzi, Bernard. “Chesterton, Gilbert Keith (1874–1936).” In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Online Edition. Oxford University Press, 2004. Google Scholar

  • Birch, L. Charles. “Creation, Technology and Human Survival.” The Ecumenical Review 28:1 (1976), 66-79. Google Scholar

  • Birch, L. Charles. “Interpreting the Lower in Terms of the Higher.” The Christian Scholar 37:September (1954), 402-407. Google Scholar

  • Birch, L. Charles. Nature and God. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1965. Google Scholar

  • Bouma-Prediger, Steven C. The Greening of Theology: The Ecological Models of Rosemary Radford Ruether, Joseph Sittler, and Jürgen Moltmann. Oxford University Press, 1995. Google Scholar

  • Bovée, David S. Church and the Land: The National Catholic Rural Life Conference and American Society, 1923-2007. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2010. Google Scholar

  • Bowler, Peter J. Science and its Conceptual Foundations: Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain University of Chicago Press, 2001. Google Scholar

  • Carlson, Allan. The New Agrarian Mind: The Movement Toward Decentralist Thought in Twentieth-Century America. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2000. Google Scholar

  • Cobb Jr., John B. “The Making of an Earthist Christian.” In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Raymond Taylor, 394-396. New York: Continuum, 2005. Google Scholar

  • Conradie, Ernst M. Christianity and Ecological Theology: Resources for further Research. Stellenbosch: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Conradie, Ernst M., ed. Creation and Salvation: A Mosaic of Selected Classic Christian Theologies. Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2011. Google Scholar

  • Conradie, Ernst M., ed. Creation and Salvation Volume 2: A Companion on Recent Theological Movements. Zürich: LIT Verlag, 2012. Google Scholar

  • Conradie, Ernst M., Sigurd Bergmann, Celia Deane-Drummond, and Denis Edwards, eds. Christian Faith and the Earth: Current Paths and Emerging Horizons in Ecotheology. London & New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014. Google Scholar

  • Deane-Drummond, Celia. Eco-Theology. Winona: Saint Mary’’s Press, 2008. Google Scholar

  • DeHart, Paul. Trial of the Witnesses: The Rise and Decline of Postliberal Theology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Google Scholar

  • Demant, Vigo A. “Christian Strategy.” In Malvern 1941, 121-149. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1941. Google Scholar

  • Dillistone, Frederick William. Charles Raven: Naturalist, Historian, Theologian. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975. Google Scholar

  • Dorrien, Gary J. The Barthian Revolt in Modern Theology: Theology without Weapons. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000. Google Scholar

  • Dorrien, Gary J. Kantian Reason and Hegelian Spirit: The Idealistic Logic of Modern Theology. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Google Scholar

  • Dorrien, Gary J. The Making of American Liberal Theology, Volume 2: Idealism, Realism, and Modernity, 1900-1950. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. Google Scholar

  • Dorrien, Gary J. The Making of American Liberal Theology, Volume 3: Crisis, Irony, and Postmodernity 1950-2005. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Dorrien, Gary J. Social Ethics in the Making: Interpreting an American Tradition. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Google Scholar

  • Duffin, Andrew P. Plowed Under: Agriculture and Environment in the Palouse. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007. Google Scholar

  • Edwards, Mark Thomas. “Can Christianity Save Civilisation? Liberal Protestant Anti-Secularism in Interwar America.” Journal of Religious History 39:1 (2015), 51-67. Google Scholar

  • Edwards, Mark Thomas. The Right of the Protestant Left: God’s Totalitarianism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Google Scholar

  • Engel, J. Ronald. “Making the Earth Covenant in Chicago.” Criterion 46:1 (2008), 10-17. Google Scholar

  • Evans, Christopher Hodge. The Kingdom is Always but Coming: A Life of Walter Rauschenbusch. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004. Google Scholar

  • Farmer, Herbert Henry. “Oman, John Wood (1860-1939).” In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Online Edition. Oxford University Press, 2004. Google Scholar

  • Farmer, Herbert Henry. The World and God: A Study of Prayer, Providence and Miracle in Christian Experience. 2nd ed. London & Glasgow: Collins, 1936. Google Scholar

  • Galloway, Allan Douglas. The Cosmic Christ. London: Nisbet, 1951. Google Scholar

  • Gibson, William E., ed. Eco-Justice: The Unfinished Journey. Albany: SUNY Press, 2004. Google Scholar

  • “God in Nature and History.” In New Directions in Faith and Order. Bristol 1967. Reports - Minutes - Documents, 7-31. Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1968. Google Scholar

  • Hall, Douglas J. Imaging God: Dominion as Stewardship. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986. Google Scholar

  • Hall, W. David. “Does Creation Equal Nature? Confronting the Christian Confusion about Ecology and Cosmology.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73:3 (2005), 781-812. Google Scholar

  • Hamlin, Christopher and David M. Lodge. “Ecology and Religion for a Post Natural World.” In Religion and the New Ecology: Environmental Responsibility in a World in Flux, edited by Christopher Hamlin and David M. Lodge, 279-309. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Hamlin, Christopher and John T. McGreevy. “The Greening of America, Catholic Style, 1930–1950.” Environmental History 11:3 (2006), 464-499. Google Scholar

  • Hastings, Adrian. “Temple, William (1881–1944).” In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Online Edition. Oxford University Press, 2004. Google Scholar

  • Hefner, Philip J. “Beyond Exploitation and Sentimentality: Challenges to a Theology of Nature.” In Concern for Creation: Voices on Theology of Creation, edited by Viggo Mortensen, 119-141. Uppsala: Svenska kyrkans forskningsråd, 1995. Google Scholar

  • Hefner, Philip J. The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture, and Religion. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. Google Scholar

  • Heggen, Bruce Allen. 1995. A Theology for Earth: Nature and Grace in the Thought of Joseph Sittler. Dissertation. McGill University. http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/webclient/DeliveryManager?pid=39918&custom_att_2=direct (accessed 8.4.2016). Google Scholar

  • Helms, Douglas. “Walter Lowdermilk’s Journey: Forester to Land Conservationist.” Environmental Review 8:Summer (1984), 132-145. Google Scholar

  • Hessel, Dieter T. “Eco-Justice Ethics.” 2007. http://fore.yale.edu/disciplines/ethics/eco-justice/ (accessed 16.1.2016). Google Scholar

  • Hitzhusen, Gregory E., Gary W. Fick, and Richard H. Moore. “Theological and Religious Approaches to Soil Stewardship.” In Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems, edited by Rattan Lal and Bobby Alton Stewart, 285-302: CRC Press, 2013. Google Scholar

  • Holmes, Steven J. “Muir, John (1838-1914).” In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Raymond Taylor, 1126-1127. New York: Continuum, 2005. Google Scholar

  • Hood, Adam, ed. John Oman: New Perspectives. Studies in Christian History and Thought. Milton Keynes: Wipf and Stock, 2012. Google Scholar

  • Horton, Walter Marshall. “Conditions and Limits of Man’s Mastery Over Nature.” In Das Menschenbild Im Lichte Des Evangeliums: Festschrift Zum 60. Geburtstag Von Prof. Dr. Theol. Hc DD Hc Dr. Iur. Hc Emil Brunner, 89-103. Zürich: Zwingli-Verlag, 1950. Google Scholar

  • Howard, Albert. Culture of the Land: Soil and Health: A Study of Organic Agriculture. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2011 [1947]. Google Scholar

  • Inbody, Tyron. The Constructive Theology of Bernard Meland: Postliberal Empirical Realism. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995. Google Scholar

  • Jenkins, Willis. “After Lynn White: Religious Ethics and Environmental Problems.” Journal of Religious Ethics 37:2 (2009), 283-309. Google Scholar

  • Jenkins, Willis. Ecologies of Grace: Environmental Ethics and Christian Theology. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Google Scholar

  • Jensen, Franklin L. and Cedric W. Tilberg, eds. The Human Crisis in Ecology. New York: Lutheran Church in America, Board of Social Ministry, 1972. Google Scholar

  • Joranson, Philip N. “The Faith‐Man‐Nature Group and a Religious Environmental Ethic.” Zygon 12:2 (1977), 175-179. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lanz, Tobias. “Introduction.” In Flee to the Fields: The Faith and Works of the Catholic Land Movement Source, 7-13. Norfolk: IHS Press, 2008. Google Scholar

  • Light, Andrew. “Buber, Martin (1878–1965).” In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Raymond Taylor, 227. New York: Continuum, 2005. Google Scholar

  • Lindqvist, Martti. Economic Growth and the Quality of Life: An Analysis of the Debate within the World Council of Churches, 1966-1974. Helsinki: Finnish Society for Missiology and Ecumenics, 1975. Google Scholar

  • Linzey, Andrew. “So Near and Yet so Far: Animal Theology and Ecological Theology.” In The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb, 348-361. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Linzey, Andrew and Dan Cohn-Sherbok. After Noah: Animals and the Liberation of Theology. London: Mowbray, 1997. Google Scholar

  • Lowdermilk, Walter Clay. “The Eleventh Commandment.” American Forests 46:January (1940), 12-15. Google Scholar

  • Lowdermilk, Walter Clay. Palestine, Land of Promise. New York, London: Harper & Bros, 1944. Google Scholar

  • Lowdermilk, Walter Clay. Soil, Forest, and Water Conservation and Reclamation in China, Israel, Africa, and the United States. Oral History Transcript, 1967–1968. An Interview of Walter and Inez Lowdermilk Conducted by Malca Chall. Berkeley: University of California, 1969. Google Scholar

  • Lowe, Kevin M. Baptized with the Soil: Christian Agrarians and the Crusade for Rural America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. Google Scholar

  • Machin, George Ian Thom. Churches and Social Issues in Twentieth-Century Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Google Scholar

  • MacKinnon, Donald M. Farmer, Herbert Henry (1892–1981). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Online Edition. Oxford University Press, 2004. Google Scholar

  • Macquarrie, John. Twentieth-Century Religious Thought: The Frontiers of Philosophy and Theology, 1900-1960. Library of Philosophy and Theology. London: SCM Press, 1963. Google Scholar

  • The Malvern Declaration of 1941. Industrial Christian Fellowship, 1991. Google Scholar

  • Malvern, 1941: The Life of the Church and the Order of Society: Being the Proceedings of the Archbishop of York’s Conference. London: Longmans, Green & Co, 1941. Google Scholar

  • Marlett, Jeffrey D. “Down on the Farm and Up to Heaven: Catholic Worker Farm Communes and the Spiritual Virtues of Farming.” In Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement. Centenary Essays, edited by William J. Thorn, Phillip M. Runkel and Susan Mountin, 406-417. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2001. Google Scholar

  • McGrath, Alister E. The Open Secret: A New Vision for Natural Theology. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008. Google Scholar

  • Meland, Bernard Eugene. “Grace: A Dimension within Nature?” The Journal of Religion 54:2 (1974), 119-137. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Meland, Bernard Eugene. “Kinsmen of the Wild: Religious Moods in Modern American Poetry.” The Sewanee Review 41:4 (1933), 443-453. Google Scholar

  • Meland, Bernard Eugene. Modern Man’s Worship: A Search for Reality in Religion. New York & London: Harper & Brothers, 1934. Google Scholar

  • Meland, Bernard Eugene. “New Perspectives on Nature and Grace.” In The Scope of Grace: Essays on Nature and Grace in Honor of Joseph Sittler, edited by Philip J. Hefner, 141-161. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1964. Google Scholar

  • Miller, Rory. “Bible and Soil: Walter Clay Lowdermilk, the Jordan Valley Project and the Palestine Debate.” Middle Eastern Studies 39:2 (2003), 55-81. Google Scholar

  • Minteer, Ben A. Landscape of Reform: Civic Pragmatism and Environmental Thought in America. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Moltmann, Jürgen. The Way of Jesus Christ: Christology in Messianic Dimensions. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990. Google Scholar

  • Montgomery, David R. Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations, with a New Preface (2nd Edition). Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012. Google Scholar

  • Muray, Leslie A. “Meland’s Mystical Naturalism and Ecological Responsibility.” In Religious Experience and Ecological Responsibility, edited by Donald A. Crosby and Charley D. Hardwick, 257-275. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. Google Scholar

  • Nash, James A. Loving Nature: Ecological Integrity and Christian Responsibility. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991. Google Scholar

  • Nash, Roderick Frazier. The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989. Google Scholar

  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. Christ and Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1951. Google Scholar

  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. “Man the Sinner.” The Journal of Religion 15:3 (1935), 272-280. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. The Meaning of Revelation. New York: Macmillan Company, 1941. Google Scholar

  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. The Purpose of the Church and its Ministry: Reflections on the Aims of Theological Education. In collaboration with Daniel Day Williams and James M. Gustafson. New York: Harper, 1956. Google Scholar

  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. Radical Monotheism and Western Culture. London: Faber and Faber, 1960. Google Scholar

  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. The Responsible Self: An Essay in Christian Moral Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. Google Scholar

  • Niebuhr, Reinhold. The Nature and Destiny of Man, Volume 1: Human Nature. London & Beccles: William Clowes & Sons, 1946 [1941]. Google Scholar

  • Oldham, Joseph Houldsworth. “The Church and the World.” In The Church and its Function in Society, edited by Visser ‘t Hooft, Willem Adolf and Joseph Houldsworth Oldham, 111-135. London: Allen & Unwin, 1937. Google Scholar

  • Oman, John W. The Natural & the Supernatural. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1931. Google Scholar

  • Peacocke, Arthur Robert. “Evolution in the English (Anglican) Theological Tradition.” In Evolution and Creation: A European Perspective, edited by Svend Andersen and Arthur Robert Peacocke, 113-120. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1987. Google Scholar

  • Peden, W. Creighton. Life and Thought of Bernard Eugene Meland, American Constructive Theologian, 1899–1993. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010. Google Scholar

  • Pihkala, Panu. “Ecotheology and the Theology of Eating: Convergencies and Controversies.” Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis 26:(2015), 64–81. http://ojs.abo.fi/index.php/scripta/article/view/828/1246 (accessed 8.4.2016). Google Scholar

  • Pihkala, Panu. 2014. Joseph Sittler and Early Ecotheology. Dissertation. University of Helsinki. Google Scholar

  • Price, Charles P. ‘Invigorated Chaos’: In Pursuit of a Doctrine of Creation for Ecologically Minded Anglicans.” In Creation and Liturgy, edited by Ralph N. McMichael and Harry Boone Porter, 95-112. Washington: Pastoral Press, 1993. Google Scholar

  • Radkau, Joachim. The Age of Ecology: A Global History. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. Google Scholar

  • Randall, Ian M. “Evangelical Spirituality, Science, and Mission: A Study of Charles Raven (1885-1964), Regius Professor of Divinity, Cambridge University.” Anglican and Episcopal History 84:1 (2015), 20. Google Scholar

  • Randall, Ian M. “‘The Living Presence of Christ’: Charles Raven (1885-1964), a Missional Theologian.” Journal of European Baptist Studies 15:1 (2014), 5-23. Google Scholar

  • Rasmussen, Larry L. Earth Community, Earth Ethics. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1996. Google Scholar

  • Rauschenbusch, Walter. Christianity and the Social Crisis. New York: Westminster John Knox Press, 1907. Google Scholar

  • Rauschenbusch, Walter. Christianizing the Social Order. New York: Macmillan, 1916. Google Scholar

  • Rauschenbusch, Walter. Prayers of the Social Awakening. Boston & Chicago: Pilgrim Press, 1910. Google Scholar

  • Raven, Charles Earle. The Gospel and the Church: A Study of Distortion and its Remedy. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1940. Google Scholar

  • Raven, Charles Earle. Natural Religion and Christian Theology. 1. Series, Science and Religion. The Gifford Lectures; 1951. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953. Google Scholar

  • Raven, Charles Earle. Natural Religion and Christian Theology. 2. Series, Experience and Interpretation. The Gifford Lectures; 1952. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953. Google Scholar

  • Raven, Charles Earle. Science, Religion, and the Future: A Course of Eight Lectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943. Google Scholar

  • Raven, Charles Earle. Teilhard De Chardin: Scientist and Seer. London: Collins, 1962. Google Scholar

  • Saler, Robert C. “2014 Theological Reading Challenge: “Called to Unity” by Joseph Sittler.” http://www.lutheranforum.org/blogs/2014-theological-reading-challenge-called-to-unity-by-joseph-sittler/ (accessed 11.11.2015). Google Scholar

  • Santmire, H. Paul. “American Lutherans Engage Ecological Theology: The First Chapter, 1962-2012, and its Legacy.” Journal of Lutheran Ethics 13:2 (2013). Google Scholar

  • Santmire, H. Paul. “Ecology, Justice, Liturgy: A Theological Autobiography.” Dialog 48:3 (2009), 267-278. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Santmire, H. Paul. Nature Reborn: The Ecological and Cosmic Promise of Christian Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000. Google Scholar

  • Santmire, H. Paul. “A Reformation Theology of Nature Transfigured: Joseph Sittler’s Invitation to See as Well as to Hear.” Theology Today 61:4 (2005), 509-527. Google Scholar

  • Santmire, H. Paul. “Toward a Christology of Nature: Claiming the Legacy of Joseph Sittler and Karl Barth.” Dialog 34:Fall (1995), 270-280. Google Scholar

  • Santmire, H. Paul. “Toward a Cosmic Christology: A Kerygmatic Proposal.” Theology and Science 9:3 (2011), 287-305. Google Scholar

  • Santmire, H. Paul and John B. Cobb Jr. “The World of Nature According to the Protestant Tradition.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb, 115-146. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Sayers, Dorothy L. “The Church’s Responsibility.” In Malvern 1941, 57-78. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1941. Google Scholar

  • Schmidt, Leigh Eric. “From Arbor Day to the Environmental Sabbath: Nature, Liturgy, and American Protestantism.” Harvard Theological Review 84:3 (1991), 299-323. Google Scholar

  • Scott, Nathan A. “The Poetry and Theology of Earth: Reflections on the Testimony of Joseph Sittler and Gerard Manley Hopkins.” The Journal of Religion 54:2 (1974), 102-118. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shinn, Roger L. “Eco-Justice Themes in Christian Ethics since the 1960s.” In For Creation’s Sake: Preaching, Ecology, and Justice, edited by Dieter T. Hessel, 96-114. Philadelphia: Westminster John Knox Press, 1985. Google Scholar

  • Showers, Kate B. “Soil Erosion and Conservation: An International History and a Cautionary Tale.” In Footprints in the Soil: People and Ideas in Soil History, edited by Benno P. Warkentin, 369-406. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science & Technology, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Sittler, Joseph A. “Ecological Commitment as Theological Responsibility.” Zygon 5:2 (1970), 172-181. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sittler, Joseph A. Essays on Nature and Grace. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972. Google Scholar

  • Sittler, Joseph A. Evocations of Grace: The Writings of Joseph Sittler on Ecology, Theology, and Ethics. Edited by Peter Bakken and Steven Bouma-Prediger. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. Google Scholar

  • Sittler, Joseph A. “The Grace Note. (“The Promise and Hope of American Life.”).” Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary Record 56:2 (1951), 2-4. Google Scholar

  • Sittler, Joseph A. “The Sacraments and Mystery.” Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary Record 58:3 (1953), 12-15. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-03-15

Accepted: 2016-03-30

Published Online: 2016-04-28

Citation Information: Open Theology, Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2300-6579, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opth-2016-0023.

Export Citation

©2016 Panu Pihkala . This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Zoe Gareiou and Efthimios Zervas
Religions, 2018, Volume 9, Number 9, Page 266
Ian Jones
Journal of Beliefs & Values, 2016, Volume 37, Number 3, Page 247

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in