Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Theology

Editor-in-Chief: Taliaferro, Charles

1 Issue per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-6579
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Religious and Spiritual Values Central to Personality and Behaviour

Marie-Line Morin
  • Laval University, Québec; President of the Institute of Psychoreligious Counseling in Québec, Canada
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-05-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opth-2016-0036

Abstract

Following a review and analysis of Allen E. Bergin’s article “Psychotherapy and Religious Values,” this paper anticipates future directions for integrating clients’ religious and spiritual values in psychology and psychotherapy research and practice. The author argues that to support Bergin’s suggestion that such values are no longer “at the fringe of clinical psychology [but rather] at the center” of our comprehension of personality and its aspirations, researchers and clinicians in psychology need to go beyond the “methodolatry” denounced by Bergin and associated with probabilistic practices. For that purpose, she first presents the considerations of Experiential Ontological Phenomenology (EOP), to which the concept of will is added, as a methodological scientific foundation to a value-based model in psychotherapy. She then introduces the principal concept of this model, the fundamental value, presented in relationship with the second most important concept, the psychological nub, derived from psychoanalytic concepts. The third basic concept, the subjective process, borrowed from the humanistic approach, is mentioned as being included in the EOP theory. Finally, a brief case study demonstrates how this model constitutes a point of integration at which theistic values or belief systems and psychological studies and practice meet.

Keywords: Fundamental values; Experiential Ontological Phenomenology; will; intentional consciousness

References

  • Bakan, C. David. “Interview” . In Changing frontiers in the science of psychotherapy, edited by Allen. E. Bergin and Hans H. Strupp. Chicago: Adline, 1972. Google Scholar

  • Bergin, Allen E. “Psychotherapy and Religious Values.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48:1 (1980), 95-105. Google Scholar

  • Campbell, Donald T. “On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition.” American Psychologist, 30 (1975) 1103-1120. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chan, Ann W., Yeh, Christine J., and Krumboltz, John D. “Mentoring Ethnic Minority Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students: A Multicultural, Ecological, and Relational Model.” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62:4 (2015), 592-607. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Collins, Gary R. The rebuilding of psychology: An integration of psychology and Christianity. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House, 1977. Google Scholar

  • Croteau, Jacques. “Précis de psychologie phénoménologico-existentielle : initiation à son approche, à sa méthode, à ses techniques d’analyse.” Non-published Research Manual. Ottawa: Université d’Ottawa, 1994. Google Scholar

  • Croteau, Jacques. L’homme : sujet ou objet? Prolégomènes philosophiques à une psychologie scientifico-humaniste. Paris: Desclée / Montréal: Bellarmin, 1981. Google Scholar

  • Doyle, Derek. “Have we looked beyond the physical and psychosocial?” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 7:5 (1992) 302-311. Google Scholar

  • Dy-Liacco, Gabriel S., Piedmont, Ralph L., Murray-Swank, Nichole A., Rodgerson, Thomas E., and Sherman, Martin F. “Spirituality and Religiosity as Cross-Cultural Aspects of Human Experience”, Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1:1 (2009), 35-52. Google Scholar

  • Dukes, Sheree C. “Phenomenological Methodology in the Human Sciences.” Journal of Religion and Health, 23:3 (1984), 197-203. Google Scholar

  • Emmons, Robert A. “Emotion and religion.” In Handbook for the psychology of religion, edited by Raymond F. Paloutzian and Crystal L. Park, 235-252. New York: Guilford Press, 1999. Google Scholar

  • Feng Yu, Theodore Peng, Kaiping Peng, Shi Tang, Chuan Shi Chen, Xiaojun Qian, Pei Sun, Tingting Han, and Fangyuan Chai, “Cultural Value Shifting in Pronoun Use.” Journal of Cross-Culture Psychology, 47:2 (2016), 310-316. Google Scholar

  • Frankl, Viktor E. The Unconscious God: Psychotherapy and Theology. New York: W.W. Norton, 1975. Google Scholar

  • Freud, Sigmund. The Ego and the Id. New York: W. W. Norton, 1960. Google Scholar

  • Freud, Sigmund. Trois essais sur la théorie de la sexualité. Paris: Gallimard, 1962. Google Scholar

  • Freud, Sigmund. Essai de psychanalyse. Paris: Payot, 1973. Google Scholar

  • Freud, Sigmund. Cinq leçons sur la psychanalyse. Paris: Payot, 1979. Google Scholar

  • Gilet, Marcel. L’homme et sa structure, Paris: Téqui, 1978. Google Scholar

  • Giorgi, Amedeo. “Sketch of a psychological phenomenology method.” In Phenomenology and Psychological Research, edited by Amedeo Giorgi, 8-22. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1985. Google Scholar

  • Giorgi, Amedeo. “The Phenomenological psychology of learning and the verbal learning.” In Phenomenology and Psychological Research, edited by Amedeo Giorgi, 23-85. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1985. Google Scholar

  • Goble, Frank G. The third force: The psychology of Abraham Maslow. New York: Pocket Books, 1971. Google Scholar

  • Goodwin, Antoinette. “Freud and Erikson: Their Contributions to the Psychology of God-Image Formation.” Pastoral Psychology, 47:2 (1998), 97-117. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hogan, Robert. “Interview.” APA Monitor, (April 1979) 4-5. Google Scholar

  • Hood, Ralph W. Jr. “The History and Current State of Research on Psychology of Religion.” In The Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Spirituality, edited by Lisa J. Miller, 7-20. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Google Scholar

  • Hood, Ralph W., Jr., Hill, Peter C., and Spilka, Bernard. Psychology of religion. New York: Guilford Press, 2009. Google Scholar

  • Hunsley, John, Elliott, Katherine, and Therrien, Zoé. “The Efficacy and Effectiveness of Psychological Treatments.” Canadian Psychological Association, Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 2013. Google Scholar

  • Kanfer, Frederick H. “Personal control, social control, and altruism: Can society survive the age of individualism?” American Psychologists, 34 (1979) 231-239. Google Scholar

  • Kashima, Emiki S., and Yoshihisa Kashima. “Culture and Language: The Case of Cultural Dimensions and Personal Pronoun Use.” Journal of Cross-Culture Psychology, 29:1 (1998) 461-486. Google Scholar

  • Kashima, Yoshihisa, and Emiki S. Kashima. “Individualism, GNP, Climate, and Pronoun Drop: Is Individualism Determined by Affluence and Climate, or Does Language Use Play a Role?” Journal of Cross-Culture Psychology, 29:1 (2003) 125-134. Google Scholar

  • Klaasen, Derrick W., Graham, Matthew D., and Young, Richard A. “Spiritual/Religious Coping as Intentional Activity: An Action Theoretical Perspective.” Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 31:1 (2009) 3-33. Google Scholar

  • Klein, Melanie. La psychanalyse des enfants. Paris: PUF, 1975. Google Scholar

  • Klein, Melanie. L’amour et la haine. Paris: Payot, 1975. Google Scholar

  • Klein, Melanie. Essai de psychanalyse. Paris: Payot, 1972. Google Scholar

  • Klerman, Gerald L. “The age of melancholy?” Psychology Today, (April 1979) 36-42 and 88-90. Google Scholar

  • Kuhn, Thomas S. The structure of scientific revolutions, (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. Google Scholar

  • Lowe, C. Marshall. Value orientations in counseling and psychotherapy: The meanings of mental health (2nd ed.). Cranston, R. I.: Carroll press, 1976 Google Scholar

  • MacDonald, Douglas A. “Spirituality: Description, measurement, and relation to the five-factor model of personality”, Journal of Personality, 68:1 (2000) 153-198. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Maslow, Abraham. Religion, values and peak experiences. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1964. Google Scholar

  • Millner, Uma Chandrika, Rogers, Erna Sally, Bloch, Philippe, Costa, William, Pritchett, Sharon, and Woods, Tracy. “Exploring the Work Lives of Adults with Serious Mental Illness from a Vocational Psychology Perspective.” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62:4 (2015), 642-644. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Le psychologique et le religieux.” Studies in Religion, 38:1 (2009), 71-97. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Le suicide chez les jeunes et la quête de sens et de spiritualité.” Travail social canadien, 6:1 (2004), 66-88. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Valeur fondamentale et système religieux.” Studies in Religion, 32:1-2 (2003), 113-133. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Rémission des symptômes de fibromyalgie : une étude phénoménologique existentielle.” Canadian Journal of Counselling, 37:2 (2003a), 84-100. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Fundamental Values and Systems’ Approach.” In Search of Healing, edited by Augustine Meier, 92-116. Ottawa, Society for Research in Pastoral Counseling, 2003. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Fundamental Value Questionnaire for Clinical Work and Qualitative Research” In Search of Healing, edited by Augustine Meier, 256-271. Ottawa: Society for Research in Pastoral Counseling, 2003. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Respecting the Dual Sided Identity of Clinical Pastoral Education and Professional Chaplaincy: The Phenomenological Research Model.” Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 13:1 (2002), 171-183. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. Pour une écoute en profondeur, la Valeur fondamentale. Montréal: Médiaspaul, 2001. Google Scholar

  • Morin, Marie-Line. “Counseling pastoral et Valeur fondamentale individuelle : Une étude phénoménologique.” Sciences pastorales, 18:1 (1999) 25-48. Google Scholar

  • Myers, David G. The human puzzle: Psychological research and Christian belief. New York: Harper & Row, 1978. Google Scholar

  • Oman, Doug. “Defining religion and spirituality.” In Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality, edited by Raymond F. Paloutzian and Crystal L. Park, 23-47. New York: Guilford Press, 2013. Google Scholar

  • Ozorak, Elizabeth W. “Cognitive approaches to religion.” In Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality, edited by Raymond F. Paloutzian and Crystal L. Park, 253-273. New York: Guilford Press, 2005. Google Scholar

  • Pargament, Kenneth I. The Psychology of Religion and Coping: Theory, Research, Practice. New York: Guilford Publications, 1997. Google Scholar

  • Pepitone, Albert, and Saffiotti, Luisa. “The selectivity of nonmaterial beliefs in interpreting life events”, European Journal of Social Psychology, 27:1 (1997) 23-35. Google Scholar

  • Peterson, Christopher, and Martin E. P. Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. London: Oxford University, 2004. Google Scholar

  • Piedmont, Ralph L., Ciarrochi, Joseph W., Dy-Liacco, Gabriel S., and Williams, Joseph E. G. “The empirical and conceptual value of the spiritual transcendence and religious involvement scales for personality research”, Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1:3 (2009) 162- 179. Google Scholar

  • Piedmont, Ralph L. “Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model”, Journal of Personality, 67:6 (1999) 985-1013. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Polanyi, Michael. Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Google Scholar

  • Raque-Bogdam, Trisha L., Hoffman, Marey Ann, Ginter, Amanda C., Piontkowski, Sarah, Schexnayder, Kelci, and White, Rachel. “The Work Life and Career Development of Young Breast Cancer Survivors.” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62:4 (2015) 655-669. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Reich, K. Helmut, Oser, Fritz K., and Scarlett, W. George. “Spiritual and religious development: Transcendence and transformations of the self.” In Being human: The case of religion: 2, Psychological studies on spiritual and religious development, edited by K. Helmut Reich, Fritz K. Oser, and W. George Scarlett, 7-24. Lengerich: Pabst, 1999. Google Scholar

  • Saint-Arnaud, Yvon J. “L’Art de se guérir.” Conférences, edited by Marie-Line Morin with Lise Séguin’s collaboration, Ottawa: Novalis, 2007. Google Scholar

  • Saint-Arnaud, Yvon J. “L’Art de jouir des plaisirs illimités.” Conférences, edited by Marie-Line Morin and Lise Séguin, Ottawa: Novalis, 2006. Google Scholar

  • Saint-Arnaud, Yvon J. La relation d’aide pastorale. Ottawa: Novalis, 2005. Google Scholar

  • Saint-Arnaud, Yvon J. La guérison par le plaisir. Ottawa: Novalis, 2003. Google Scholar

  • Schnall, Eliezer, Schiffman, Mark, Cherniak, Aaron. “Virtues that transcend: Positive psychology in Jewish texts and tradition. In Religion and spirituality across culture, edited by Chu-Kim Prieto, 21-45. New York: Springer, 2014. Google Scholar

  • Schnell, Tatjana. “Spirituality with and without religion: Differential relationships with personality”, Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 34:1 (2012) 33-61. Google Scholar

  • Skrzypinska, Katarzyna. “The Threefold Nature of Spirituality (TNS) in a Psychological Cognitive Framework”, Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 36:3 (2014) 277-302. Google Scholar

  • Skrzypinska, Katarzyna. “Spirituality and religiousness-Coexistence or separation?” Plenary lecture presented at the First International Conference on Science, Human Religiousness and Spirituality. Gdansk, 2012. Google Scholar

  • Skrzypinska, Katarzyna. Pogląd na świat, a poczucie sensu i zadowolenia z życia [View of the world, meaning of life, and well-being]. Krakow: Oficyna Wydawnicza Impuls, 2002. Google Scholar

  • Spilka, Bernard. “Spirituality: Problems and directions in operationalizing a fuzzy concept.” Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association. Toronto, 1993. Google Scholar

  • Tart, Charles T. Transpersonal psychologies. New York: Harper & Row, 1977. Google Scholar

  • Tausczik, Yla R., and Pennebaker, James W. “The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods.” Journal of Langage and Social Psychology, 29:1 (2010) 24-54. Google Scholar

  • Taylor, Charles. Les sources du moi. La formation de l’identité moderne. Québec: Boréal, 1998. Google Scholar

  • Uz, Irem. “Individualism and First Person Pronoun Use in Written Texts across Languages.” Journal of Cross-Culture Psychology, 45:10 (2014), 1671-1678. Google Scholar

  • Valle Ronald S., and Halling Steen. Existential-Phenomenological Perspectives in Psychology. New York: Plenum Press, 1989. Google Scholar

  • Vaughan, Frances. “Spirituality: Problems and directions in operationalizing a fuzzy concept.” Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association. Toronto, 1991. Google Scholar

  • Vergote, Antoine. Psychologie religieuse. Bruxelles: Dessart, 1971. Google Scholar

  • Zinnbauer, Brian J., and Pargament, Kenneth I. “Religiousness and spirituality.” In Handbook for the psychology of religion and spirituality, edited by Raymond F. Paloutzian and Chrystal L. Park, 21-42, New York: Guilford Press, 2005. Google Scholar

  • Zinnbauer, Brian J., Pargament, Kenneth I., and Allie B. Scott. “The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects”, Journal of Personality, 67:6 (1999) 889-919. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zohar, Danah, and Marshall, Ian. SQ: Spiritual intelligence, the ultimate intelligence. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2000. Google Scholar

About the article


Received: 2016-01-02

Accepted: 2016-03-10

Published Online: 2016-05-31


Citation Information: Open Theology, Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2300-6579, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opth-2016-0036.

Export Citation

©2016 Marie-Line Morin. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in