Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Pure and Applied Chemistry

The Scientific Journal of IUPAC

Ed. by Burrows, Hugh / Stohner, Jürgen

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.350
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 4.037

CiteScore 2018: 4.66

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.240
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.826

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 79, Issue 1


Guidelines for potentiometric measurements in suspensions Part A. The suspension effect (IUPAC Technical Report)

Srecko F. Oman
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5,1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ M. Filomena Camões
  • Corresponding author
  • Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, University of Lisbon (CECUL/DQB), Faculdade de Sciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edificio C8, Pt-1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kipton J. Powell
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Raj Rajagopalan
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, The Republic of Singapore
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Petra Spitzer
  • Corresponding author
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Postfach 3345, D-38023, Braunschweig, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2009-01-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200779010067

An explanation of the origin and interpretation of the suspension effect (SE) is presented in accordance with "pH Measurement: IUPAC Recommendations 2002" [Pure Appl. Chem.74, 2169 (2002)]. It is based on an analysis of detailed schemes of suspension potentiometric cells and confirmed with experimental results. Historically, the term "suspension effect" evolved during attempts to determine electrochemically the thermodynamically defined activity of H+ (aq) in suspensions. The experimental SE arises also in determining other pIon values, analogous to pH values.

The SE relates to the observation that for the potential generated when a pair of electrodes (e.g., reference electrode, RE, and glass electrode) is placed in a suspension, the measured cell voltage is different from that measured when they are both placed in the separate equilibrium solution (eqs). The SE is defined here as the sum of: (1) the difference between the mixed potential of the indicator electrode (IE) in a suspension and the IE potential placed in the separated eqs; and (2) the anomalous liquid junction potential of the RE placed in the suspension. It is not the consequence of a boundary potential between the sediment and its eqs in the suspension potentiometric cells as is stated in the current definition of the SE.

Keywords: anomalous liquid junction potential; boundary potential; IUPAC Analytical Chemistry Division; mixed potential; operational definition of suspension effect; pH; pIon; soil pH; suspension effect; suspension potentiometric cell

Project Year: 2004, Project Code: 2004-016-2-500


  • 1.

    R. P. Buck, S. Rondinini, A. K. Covington, F. G. K. Baucke, C. M. A. Brett, M. F. Camoes, M. J. T. Milton, T. Mussini, R. Naumann, K. W. Pratt, P. Spitzer G. S. Wilson. Pure Appl. Chem. 74, 2169 (2002).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 2.

    , S. F. Oman, I. Lipar. Electrochim. Acta 42, 15 (1997).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3.

    , S. Oman. Talanta 51, 21 (2000).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    , J. Th. G. Overbeek. J. Colloid Sci. 8, 593 (1953).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    , H. Pallmann. Kolloid Beih. 30, 334 (1930).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    , G. Wiegner. Kolloid-Z. 51, 49 (1930).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    S. F. Oman. Acta Chim. Slov. 47, 519 (2000).Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Yu. M. Chernoberezhskii. "The Suspension Effect" in Surface and Colloid Science. 2nd ed., Vol. 12, E. Matijevic (Ed.), pp. 359-453, Plenum Press, New York (1982).Google Scholar

  • 9.

    T. R. Yu. Ion-Selective Electrode Rev. 7, 165 (1985).Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Lehrwerk Chemie, Vol. 5, G. Ackermann et al. Elektrolytgleichgewichte und Elektrochemie, 4th ed., p. 70, VEB Deutscher Verlag, Leipzig (1985).Google Scholar

  • 11.

    , S. Oman, A. Godec. Electrochim. Acta 36, 59 (1991).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    S. F. Oman. Acta Chim. Slov. 51, 189 (2004).Google Scholar

  • 13.

    H. Galster. pH Measurement, Chaps. 3.2, 3.4, 6.2, VCH, Weinheim (1991).Google Scholar

  • 14.

    A. K. Covington. Ion-Selective Electrode Methodology, Vol. I, p. 60, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1980).Google Scholar

  • 15.

    , R. E. Dohner, D. Wegmann, W. E. Morf, W. Simon. Anal. Chem. 58, 2585 (1986).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    , R. P. Buck, E. Lindner. Pure Appl. Chem. 66, 2533 (1994).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    D. H. Everett, L. K. Koopal. Chem. Int. 25, 18 (2003) and refs. therein.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    R. J. Hunter. Colloid Science, 2nd ed., p. 354, Oxford University Press, New York (2001).Google Scholar

  • 19.

    , P. de Zorzi, S. Barbizzi, M. Belli, G. Ciceri, A. Fajgelj, D. Moore, U. Sansone, M. Van der Perk. Pure Appl. Chem. 77, 827 (2005).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2009-01-01

Published in Print: 2007-01-01

Citation Information: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Volume 79, Issue 1, Pages 67–79, ISSN (Online) 1365-3075, ISSN (Print) 0033-4545, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200779010067.

Export Citation

© 2013 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Zhenqing Shi, James T. Nurmi, and Paul G. Tratnyek
Environmental Science & Technology, 2011, Volume 45, Number 4, Page 1586
Evanthia Papadopoulou and Steven E. J. Bell
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2010, Volume 114, Number 51, Page 22644
Márta Szekeres and Etelka Tombácz
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2012, Volume 414, Page 302
Raúl A. Rica, María L. Jiménez, and Ángel V. Delgado
Soft Matter, 2012, Volume 8, Number 13, Page 3596
Raúl A. Rica, María L. Jiménez, and Ángel V. Delgado
Soft Matter, 2011, Volume 7, Number 7, Page 3286
M. Filomena Camões
Accreditation and Quality Assurance, 2009, Volume 14, Number 10, Page 521
J. D. Cooke, E. Tipping, and J. Hamilton-Taylor
European Journal of Soil Science, 2008, Volume 59, Number 6, Page 1111

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in