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Pure and Applied Chemistry

The Scientific Journal of IUPAC

Ed. by Burrows, Hugh / Stohner, Jürgen

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Volume 83, Issue 7

Issues

Soils contaminated with explosives: Environmental fate and evaluation of state-of-the-art remediation processes (IUPAC Technical Report)

Dimitrios Kalderis
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, Technological and Educational Institute of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Albert L. Juhasz
  • Corresponding author
  • Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095, Australia
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/ Raj Boopathy
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Nicholls State University, Thibodaux, LA 70310, USA
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/ Steve Comfort
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, 205 Kiesselbach, Lincoln, NE, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
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Published Online: 2011-05-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1351/PAC-REP-10-01-05

An explosion occurs when a large amount of energy is suddenly released. This energy may come from an over-pressurized steam boiler, from the products of a chemical reaction involving explosive materials, or from a nuclear reaction that is uncontrolled. In order for an explosion to occur, there must be a local accumulation of energy at the site of the explosion, which is suddenly released. This release of energy can be dissipated as blast waves, propulsion of debris, or by the emission of thermal and ionizing radiation. Modern explosives or energetic materials are nitrogen-containing organic compounds with the potential for self-oxidation to small gaseous molecules (N2, H2O, and CO2). Explosives are classified as primary or secondary based on their susceptibility of initiation. Primary explosives are highly susceptible to initiation and are often used to ignite secondary explosives, such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane), and tetryl (N-methyl-N-2,4,6-tetranitro-aniline).

Keywords: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); explosives; high melting explosive (HMX); IUPAC Chemistry and the Environment Division; rapid detention explosive (RDX); soil contamination

Project Year: 2007, Project Code: 2007-026-2-600

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About the article

Published Online: 2011-05-07

Published in Print: 2011-05-07


Citation Information: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Volume 83, Issue 7, Pages 1407–1484, ISSN (Online) 1365-3075, ISSN (Print) 0033-4545, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1351/PAC-REP-10-01-05.

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