Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Pure and Applied Chemistry

The Scientific Journal of IUPAC

Ed. by Burrows, Hugh / Stohner, Jürgen

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.350
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 4.037

CiteScore 2018: 4.66

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.240
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.826

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 85, Issue 8


Plastics additives and green chemistry

Evan S. Beach
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Brian R. Weeks
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Rebecca Stern
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Paul T. Anastas
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-01-05 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1351/PAC-CON-12-08-08

The plastics enterprise depends on a small number of commodity polymers to perform in diverse applications, requiring additives to produce desired properties and performance. Toxic effects and environmental persistence of certain additive chemicals impact the sustainability of the industry. Green chemistry has been and will continue to be applied to find solutions to these issues. This review focuses on alternatives to phthalate plasticizers and halogenated flame retardants, two categories that together account for a significant portion of the global additives market and the global dispersion of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Small-molecule alternatives that exist in various stages of research and commercialization will be discussed, with emphasis on the use of renewable resources. The rise of biorefineries and new bio-based monomers may help overcome existing economic barriers to adoption of alternatives. Increasing the molecular weight of additives or covalently linking them to polymer backbones are two promising strategies for reducing both mobility and toxicity that will also be discussed. Finally, the design of new polymers that show desirable properties without the use of additives will be considered. The substances put forward as “green” alternatives have yet to receive the same level of scrutiny as diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, also known as dioctyl phthalate) or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Cooperation between chemists, engineers, and the environmental health community will be critical to ensure the safety and sustainability of new technologies.

Keywords: bio-based chemicals; flame retardants; plasticizers; polymers


International Conference on Green Chemistry (ICGC-4), IUPAC International Conference on Green Chemistry, ICGC, Green Chemistry , 4th, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, 2012-08-25–2012-08-29


  • 1

    R. Babinsky, F. Gastrock. BRICs, Foundation for Strategic Growth, Addcon 2008, Barcelona, Spain, 15–16 October 2008 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 2

    Anonymous. Plast. Addit. Compound.10, 12 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 3

    S. Müller. Plastic Additives - The European Market in a Global Environment, Addcon 2007, Frankfurt, Germany, 5–6 September 2007 (2007).Google Scholar

  • 4

    , L. N. Vandenberg, T. Colborn, T. B. Hayes, J. J. Heindel, D. R. Jacobs, D.-H. Lee, T. Shioda, A. M. Soto, F. S. vom Saal, W. V. Welshons, R. T. Zoeller, J. P. Myers. Endocrine Rev.33, 378 (2012).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5

    , H. Frederiksen, N. E. Skakkebaek, A.-M. Andersson. Mol. Nutr. Food Res.51, 899 (2007).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6

    M. A. Fernández, B. Gómara, M. J. González. In Emerging Organic Contaminants and Human Health, D. Barceló (Ed.), p. 307, Springer, Berlin (2012).Google Scholar

  • 7

    Committee on the Health Risks of Phthalates, National Research Council. Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Task Ahead, National Academies Press (2008).Google Scholar

  • 8

    , I. Rusyn, J. M. Peters, M. L. Cunningham. Crit. Rev. Toxicol.36, 459 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9

    , Y. Hayashi, Y. Ito, N. Yamagishi, Y. Yanagiba, H. Tamada, D. Wang, D. H. Ramdhan, H. Naito, Y. Harada, M. Kamijima, F. J. Gonzales, T. Nakajima. Toxicology289, 1 (2011).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10

    , S. Larsen, G. Nielsen. BMC Immunology9, 61 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 11

    , I. Kimber, R. J. Dearman. Toxicology271, 73 (2010).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12

    , T. Lovekamp-Swan, B. J. Davis. Environ. Health Perspect.111, 139 (2002).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13

    J. Markarian. Plast. Addit. Compound.9, 22 (2007).Google Scholar

  • 14

    E. J. Wickson. In Handbook of PVC Formulating, E. J. Wickson (Ed.), pp. 1–13, John Wiley, New York (1993).Google Scholar

  • 15

    Anonymous. Plast. Addit. Compound.10, 28 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 16

    J. Markarian. Plast. Addit. Compound.10, 22 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 17

    , M. Rahman, C. S. Brazel. Prog. Polym. Sci.29, 1223 (2004).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18

    Anonymous. Plast. Addit. Compound.10, 8 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 19

    , L. G. Costa, G. Giordano. NeuroToxicology28, 1047 (2007).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20

    , A. P. Vonderheide, K. E. Mueller, J. Meija, G. L. Welsh. Sci. Total Environ.400, 425 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21

    L. Costa, G. Giordano, S. Tagliaferri, A. Caglieri, A. Mutti. Acta Biomed. Ateneo Parmense79, 172 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 22

    , K. D’Silva, A. Fernandes, M. Rose. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol.34, 141 (2004).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 23

    , G. T. Tomy, V. P. Palace, T. Halldorson, E. Braekevelt, R. Danell, K. Wautier, B. Evans, L. Brinkworth, A. T. Fisk. Environ. Sci. Technol.38, 1496 (2004).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 24

    , H. M. Stapleton, N. G. Dodder. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.27, 306 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 25

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE) (Final), EPA/600/R-08/086F, Washington, DC (2010).Google Scholar

  • 26

    , B. Johnson-Restrepo, K. Kannan. Chemosphere76, 542 (2009).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Toxicological Profile for Polybrominated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Atlanta, GA (2004).Google Scholar

  • 28

    , D. F. Staskal, H. Hakk, D. Bauer, J. J. Diliberto, L. S. Birnbaum. Toxicol. Sci.94, 28 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 29

    , L.-H. Tseng, M.-H. Li, S.-S. Tsai, C.-W. Lee, M.-H. Pan, W.-J. Yao, P.-C. Hsu. Chemosphere70, 640 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30

    , T. Zhou, D. G. Ross, M. J. DeVito, K. M. Crofton. Toxicol. Sci.61, 76 (2001).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 31

    , J. Legler, A. Brouwer. Environ. Int.29, 879 (2003).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 32

    , M. M. L. Dingemans, M. van den Berg, R. H. S. Westerink. Environ. Health Perspect.119, 900 (2011).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 33

    , T. Hamers, J. H. Kamstra, E. Sonneveld, A. J. Murk, T. J. Visser, M. J. M. Van Velzen, A. Brouwer, Å. Bergman. Mol. Nutr. Food Res.52, 284 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34

    , Y. Lai, M. Lu, X. Gao, H. Wu, Z. Cai. Environ. Sci. Technol.45, 10720 (2011).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 35

    , I. A. T. M. Meerts, R. J. Letcher, S. Hoving, G. Marsh, Å. Bergman, J. G. Lemmen, B. van der Burg, A. Brouwer. Environ. Health Perspect.109, 399 (2001).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 36

    , M. Wahl, B. Lahni, R. Guenther, B. Kuch, L. Yang, U. Straehle, S. Strack, C. Weiss. Chemosphere73, 209 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 37

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. IRIS Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (Final Report), EPA/635/R-07/008F, Washington, DC (2008).Google Scholar

  • 38

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. IRIS Toxicological Review of Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (Final Report), EPA/635/R-07/006F, Washington, DC (2008).Google Scholar

  • 39

    , C. Yan, D. Huang, Y. Zhang. Exper. Toxicol. Pathol.63, 413 (2011).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 40

    , H. Hakk, R. J. Letcher. Environ. Int.29, 801 (2003).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 41

    , J. B. Manchester-Neesvig, K. Valters, W. C. Sonzogni. Environ. Sci. Technol.35, 1072 (2001).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 42

    , H. M. Stapleton, S. Klosterhaus, A. Keller, P. L. Ferguson, S. van Bergen, E. Cooper, T. F. Webster, A. Blum. Environ. Sci. Technol.45, 5323 (2011).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 43

    , S. D. Shaw, A. Blum, R. Weber, K. Kannan, D. Rich, D. Lucas, C. P. Koshland, D. Dobraca, S. Hanson, L. S. Birnbaum. Rev. Environ. Health25, 261 (2010).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 44

    P. T. Anastas, J. C. Warner. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1998).Google Scholar

  • 45

    , B. L. Wadey. J. Vinyl Addit. Technol.9, 172 (2003).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 46

    J. van Haveren, E. A. Oostveen, F. Miccichè, J. G. J. Weijnen. In Feedstocks for the Future, J. J. Bozell, M. K. Patel (Eds.), pp. 99–115, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (2006).Google Scholar

  • 47

    , M. G. R. Ter Veld, B. Schouten, J. Louisse, D. S. Van Es, P. T. Van der Saag, I. M. C. M. Rietjens, A. J. Murk. J. Agric. Food Chem.54, 4407 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 48

    , D. B. Meyers, J. Autian, W. L. Guess. J. Pharm. Sci.53, 774 (1964).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 49

    , B. Ekwall, C. Nordensten, L. Albanus. Toxicology24, 199 (1982).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 50

    , K. Mochida, M. Gomyoda, T. Fujita. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.56, 635 (1996).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 51

    Epoxidised soya bean oil. http://www.bibra-information.co.uk/profile-126.html, accessed 5/1/2012.Google Scholar

  • 52

    , G. Seek Rhee, S. Hee Kim, S. Sun Kim, K. Hee Sohn, S. Jun Kwack, B. H. Kim, K. Lea Park. Toxicol. in Vitro16, 443 (2002).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 53

    B. L. Kristoffersen. Dansk Kemi86, 22 (2005).Google Scholar

  • 54

    T. Hamaguchi, A. Mori. Plasticizer for biodegradable resin, U.S. Patent Application 2006/0276575 A1 (2006).Google Scholar

  • 55

    J. Gartshore, D. G. Cooper, J. A. Nicell. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.22, 1244 (2003).Google Scholar

  • 56

    N. Firlotte, D. G. Cooper, M. Maricacute, J. A. Nicell. J. Vinyl Addit. Technol.15, 99 (2009).Google Scholar

  • 57

    , N. Gil, M. Saska, I. Negulescu. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.102, 1366 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 58

    , E. S. Stevens, R. D. Ashby, D. K. Y. Solaiman. J. Biobased Mater. Bioenergy3, 57 (2009).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 59

    , M. Rahman, C. S. Brazel. Polym. Degrad. Stab.91, 3371 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 60

    , P. J. Scammells, J. L. Scott, R. D. Singer. Aust. J. Chem.58, 155 (2005).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 61

    , D. Zhao, Y. Liao, Z. Zhang. Clean: Soil, Air, Water35, 42 (2007).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 62

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Furniture Flame Retardancy Partnership: Environmental Profiles of Chemical Flame-Retardant Alternatives for Low-Density Polyurethane Foam.Google Scholar

  • 63

    HDP Halogen Free Guideline. http://www.hdpug.org/content/publications-0, accessed 5/1/2012.Google Scholar

  • 64

    Halogen-free Flame Retardants in E&E Applications: A growing toolbox of materials is becoming available. http://www.halogenfree-flameretardants.com/HFFR-300.pdf, accessed 5/1/2012.Google Scholar

  • 65

    , S. V. Levchik, E. D. Weil. Polym. Int.54, 981 (2005).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 66

    J. Scheirs. In Modern Polyesters: Chemistry and Technology of Polyesters and Copolyesters, J. Scheirs, T. E. Long (Eds.), pp. 495–540, John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (2003).Google Scholar

  • 67

    , J. Murphy. Plast. Addit. Compound.3, 16 (2001).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 68

    , U. Braun, B. Schartel. Macromol. Mater. Eng.293, 206 (2007).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 69

    Anonymous. Plast. Addit. Compound.10, 42 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 70

    , L. Castle, A. J. Mercer, J. Gilbert. Food Addit. Contam.8, 565 (1991).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 71

    P. T. Anastas, P. H. Bickart, M. M. Kirchhoff. Designing Safer Polymers, Wiley-Interscience, New York (2000).Google Scholar

  • 72

    , N. Ljungberg, B. Wesslén. Biomacromolecules6, 1789 (2005).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 73

    K. M. Draths, S. Kambourakis, K. Li, J. W. Frost. In Chemicals and Materials from Renewable Resources, J. J. Bozell (Ed.), ACS Symposium Series No. 784, pp. 133–146 American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (2001).Google Scholar

  • 74

    , V. P. Martino, A. Jimenez, R. A. Ruseckaite. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.112, 2010 (2009).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 75

    L. Wang. Chem. Eng. News 85 (2007).Google Scholar

  • 76

    COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No. 372/2007 of 2 April 2007 laying down transitional migration limits for plasticisers in gaskets in lids intended to come into contact with foods.Google Scholar

  • 77

    , M. Hakkarainen. Adv. Polym. Sci.211, 159 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 78

    , J. Choi, S.-Y. Kwak. Environ. Sci. Technol.41, 3763 (2007).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 79

    , D. Feldman, D. Banu, A. El-Aghoury. J. Vinyl Addit. Technol.13, 14 (2007).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 80

    , S.-Y. Lu, I. Hamerton. Prog. Polym. Sci.27, 1661 (2002).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 81

    , D. Derouet, F. Morvan, J. C. Brosse. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.62, 1855 (1996).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 82

    , M. Alexandre, P. Dubois. Mater. Sci. Eng. R28, 1 (2000).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 83

    , J. W. Gilman. Appl. Clay Sci.15, 31 (1999).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 84

    , A. B. Morgan. Polym. Adv. Technol.17, 206 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 85

    , B. Schartel, M. Bartholmai, U. Knoll. Polym. Adv. Technol.17, 772 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 86

    , X. Zheng, C. A. Wilkie. Polym. Degrad. Stab.81, 539 (2003).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 87

    , B. Schartel, U. Braun, U. Knoll, M. Bartholmai, H. Goering, D. Neubert, P. Poetschke. Polym. Eng. Sci.48, 149 (2008).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 88

    J. W. Gilman. Sustainable Flame Retardant Nanocomposites. Fire and Materials 2009, 11th International Conference (San Francisco, CA), Proceedings, London (2009).Google Scholar

  • 89

    , R. B. Wilson Jr. J. Vinyl Addit. Technol.4, 84 (1998).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 90

    , D. J. Arriola, E. M. Carnahan, P. D. Hustad, R. L. Kuhlman, T. T. Wenzel. Science312, 714 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 91

    J. Markarian. Plast. Addit. Compound.10, 38 (2008).Google Scholar

  • 92

    S. Adanur. In Wellington Sears Handbook of Industrial Textiles, S. Adanur (Ed.), Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA (1995).Google Scholar

  • 93

    H. Zhang. Fire-safe Polymers and Polymer Composites, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Research, Washington, DC (2004).Google Scholar

  • 94

    S. Adanur. In Wellington Sears Handbook of Industrial Textiles, S. Adanur (Ed.), Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA (1995).Google Scholar

  • 95

    , A. M. Voutchkova, T. G. Osimitz, P. T. Anastas. Chem. Rev.110, 5845 (2010).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 96

    , R. S. Boethling, E. Sommer, D. DiFiore. Chem. Rev.107, 2207 (2007).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 97

    , C. Y. Wang, N. Ai, S. Arora, E. Erenrich, K. Nagarajan, R. Zauhar, D. Young, W. J. Welsh. Chem. Res. Toxicol.19, 1595 (2006).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 98

    , A. M. Voutchkova, L. A. Ferris, J. B. Zimmerman, P. T. Anastas. Tetrahedron66, 1031 (2010).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 99

    , A. M. Voutchkova, J. Kostal, J. B. Steinfeld, J. W. Emerson, B. W. Brooks, P. Anastas, J. B. Zimmerman. Green Chem.13, 2373 (2011).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 100

    , A. M. Voutchkova-Kostal, J. Kostal, K. A. Connors, B. W. Brooks, P. T. Anastas, J. B. Zimmerman. Green Chem.14, 1001 (2012).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 101

    , J. J. Bozell, G. R. Petersen. Green Chem.12, 539 (2010).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-01-05

Published in Print: 2013-01-05

Citation Information: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Volume 85, Issue 8, Pages 1611–1624, ISSN (Online) 1365-3075, ISSN (Print) 0033-4545, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1351/PAC-CON-12-08-08.

Export Citation

© 2013 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Christopher Blum, Dirk Bunke, Maximilian Hungsberg, Elsbeth Roelofs, Anke Joas, Reinhard Joas, Markus Blepp, and Hans-Christian Stolzenberg
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 2019, Volume 13, Page 100140
Samantha M. Gibson, Jarryl M. D'Oyley, Joe I. Higham, Kate Sanders, Victor Laserna, Abil E. Aliev, and Tom D. Sheppard
European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2018
Hanno Erythropel, Aurélie Börmann, Jim Nicell, Richard Leask, and Milan Maric
Polymers, 2018, Volume 10, Number 6, Page 646
Yangyang Wang, Zhiping Zhou, Wanzhen Xu, Yu Luan, Yi Lu, Yanfei Yang, Tianshu Liu, SongJun Li, and Wenming Yang
Polymer International, 2018
Yowching Liaw, Hsing Yuan Yen, and Jung-Hua Chou
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 2017, Volume 7, Number 12, Page 1951
Joanna Guziałowska-Tic, Wilhelm Jan Tic, M. Wzorek, G. Królczyk, and A. Król
E3S Web of Conferences, 2017, Volume 19, Page 02031
Wilhelm Jan Tic, M. Wzorek, G. Królczyk, and A. Król
E3S Web of Conferences, 2017, Volume 19, Page 02029
Elena Fortunati, Debora Puglia, Antonio Iannoni, Andrea Terenzi, José Maria Kenny, and Luigi Torre
Materials, 2017, Volume 10, Number 7, Page 809
Sherman J.L. Lauw, Jazreen H.Q. Lee, Malcolm E. Tessensohn, Wei Qi Leong, and Richard D. Webster
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2017, Volume 794, Page 103
Abdullah Amru Indera Luthfi, Shareena Fairuz Abdul Manaf, Rosli Md Illias, Shuhaida Harun, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, and Jamaliah Md Jahim
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2017, Volume 101, Number 8, Page 3055
Christopher Blum, Dirk Bunke, Maximilian Hungsberg, Elsbeth Roelofs, Anke Joas, Reinhard Joas, Markus Blepp, and Hans-Christian Stolzenberg
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 2017, Volume 5, Page 94
Ting Fan, Wenming Yang, Ningwei Wang, Xiaoni Ni, Jia Wen, and Wanzhen Xu
Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2016, Volume 133, Number 22, Page n/a
Myoung-Hwan Park
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 2015, Volume 7, Number 5, Page 277
Yong Yang, Zhu Xiong, Lisheng Zhang, Zhaobin Tang, Ruoyu Zhang, and Jin Zhu
Materials & Design, 2016, Volume 91, Page 262
Thuy T. Bui, Georgios Giovanoulis, Anna Palm Cousins, Jörgen Magnér, Ian T. Cousins, and Cynthia A. de Wit
Science of The Total Environment, 2016, Volume 541, Page 451
Hitoshi Tanaka, Yoshitaka Matsubara, Katsuhiko Kusunoki, Naoki Saito, and Tatsuya Kibayashi
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 2015, Volume 53, Number 17, Page 2007
Lucas Montero de Espinosa, Andreas Gevers, Benjamin Woldt, Michael Graß, and Michael A. R. Meier
Green Chem., 2014, Volume 16, Number 4, Page 1883

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in