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Pure and Applied Chemistry

The Scientific Journal of IUPAC

Ed. by Burrows, Hugh / Stohner, Jürgen


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Volume 87, Issue 3

Issues

Nomenclature and graphic representations for chemically modified polymers (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

Richard G. Jones / Tatsuki Kitayama / Edward S. Wilks / Robert B. Fox / Alain Fradet / Karl-Heinz Hellwich / Michael Hess / Philip Hodge / Kazuyuki Horie / Jaroslav Kahovec
  • University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
  • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Pavel Kratochvíl
  • University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
  • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Przemyslaw Kubisa / Ernest Maréchal / Werner Mormann / Christopher K. Ober / Robert F.T. Stepto / Michel Vert / Jiří Vohlídal
Published Online: 2015-02-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2014-0610

An erratum for this article can be found here: https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-5002

Abstract

A new source-based nomenclature system is described which indicates that a particular polymer has been chemically modified. A connective within the name of a polymer, -mod-, is introduced for this purpose as in poly[(A)-mod-(B)]. The system is intended to be used in accordance with source-based naming of polymers but also provides for the use of structure-based names when it is unavoidable. It embraces: (1) modification of a constitutional unit into another, the unique structure of which is known; and (2) a more general modification of a constitutional unit resulting in any one of a number of possible structures. In addition, a new symbol, ∼>, is proposed for use in graphic representations of the structure of modified polymers.

Keywords: chemical modification; copolymer; graphic representation; IUPAC Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division; IUPAC Polymer Division; partial modification

Article note

Sponsoring body: IUPAC Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division; IUPAC Polymer Division and the Sub-Committee on Polymer Terminology. For more detail, see p. 317.

MP-0 Preamble

This document provides a new naming system and graphic representation to cover polymers that have been chemically modified within their backbone, end group or pendent group structures. In the broadest sense, the term “modified polymers” could also be interpreted to include other types such as comb polymers, graft polymers and polymer networks but these are excluded from consideration here.

Besides the many polymers that are produced by direct polymerization of monomer(s), products containing chemically modified polymers have been available for well over 80 years and continue to be commercially important. For example, the synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) by hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate) [1] and the subsequent reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol) with benzaldehyde to form cyclic acetal units [2] both date from 1924, while the first patents claiming chlorosulfonated polyethylene and chlorinated polyethylene date from 1940 and 1956, respectively [3, 4].

Nomenclature procedures for modified polymers have traditionally considered the reactant and product to be separate entities, each named according to existing IUPAC recommendations [5–15]. Thus, when a fraction of the constitutional units, A, of poly(A)1 is transformed into a new one, J, that is, partial modification of A into J, the reactant would be named poly(A), and the product would be named as a copolymer, poly[(A)-co-(J)], as though it had been formed by copolymerization of the corresponding monomers A and J [10]. While this is fundamentally correct, it can commonly be tedious; the longer the names of the constitutional units, or the more types of units there are in a copolymer, or both, the more onerous the task becomes. Additionally, sequence distributions within a chemically modified polymer can be different from those formed by copolymerization. It is also important to draw the distinction between chemical modification of a preformed polymer and copolymerization but, because there are no standards for either nomenclature or graphic representation of the former, scientists often use impromptu notations that may be subject to misinterpretation by others.

Within the established IUPAC nomenclature for polymers, comprehensive source-based or structure-based systematic nomenclature systems for dealing with modified polymers have been neglected. Some structure-based names, typically for chlorinated polyethylene, are cited in an earlier IUPAC document [12], and, though this was not primarily written to address nomenclature for modified polymers, its recommendations are of relevance in the present context.

MP-1 Basic principles

MP-1.1 Nomenclature for chemically modified polymers

This document presents an efficient and more compact method of conveying standard information for both partly and completely modified polymers by incorporating within a single name an indicator of the chemical modification. To that end, a new connective, -mod-, an abbreviation of the word “modified”, is introduced to indicate chemical modification of the structure of the constitutional units of a polymer. Thus, a typical representation of the source-based name of a modified polymer would be poly[(A)-mod-(J)] resembling that of the source-based name of a copolymer, poly[(A)-co-(J)]. In fact, partly modified poly(A) is a copolymer but the name poly[(A)-mod-(J)] conveys the information that it was made by forming new constitutional units through the chemical modification of units A. In contrast, the name poly[(A)-co-(J)] only indicates that there are two types of constitutional unit present in the polymer, though it is commonly inferred that this results from copolymerization.

In all other respects, the naming of polymers and copolymers resulting from partial modification should be done in accordance with existing IUPAC recommendations [10, 12] with the names of each new constitutional unit together with those of the unmodified ones being incorporated into the complete name of the polymer (the naming of irregular polymers that result from multistep modification reactions is enabled by extending the recommended system as elaborated in Section MP-2). In cases where this is not feasible because J cannot be identified explicitly, the method is adapted to provide as much information as possible; for example, information may be added about any new substituent that is attached to the original polymer. Thus, if J is a well-characterized constitutional unit with an exclusive structural representation, then its IUPAC name or the IUPAC name of the corresponding apparent monomer should be used. Typically, the partial hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate) converts some (constitutional) units derived from vinyl acetate to (constitutional) units apparently derived from vinyl alcohol and the modified polymer can be named poly[(vinyl acetate)-mod-(vinyl alcohol)]. On the other hand, there are reactions that can lead to a variety of structures for modified constitutional units in a seemingly unselective manner, for example, the chlorination of poly(4-methylstyrene) may result in the replacement with chlorine atoms of up to six of the non-aromatic hydrogen atoms on any given constitutional unit. The modified unit could then be any one of many structures and to name them all would be cumbersome. In such a situation, they can be named as a family by association of poly(A) with the name of the new substituent, which in this instance is chloro, and the polymer would be [poly(4-methylstyrene)]-mod-chloro or, in general, [poly(A)]-mod-J.

Within a complete name of a modified polymer source-based or structure-based nomenclature styles can be used for A and J, and although it is not elaborated herein, the principles can be extended to the use of the generic source-based nomenclature style. Since a modified polymer is sourced from a precursor polymer, which in turn has been sourced from monomer(s), for the sake of consistency the source-based naming system is preferred. However, following modification the polymer often has no appropriate source-based name. In such instances, structure-based names can be used for A and J but should accord with established rules for naming irregular single-strand organic polymers [12], which include the recommendation that the constitutional units be cited in alphabetical order and preclude the use of connectives such as -co- and -mod- requiring instead a solidus, /. Thus, the structure-based equivalent of poly[(A)-mod-(J)] is poly[(A)/(J)]. For modified polymers of the [poly(A)]-mod-J type, since the nomenclature style of choice (source-based or structure-based) can only be applied to the precursor polymer, poly(A), and is then isolated from the rest of the name by containment within square brackets, the use of the -mod- connective is recommended in either case.

Many polymer modification reactions involve complex reagents and lead to even more complex structures. Consequently, the use of systematic names is not always practical. In such situations, traditional names of polymers and retained non-systematic names for substituents can be used.

In the examples of polymer names in this document, source-based names are given first and structure-based names, where practical, are added as alternatives. Where the latter includes ‘ethylene’, the use of the equivalent name for such units, “ethane-1,2-diyl”, is also allowed. The same nomenclature style should be used throughout a complete polymer name.

MP-1.2 Graphic representations of chemically modified polymers

To provide additional comprehension, for modified polymers of the poly[(A)-mod-(J)] type each example in this document includes a graphic representation in which a tilde is used with a “greater than” symbol to form a “wavy arrow”, “∼>”. It is not to be identified as a reaction arrow but as a separator of different constitutional units in an overall structure as is the solidus used in the graphic representation of an irregular polymer [16], (-A-/-B-)n. The latter has no implied directionality and the order of citation of the constitutional units therein is arbitrary, however, polymer modification is direction specific and the order of citation is critical and the “∼>” symbol reflects this. Thus, (-A- ∼> -J-) correctly indicates that some units A have been modified to units J whereas (-J- ∼> -A-) would incorrectly indicate that some units J have been modified to units A.

The “∼>” usage can also be applied to modified copolymers but it is not applicable to polymers of the [poly(A)]-mod-J type for which precise structures are not known. All other aspects of graphic representation should follow the guidelines in Refs. [16] and [17].

MP-1.3 Extent of chemical modification

In general, for polymers of the poly[(A)-mod-(J)] type, when their composition is known the IUPAC recommendation is that they should be named as copolymers and their compositions appended as mass fraction (w), or mole fraction (x), etc., [18] as elaborated in section 8 of Ref. [10]. However, when the representation of chemical modification is deemed to be essential then compositional information can in an exactly analogous way be appended to the name or graphic representation of a modified polymer. Likewise, for polymers the constitutional units of which have all been modified the IUPAC recommendation is that the original constitutional unit(s) should not be cited in the name; in other words, poly(A) that is deemed to have been completely modified to poly(J)2 should simply be called poly(J) but if for whatever reason it is considered desirable to use the “-mod-” nomenclature, the same method of appending compositional information can be applied. Typically, x = 1 might be appended to the name or graphic representation to distinguish the product from the same polymer prepared by an alternative method such as direct synthesis from the corresponding monomer. Such an expedient might also be extended to additional information concerning properties such as the degree of polymerization, dispersity, regiochemistry and configuration which might or might not be affected by the modification.

For modified polymers for which precise structural information is not available, which include those of the [poly(A)]-mod-J type, if it is required to represent the extent of modification then it is recommended that mass fraction is used in conjunction with an indicator of an element or group that characterizes the modification, e.g., Br or NO2, respectively, for polymers modified by bromination or nitration, typically (polyethylene)-mod-bromo (wBr = 0.15).

MP-2 Rules for the nomenclature and graphic representation of chemically modified polymers

MP-2.1 Rule 1

When some constitutional units derived from monomer A of a homopolymer, poly(A), are converted to new constitutional units that are apparently derived from monomers J, K, L, etc., through (a) simultaneous, and (b) successive modifications, the source-based names of the modified polymers are

(a) poly[(A)-mod-(J);(K);(L); ] and (b) poly[(A)-mod-(J)-mod-(K)-mod-(L) ],

for which the graphic representations are respectively

(-A- ~> -J-/-K-/-L-/)n and (-A- ~>-J- ~> -K- ~>-L-…).

MP-2.1.1 For simultaneous modifications, within the complete polymer name the names of the modified units should be in alphabetical order and separated by semicolons without spaces.

MP-2.1.2 New constitutional units resulting from successive modifications should be cited in the order of modification.

MP-2.1.3 For a polymer, the constitutional units of which are modified to isomeric constitutional units, typically a single-strand polymer partly or completely converted to a double-strand counterpart (ladder or spiro polymer) of the same molecular formula, units J are written as units A to which an appropriate structural identifier is appended as a subscript, e.g., poly[(A)-mod-(A)ladder].

See Examples 1–9 in MP-2.7.

MP-2.2 Rule 2

When some constitutional units derived from monomers A, B, C, etc., of a copolymer, poly[(A)-co-(B)-co-(C)-..], are respectively converted to new constitutional units that are apparently derived from monomers J, K, L, etc., the source-based name of the modified polymer is

poly{[(A)-mod-(J)]-co-[(B)-mod-(K)]-co-[(C)-mod-(L)]-..}

for which the graphic representation is

[(-A- ~> -J-)/(-B- ~> -K-)/(-C- ~> -L-)]n.

See Examples 10–14 in MP-2.7.

MP-2.3 Rule 3

When some constitutional units derived from monomers A, B, C, etc., of a copolymer, poly[(A)-co-(B)-co-(C)-…..], are converted to a new constitutional unit that is apparently derived from monomer J, the source-based name of the modified polymer is

poly{[(A)-co-(B)-co-(C)-]-mod-(J)}

for which the graphic representation is

(-A-/-B-/-C-/ ~> -J-)n.

See Example 15 in MP-2.7.

MP-2.4 Rule 4

When end-groups, X and Y, of a polymer, α-X-ω-Ypoly(A) [6, 12], are converted to new end groups, X′ and Y′, the source-based name of the modified polymer is

α-(X-mod-X )-ω-(Y-mod-Y )poly(A)

for which the graphic representation is

Note: A polymer, α,ω-di(X-mod-X′)poly(A), resulting from partial modification of a precursor polymer in which the end groups are identical, comprises molecules in which either both end-groups, only one end-group or no end groups were converted.

See Example 16 in MP-2.7.

MP-2.5 Rule 5

When some constitutional units of a homopolymer, poly(A), are changed by introduction of substituents, Jj, Jk, Jl, etc., at unspecified positions through (a) simultaneous, and (b) successive modifications, the names of the modified polymers are

(a) [poly(A)]-mod-Jj;Jk;Jl;. and (b) [poly(A)]-mod-Jj-mod-Jk-mod-Jl-.

MP-2.5.1 Either nomenclature style, source-based or structure-based, or a retained traditional polymer name can be used for poly(A).

MP-2.5.2 For simultaneous modifications, within the complete polymer name the names of the modified units should be listed alphabetically and separated by semicolons without spaces.

See Examples 17–23 in MP-2.7.

MP-2.6 Rule 6

When one of the constitutional units of a copolymer, poly[(A)-co-(B)-co-(C)-….], is changed by introduction of a new substituent, J, at unspecified positions, the name of the polymer is

poly{[(A)-mod-J]-co-(B)-co-(C)-.}

See Example 24 in MP-2.7.

MP-2.7 Examples

Examples 1 to 9 illustrate applications of Rule 1, Examples 10 to 14 applications of Rule 2, Examples 15 and 16 applications of Rules 3 and 4, respectively, Examples 17 to 23 applications of Rule 5, and Example 24 an application of Rule 6.

Example 1 : Partly hydrolyzed poly(methyl acrylate).

Graphic Representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly[(methyl acrylate)-mod-(acrylic acid)]

 structure-based: poly{(1-carboxyethylene)/[1-(methoxycarbonyl)ethylene]}

Example 2 : Partly hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate).

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly[(vinyl acetate)-mod-(vinyl alcohol)]

 structure-based: poly[(1-acetoxyethylene)/(1-hydroxyethylene)]

Example 3 : Poly(trimethylsilyl vinyl ether) completely converted into poly(vinyl alcohol).

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly(vinyl alcohol)

 poly[(trimethylsilyl vinyl ether)-mod-(vinyl alcohol)] (x = 1)

 structure-based: poly(1-hydroxyethylene)

Example 4 : Linear polyacrylonitrile partly converted to ladder-polyacrylonitrile.

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly[acrylonitrile-mod-(acrylonitrile)ladder]

 structure-based: poly[(1-azabut-1-ene-1,4:3,2-tetrayl)/(1-cyanoethylene)]

Example 5 : Poly{3-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid} completely converted to poly(hydroxybutanedioic acid).

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly[{3-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid}-mod-(hydroxybutanedioic acid)]

 (x = 1)

  poly(hydroxybutanedioic acid)

 structure-based: poly[oxy(1-carboxy-3-oxopropane-1,3-diyl)]

Example 6 : Polymer I derived from N-methylhydrazine and terephthaloyl dichloride by polycondensation partly converted to the oxadiazole-phenylene polymer II.

Graphic representation:

Name:

 structure-based: poly{[carbonyl(1-methylhydrazine-1,2-diyl)carbonyl-1,4-phenylene]/(1,3,4-oxadiazole- 2,5-diyl-1,4-phenylene)}

Note: The above is an example of a modified polymer for which there is no appropriate source-based name, a not uncommon situation.

Example 7 : Poly(methacrylic acid) partly esterified with a mixture of ethanol and methanol to give a polymer containing ethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate units.

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly[(methacrylic acid)-mod-(ethyl methacrylate);(methyl methacrylate)]

 structure-based: poly{(1-carboxy-1-methylethylene)/[1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-methylethylene]/[1-(methoxycarbonyl)-1-methylethylene]}

Example 8 : Poly(vinyl acetate) converted to poly(vinyl alcohol) after which neighbouring units of the latter are partly cyclized by reaction with benzaldehyde to units apparently derived from benzaldehyde divinyl acetal.

Note: If neighbouring groups in a polymer chain are both required for a given modification as is the case for this example, then for statistical reasons 100 % conversion is not possible [19].

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly[(vinyl acetate)-mod-(vinyl alcohol)-mod-(benzaldehyde divinyl acetal)]

 structure-based: poly[(1-acetoxyethylene)/(1-hydroxyethylene)/(2-phenyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diyl)methylene]

Example 9 : Poly(hydroxybutanedioic acid) partly modified by reaction with (1) adamantan-1-amine and (2) benzyl amine to a product comprising mole fractions, x0, of unmodified units, x1, of modified units (1) and, x2, of modified units (2) of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 respectively.

Graphic representation:

in which R1 and R2 are defined as follows:

Name:

 source-based: poly((hydroxybutanedioic acid)-mod-{3-[(1-adamantyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid}-mod-[3-(benzylcarbamoyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid]) (x0:x1:x2 = 0.6:0.3:0.1)

Example 10 : Partly hydrolyzed poly[(methyl acrylate)-co-styrene].

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly{[(methyl acrylate)-mod-(acrylic acid)]-co-styrene}

 structure-based: poly{(1-carboxyethylene)/[1-(methoxycarbonyl)ethylene]/(1-phenylethylene)}

Example 11 : A copolymer comprising units derived from the 1,4 polymerization of buta-1,3-diene and styrene, partly hydrogenated in the chain.

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly{[(buta-1,3-diene)-mod-ethene]-co-styrene}

 structure-based: poly[(butane-1,4-diyl)/(but-1-ene-1,4-diyl)/(1-phenylethylene)]

Example 12 : Partly hydrolyzed poly[(isopropenyl acetate)-co-(methyl acrylate)].

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly{[(isopropenyl acetate)-mod-(isopropenyl alcohol)]-co-[(methyl acrylate)-mod-(acrylic acid)]}

 structure-based: poly{(1-acetoxy-1-methylethylene)/(1-carboxyethylene)/(1-hydroxy-1-methylethylene)/[1-(methoxycarbonyl)ethylene]}

Example 13 : Poly(acrylonitrile-co-styrene) in which acrylonitrile units are partly converted to vinyl-tetrazole units.

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly{[acrylonitrile-mod-(5-vinyl-1H-tetrazole)]-co-styrene}

 structure-based: poly{(1-cyanoethylene)/(1-phenylethylene)/[1-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethylene]}

Example 14 : Poly[ethene-co-(methacrylic acid)] partly neutralized to form sodium methacrylate units.

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly{ethene-co-[(methacrylic acid)-mod-(sodium methacrylate)]}

 structure-based: poly[(1-carboxy-1-methylethylene)/methylene/(sodium 1-carboxylato-1-methylethylene)]

Example 15 : Partly hydrolyzed copolymer of methyl methacrylate and ethyl methacrylate.

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: poly{[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(ethyl methacrylate)]-mod-(methacrylic acid)}

 structure-based: poly{(1-carboxy-1-methylethylene)/[1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-methylethylene]/[1-(methoxycarbonyl)- 1-methylethylene]}

Example 16 : Partly acetylated α-hydro-ω-methoxypoly(oxirane).

Graphic representation:

Names:

 source-based: α-(hydro-mod-acetyl)-ω-methoxypoly(oxirane)

 structure-based: α-(hydro-mod-acetyl)-ω-methoxypoly(oxyethylene)

Example 17 : Polyethylene chlorinated to give a product containing an unspecified amount of chlorine.

Names:

 source-based: (polyethene)-mod-chloro

 structure-based: poly[(chloromethylene)/(dichloromethylene)/methylene]

 retained traditional: (polyethylene)-mod-chloro

Example 18 : Chlorinated polyethylene containing 0.32 mass fraction of chlorine.

Names:

 source-based: (polyethene)-mod-chloro (wCl = 0.32)

 structure-based: poly[(chloromethylene)/(dichloromethylene)/methylene] (wCl = 0.32)

 retained traditional: (polyethylene)-mod-chloro (wCl = 0.32)

Example 19 : Poly[methyl(phenyl)silanediyl] chloromethylated at unknown positions on the benzene rings.

Names:

 {catena-poly[methyl(phenyl)silicon]}-mod-chloromethyl

 {poly[methyl(phenyl)silanediyl]}-mod-chloromethyl

Note: The commonly used name of the above polysilane, poly[methyl(phenyl)silane], a traditional name, is a hybrid of inorganic (mainly additive) and organic (mainly substitutive) nomenclature that does not satisfy the rules of either system [9], whereas the two names of the modified polymers accord with the rules of inorganic and organic nomenclature, respectively.

Example 20 : Polystyrene brominated to give a product containing 0.24 mass fraction of bromine present at unknown positions on both the phenyl rings and the backbone.

Names:

 source-based: (polystyrene)-mod-bromo (wBr = 0.24)

 structure-based: [poly(1-phenylethylene)]-mod-bromo (wBr = 0.24)

Note: If polystyrene is brominated to introduce one or more bromine atoms at known positions, the new constitutional units should be named “x-bromostyrene”, “x,y-dibromostyrene,” etc., and (m-bromovinyl)benzene, (m,n-dibromovinyl)benzene, etc., in the source-based system (though styrene is a retained name in IUPAC nomenclature, substitution of styrene is allowed in the ring only), and the modified polymers should accordingly be named poly[styrene-mod-(x-bromostyrene)], poly[styrene-mod-(x,y-dibromostyrene)], poly{styrene-mod-[(m-bromovinyl)benzene]}, etc., in which x, y, etc., represent 2, 3, 4,... and m, n represent 1 or 2.

Example 21 : Polysulfone III nitrated to give a product containing 0.056 mass fraction of nitro groups at unspecified positions.

Name:

 {poly[oxy-1,4-phenylenesulfonyl-1,4-phenyleneoxy-1,4-phenylene(dimethylmethylene)-1,4-phenylene]}-mod-nitro (wNO2 = 0.056)

Example 22 : Polyethylene chlorosulfonated to unknown degrees of chlorination and chlorosulfonation.

Names:

 source-based: (polyethene)-mod-chloro;chlorosulfonyl

 retained traditional: (polyethylene)-mod-chloro;chlorosulfonyl

Note: Simultaneous chlorination and chlorosulfonation of polyethylene is capable of generating 5 new substituted methylene units resulting in an unwieldy structure-based name, thus, the compact name shown here is recommended as a practical solution to an otherwise difficult nomenclature problem.

Example 23 : Polyethylene chlorinated then brominated.

Name:

 (polyethylene)-mod-chloro-mod-bromo

Example 24 : Poly[styrene-co-(methyl methacrylate)] treated with bromine/AlBr3.

Names:

 source-based: poly{[(styrene)-mod-bromo]-co-(methyl methacrylate)}

 structure-based: poly{[1-(methoxycarbonyl)-1-methylethylene]/[(1-phenylethylene)-mod-bromo]}

Membership of sponsoring bodies

Membership of the IUPAC Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division for the period 2014–2015 is as follows:

President: K.-H. Hellwich (Germany); Secretary: T. Damhus (Denmark); Past President: R. Hartshorn (New Zealand); Titular Members: M. Beckett (UK); P. Hodge (UK); A. Hutton (South Africa); R. Laitinen (Finland); E. Nordlander (Sweden); A. Rauter (Portugal); H. Rey (Germany); Associate Members: K. Degtyarenko (Spain); A. Hashem (Bangladesh); M. Rogers (USA); J. Todd (USA); J. Vohlídal (Czech Republic); A. Yerin (Russia); National Representatives: V. Ahsen (Turkey); D. Choo (Republic of Korea); G. Eller (Austria); W. Huang (China); T. Lowary (Canada); J. Nagy (Hungary); M. Putala (Slovakia); S. Tangpitayakul (Thailand); L. Varga-Defterdarović (Croatia); Ex Officio: G. Moss (UK).

Membership of the IUPAC Polymer Division Committee for the period 2014–2015 is as follows:

President: M. Buback (Germany); Vice President: G. Russell (New Zealand); Secretary: M. Hess (Germany);

Past President: C. Ober (USA); Titular Members: S. Beuermann (Germany); B. Charleux (France); J. He (China); R. Hiorns (France); G. Moad (Australia); M. Sawamoto (Japan); W. Mormann (Germany); Associate Members: D. Dijkstra (Germany); R. Hutchinson (Canada); I. Lacíc (Slovakia); T. Long (USA); D. Smith (USA); J. Vohlídal (Czech Republic); Y. Yagci (Turkey); National Representatives: T. Dingemans (The Netherlands); C. dos Santos (Brazil); C.-C. Han (Malaysia); V. Hoven (Thailand); C.-S. Hue (Taiwan); R. Jones (UK); D. Lee (Republic of Korea); A. Muzafarov (Russia); M. Siddiq (Pakistan).

Membership of the Subcommittee on Polymer Terminology (until 2005, the Subcommittee on

Macromolecular Terminology) for the period 2003–2014 was as follows: Chair: M. Hess (Germany), until 2005; R. Jones (UK), 2006–2013; R. Hiorns (France) from 2014; Secretary: R. Jones, until 2005, M. Hess (Germany), 2006–2007; T. Kitayama (Japan), 2008–2009; R. Hiorns (France), 2010–2013; C. Luscombe (USA) from 2014; Members: R. Adhikari (Nepal); G. Allegra (Italy); M. Barón (Argentina); R. Boucher (UK); T. Chang (Korea); J. Chen (USA); A. Fradet (France); K. Hatada (Japan); J. He (China); K.-H. Hellwich (Germany); P. Hodge (UK); K. Horie3 (Japan); A. Jenkins (UK); J.-I. Jin (Korea); J. Kahovec (Czech Republic); P. Kratochvíl (Czech Republic); P. Kubisa (Poland); E. Maréchal (France); I. Meisel (Germany); W. Metanomski3 (USA); S. Meille (Italy); I. Mita3 (Japan); G. Moad (Australia); W. Mormann (Germany); T. Nakano (Japan); C. Ober (USA); S. Penczek (Poland); M. Purbrick (UK); L. Rebelo (Portugal); M. Rinaudo (France); C. dos Santos (Brazil); I. Schopov (Bulgaria); M. Schubert (USA); C. Scholz (USA); F. Schué3 (France); V. Shibaev (Russia); S. Slomkowski (Poland); R. Stepto (UK); N. Stingelin (UK); D. Tabak (Brazil); J.-P. Vairon (France); M. Vert (France); J. Vohlídal (Czech Republic); M. Walter (USA); E. Wilks (USA); W. Work (USA).

This manuscript (PAC-REC-14-06-10) was prepared in the framework of IUPAC project 1999-051-1-800.

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Note

Republication or reproduction of this report or its storage and/or dissemination by electronic means is permitted without the need for formal IUPAC or De Gruyter permission on condition that an acknowledgment, with full reference to the source, along with use of the copyright symbol ©, the name IUPAC, the name De Gruyter, and the year of publication, are prominently visible. Publication of a translation into another language is subject to the additional condition of prior approval from the relevant IUPAC National Adhering Organization and De Gruyter.

Footnotes

  • The name of a homopolymer is made by prefixing the monomer name with “poly.” The name of the monomer is parenthesized if it consists of more than one word, or it contains one or more locants or stereodescriptors, or ambiguity in meaning can arise. Given that this is most commonly the case, the general notation adopted in this document includes such parentheses. 

  • N.B. Chemical reactions on polymers rarely proceed to 100 % conversion, an extent of reaction that is difficult to prove. 

  • Deceased. 

  • Deceased. 

  • Deceased. 

  • Deceased. 

About the article

Corresponding author: Richard G. Jones, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK, e-mail: kapitimana@gmail.com

aPrincipal authors.

bDeceased.


Received: 2014-06-26

Accepted: 2014-12-18

Published Online: 2015-02-06

Published in Print: 2015-03-01


Citation Information: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Volume 87, Issue 3, Pages 307–319, ISSN (Online) 1365-3075, ISSN (Print) 0033-4545, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2014-0610.

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