Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Pure and Applied Chemistry

The Scientific Journal of IUPAC

Ed. by Burrows, Hugh / Stohner, Jürgen

12 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 5.294

CiteScore 2017: 3.42

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 1.212
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.546

Online
ISSN
1365-3075
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 89, Issue 1

Issues

Functional polyketones for the removal of calcium and magnesium from water (part I): synthesis and chemical characterization

Patrick A. Figaroa
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Chemical Engineering/Product Technology, ENTEG, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Henk Miedema
  • Wetsus, European Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Gert-Jan Euverink
  • Products and Processes for Biotechnology, ENTEG, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Francesco Picchioni
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Chemical Engineering/Product Technology, ENTEG, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-01-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2016-1006

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to design and synthesize a new class of compounds for the softening of hard water, i.e. for the removal of the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. To that end, a class of alternating aliphatic polyketones (copolymers of ethylene and propylene with carbon monoxide, PK30) was functionalized with a variety of amines employing the Paal-Knorr reaction, a relatively straightforward reaction-route to synthesize functional polyketones. The amino groups included aliphatic and aromatic structures with a molecular weight ranging from 74.1 to 129.2 g/mol. Elemental analysis was used to establish the degree of functionalization, whereas 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to identify the molecular structure of the prepared polymers. Model compounds were used as reference for guiding structure determination and for studying the (relative) reaction kinetics.

Keywords: elemental analysis; 1H-NMR spectroscopy; Paal-Knorr functional polyketones; POC-16

Article note:

A collection of invited papers based on presentations at the 16th International Conference on Polymers and Organic Chemistry (POC-16), Hersonissos (near Heraklion), Crete, Greece, 13–16 June 2016.

References

  • [1]

    B. Mahmoud, M. Yosra, A. Nadia. Sep. Purif. Technol. 171, 88 (2016).Google Scholar

  • [2]

    G. Cetin. ISRN Anal. Chem. 2014, 1 (2014).Google Scholar

  • [3]

    J. P. A. Custers, L. F. S. Stemkens, R. Sablong, D. T. A. van Asseldonk, J. T. F. Keurentjes. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131, 1 (2014).Google Scholar

  • [4]

    L. Knorr. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 17, 1635 (1884).Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Y. Zhang, A. A. Broekhuis, M. C. A. Stuart, F. Picchioni. J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 107, 262 (2008).Google Scholar

  • [6]

    K. Yamada, Y. Saitoh, Y. Haga, K. Matsuda, M. Hirata. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 102, 5965 (2006).Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Z. Amjad, P. G. Koutsoukos. Desalination 335, 55 (2014).Google Scholar

  • [8]

    R. Zhang, Y. Su, X. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Zhao, Z. Jiang. J. Membr. Sci. 470, 9 (2014).Google Scholar

  • [9]

    W. Fang, L. Shi, R. Wang. J. Membr. Sci. 468, 52 (2014).Google Scholar

  • [10]

    T. Vermeulen, B. W. Tleimat, G. Klein. Desalination 47, 149 (1983).Google Scholar

  • [11]

    B. S. Joshi, K. P. Govindan. Desalination 38, 509 (1981).Google Scholar

  • [12]

    D. Barba, V. Brandani, P. U. Foscolo. Desalination 48, 133 (1983).Google Scholar

  • [13]

    D. Barba, G. Di Giacomo, F. Evangelista, G. Tagliaferri. Desalination 40, 347 (1982).Google Scholar

  • [14]

    M. N. Prajapati, P. M. Gaur, B. D. Dasare. Desalination 48, 281 (1983).Google Scholar

  • [15]

    A. Popa, C-M. Davidescu, P. Negrea, G. Ilia, A. Katsaros, K. D. Demadis. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47, 2010 (2008).Google Scholar

  • [16]

    M. N. Sepehr, M. Zarrabi, H. Kazemian, A. Amrane, K. Yaghmaian, H. R. Ghaffari. Appl. Surf. Sci. 274, 295 (2013).Google Scholar

  • [17]

    M. N. Sepehr, K. Yetilmezsoy, S. Marofi, M. Zarrabi, H. R. Ghaffari, M. Fingas, M. Foroughi. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 45, 2786 (2014).Google Scholar

  • [18]

    R. Araya-Hermosilla, G. M. R. Lima, P. Raffa, G. Fortunato, A. Pucci, M. E. Flores, I. Moreno-Villoslada, A. A. Broekhuis, F. Picchioni. Eur. Polym. J. 81, 186 (2016).Google Scholar

  • [19]

    R. Araya-Hermosilla, A. A. Broekhuis, F. Picchioni. Eur. Poly. J. 50, 127 (2014).Google Scholar

  • [20]

    C. Toncelli, D. C. De Reus, F. Picchioni, A. A. Broekhuis. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 213, 157 (2012).Google Scholar

  • [21]

    A. I. Hamarneh, H. J. Heeres, A. A. Broekhuis, F. Picchioni. Int. J. Adhes. 30, 615 (2010).Google Scholar

  • [22]

    A. I. Hamarneh, H. J. Heeres, A. A. Broekhuis, K. A. Sjollema, Y. Zhang, F. Picchioni, Int. J. Adhes. 30, 626 (2010).Google Scholar

  • [23]

    C. Toncelli, M. Schoonhoven, A. A. Broekhuis, F. Picchioni. Mater. Des. 108, 718 (2016).Google Scholar

  • [24]

    C. Toncelli, A. Haijer, F. Alberts, A. A. Broekhuis, F. Picchioni. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 54, 9450 (2015).Google Scholar

  • [25]

    E. Drent, J. J. Keijsper. Shell Oil Co. Patent US 07/901, 304 (1993).Google Scholar

  • [26]

    D. A. Z. Wever, E. Riemsma, F. Picchioni, A. A. Broekhuis. Polymer 54, 5456 (2013).Google Scholar

  • [27]

    Q. Tian, M. Z. Rong, M. Q. Zhang, Y. C. Yuan. Polym. Int. 59, 1339 (2010).Google Scholar

  • [28]

    C. Paal. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 17, 2756 (1884).Google Scholar

  • [29]

    H. Mayr, S. Lakhdar, B. Maji, A. R. Ofial, J. Beilstein. Org. Chem. 8, 1458 (2012).Google Scholar

  • [30]

    V. Amarnath, D. C. Anthony, K. Amarnath, W. M. Valentine, L. A. Wetternau, D. G. Graham. J. Org. Chem. 56, 6924 (1991).Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-01-20

Published in Print: 2017-01-01


Citation Information: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Volume 89, Issue 1, Pages 41–50, ISSN (Online) 1365-3075, ISSN (Print) 0033-4545, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2016-1006.

Export Citation

©2017 IUPAC & De Gruyter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. For more information, please visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in