Aristotle. (2009). The Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bednář, M. (2009). Sport, Asceticism and Hedonism. Journal of Outdoor Activities 2, 4-11.Google Scholar
Bednář, M. (2011). Experiental Gateway into Spiritual Dimension in Sport. Acta Facultatis Educationis PhysicaeUniversitatis Comenianae, 51, 75-84.Google Scholar
Blattner, W. (2006). Heidegger's Being and Time: A reader's guide. London & New York: Continuum Books.Google Scholar
Breivik, G. (2010). Being-in-the-void: A Heideggerian analysis of skydiving. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 37, 29-46.Google Scholar
Ferrara, A. (1994). Authenticity and the Project of Modernity. European Journal of Philosophy, 2, 241-273.Google Scholar
Ferrara, A. (1998). Reflective Authenticity: Rethinking the Project of Modernity. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Fromm, E. (1964). The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Heidegger, M. (1977). Sein und Zeit. Frankfurt am Main: V. Klostermann.Google Scholar
Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Higuchi, S. (1991). Heidegger’s concept of authenticity and sport experience. Bulletin of the Faculty of Education,Hiroshima University 39, 131-137.Google Scholar
Hogenová, A. (2006). Movement and time. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensi,s 36, 47-52.Google Scholar
Holowchak, M.A., Reid, H.L. (2011). Aretism: An ancient sports philosophy for the modern world. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Hurych, E. (2009). Martin Heidegger and some ontological and phenomenological aspects of outdoor activities sport. Journal of Outdoor Activities, 2, 12-29.Google Scholar
Jirásek, I. (2007). An experience and Heidegger’s analysis of authentic existence. In H. Sheridan, L.A. Howe, & K.Google Scholar
Thompson (Eds.), Sporting reflections: Some philosophical perspectives (pp. 154-170). Oxford: Meyer & Meyer Sport.Google Scholar
Kretchmar, R.S. (2005). Practical Philosophy of Sport and Physical Activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
Maslow, A. (1971). The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
Nietzsche, F. (2008). The Birth of Tragedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Parry, J., Nesti, M. and Watson, N. (Eds). (2011). Theology, Ethics and Transcendence in Sports. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ravizza, K. (1977). Peak Experiences in Sport. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 17, 35-40.Google Scholar
Scheler, M. (1992). Ordo Amoris. In Selected philosophical essays (pp. 98-135). Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
Simpson, J. (1988). Touching the Void. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (1992). The ethics of authenticity. Cambridge (Mass.) and London: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research
The Journal of Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw and International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport
4 Issues per year
Our study aims to contribute to the approach of leading an optimal life and especially to the role of sport and physical activities in this life.
First, we have tried to find the optimal personal qualities which may be proper for the ars vitae (the art of life). Five of them (creativity, calculation, cooperation, concentration, and credibility) were chosen (on the empirical bases of long-time ethical seminars with students studying physical education) and annotated. This was done taking into account the practical applicability in sport.
Further, we have focused on proper biodromal projects, which are based on some traditional models. We judge sport can significantly contribute to the study three of these; at the same time, they are very useful in the sphere of sport. Thus the opposites of the Dionysian and Apollonian tendency of life, and the authentic and inauthentic one, were chosen for closer analysis. The third proper model (hedonism versus asceticism) was examined in an earlier study. More attention has been paid to antagonistic and integrative models of authenticity, and our conclusion was that we ought to consider them in mixed form when periods of antagonistic authenticity are replaced with periods of integrative authenticity in real life. Concrete examples have been taken from the field of sport. Kretchmar’s structural model of the good life is connected with this field more firmly and has been critically examined in the last chapter.
In conclusion, we name four conditions for the creation of optimal biodromal projects and for forming the real ars vitae.