Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy

Editor-in-Chief: Caruso, Raul

Ed. by Böhmelt, Tobias / Bove, Vincenzo / Kibris, Arzu / Sekeris, Petros

4 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 0.39

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.225
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.322

Online
ISSN
1554-8597
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 22, Issue 2 (Apr 2016)

Issues

Volume 17 (2011)

Volume 4 (1996)

Volume 3 (1995)

Volume 2 (1994)

Volume 1 (1993)

Direct Victimization Experiences and Fear of Crime: A Gender Perspective

Emiliano Sironi
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Statistical Sciences, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Gemelli 1, Milan 20123, Italy
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Leda Maria Bonazzi
Published Online: 2016-04-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/peps-2016-0008

Abstract

Using data from the sixth round of the European Social Survey, we implement propensity score matching methods in order to test whether the presence of past experiences of direct victimization decreases citizens’ safety perception. Results confirm the hypothesis that victimization strongly increases the fear of crime; furthermore the effect is also gender specific: victimized women show higher decrease in safety perception than men.

Keywords: Direct victimization; Gender; Safety perception

JEL: H55; C21; H41

References

  • Armstrong-Jones, R., (1917), The Psychology of Fear and the Effects of Panic Fear in War Time, British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 262, pp. 346–389.Google Scholar

  • Arnold, H., (1991), Fear of Crime and its Relationship to Directly and Indirectly Experienced Victimization: A Binational Comparison of Models, in Sessar, K., Kerner, H-J., (eds.), Developments in Crime and Crime Control Research: German Studies on Victims, Offenders, and the Public, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar

  • Arthur, J., (1992), Criminal Victimization, Fear of Crime, and Handgun Ownership Among Blacks: Evidence from National Crime Victimization Survey Data, American Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 121–141.Google Scholar

  • Balkin, S., (1979), Victimisation Rates, Safety and Fear of Crime, Social Problems, vol. 26, pp. 343–358.Google Scholar

  • Baker, M.H., Nienstedt, B.C., Everett, R.S., McClery, R., (1983), The Impact of a Crime Wave: Perceptions, Fear and Confidence in the Police, Law and Society Review, vol. 17, pp. 319–335.Google Scholar

  • Beraldo, S., Caruso, R., Turati, G., (2013), Life is Now! Time Preferences and Crime: Aggregate Evidence from the Italian Regions, The Journal of Socio Economics, vol. 47, pp. 73–81.Google Scholar

  • Biderman, A.D., Johnson, L.A., Mcintyre, J., Wier, A.W., (1967), Report on a Pilot Study in the District of Columbia on Victimization and Attitudes Toward Law Enforcement, U.S. Government Printing Office; Washington DC, US.Google Scholar

  • Box, S., Hale, C., Andrews, G., (1988), Explaining Fear of Crime, British Journal of Criminology, vol. 28, pp. 340–356.Google Scholar

  • Braungart, M.M., Braungart, R.G., Hoyer, W.J., (1980), Age, Sex and Social Factors in Fear of Crime, Sociological Focus, vol. 13, pp. 55–66.Google Scholar

  • Callanan, V.J., Teasdale, B., (2009), An Exploration of Gender Differences in Measurement of Fear of Crime, Feminist Criminology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 359–376.Google Scholar

  • Caruso, R., (2011), Crime and Sport Participation: Evidence from the Italians Regions Over the Period 1997–2003, The Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 455–463.Google Scholar

  • Caruso, R., (2015), Beyond Deterrence and Decline Towards a General Understanding of Peace Economics, Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, vol. 2015, no. 1, pp. 57–74.Google Scholar

  • Clemente, F., Kleiman, M.B., (1977), Fear of Crime in the United States: A Multivariate Analysis, Social Forces, vol. 56, pp. 519–531.Google Scholar

  • Chockalingam, K., Murugesan, S., (2009), Fear of Crime Victimization: A Study of University Students in India and Japan, International Review of Victimology, vol. 16, pp. 89–117.Google Scholar

  • D’Agostino, E., Sironi, E., Sobbrio, G., (2013), The Role of Education in Determining the Attitudes towards Crime in Europe, Applied Economics Letters, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 724–727.Google Scholar

  • Ennis, P.H., (1967), Criminal Victimisation in the United States: A Report of a National Survey Field Surveys II of the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, Government Printing Office, Washington DC.Google Scholar

  • Farral, S., Gray, E., Jackson, J., (2007), Theorising the Fear of Crime: The Cultural and Social Significance of Insecurities about Crime, Experience and Expression in the Fear of Crime, Working Paper No. 5.Google Scholar

  • Garofalo, J., (1981), The Fear of Crime: Causes and Consequences, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 72, pp. 839–857.Google Scholar

  • Garofalo, J., (1979), Victimization and Fear of Crime, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, vol. 16, pp. 80–97.Google Scholar

  • Garofalo, J., Laub, J., (1978), The Fear of Crime: Broadening our Perspective, Victimology, vol. 3, pp. 242–253.Google Scholar

  • Garofalo, J., (1977), Public Opinion about Crime: The Attitudes of Victims and Non victims in Selected Cities, Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar

  • Hale, C., (1996), Fear of Crime: A Review of the Literature, International Review of Victimology, vol. 4, pp. 79–150.Google Scholar

  • Heckman, J.J., Ichimura, H., Todd, P., (1997), Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme, The Review of Economic Studies, vol. 64, pp. 605–654.Google Scholar

  • Hill, G.D., Howell, F.M., Driver, E.T., (1985), Gender, Fear and Protective Handgun Ownership, Criminology, vol. 23, pp. 541–552.Google Scholar

  • Hindelang, M.S., Gottfredson, M.R., Garofalo, J., (1978), Victims of Personal Crime, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Khruakham, S., Lee, J., (2014), Terrorism and other determinants of fear of crime in the Philippines, International Journal of Police Science and Management, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–15.Google Scholar

  • Kury, H., Ferdinand, T., (1998), The Victim’s Experience and Fear of Crime, International Review of Victimology, vol. 5, pp. 93–104.Google Scholar

  • Lai, Y., Longmireb, D., Zhaob, J., (2012), Specific Crime-Fear Linkage: The Effect of Actual Burglary Incidents Reported to the Police on Residents’ Fear of Burglary, Journal of Crime and Justice, vol. 35, pp. 13–34.Google Scholar

  • Leuven, E., Sianesi B., (2003), Psmatch2: Stata Module to Perform Full Mahalanobis and Propensity Score Matching, Common Support Graphing, and Covariate Imbalance Testing, Available at: http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s432001.html.

  • Liska, A.E., Sanchirico, A., Reed, M.D., (1988), Fear of Crime and Constrained Behaviour: Specifying and Estimating a Reciprocal Effects Model, Social Forces, vol. 66, pp. 827–837.Google Scholar

  • Lewis, D.A., Salem, G., (1981), Community Crime Prevention: An Analysis of a Developing Strategy, Crime and Delinquency, vol. 27, pp. 405–421.Google Scholar

  • Moore, S.C., Shepherd, J., (2007), Gender Specific Emotional Responses to Anticipated Crime, International Review of Victimology, vol. 14, pp. 337–351.Google Scholar

  • Myers, S.L., Chung, C., (1998), Criminal Perceptions and Violent Criminal Victimization, Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 16, pp. 321–333.Google Scholar

  • O’Mahony, D., Quinn, K., (1999), Fear of Crime and Locale: The Impact of Community Related Factors Upon Fear of Crime, International Review of Victimology, vol. 6, pp. 231–251.Google Scholar

  • Parker, K., Ray, M., (1990), Fear of Crime: An Assessment of Related Factors, Social Spectrum: Mid-South Sociological Association, vol. 10, pp. 29–40.Google Scholar

  • Perkins, D.D., Meeks, J.W., Taylor, R.B., (1992), The Physical Environment of Street Blocks and Resident Perceptions of Crime and Disorder: Implications for Theory and Measurement, Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 12, pp. 21–34.Google Scholar

  • Riger, S., Gordon, M., LeBailly, R., (1978), Coping with Urban Crime: Women’s Use of Precautionary Behaviours, American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 10, pp. 369–386.Google Scholar

  • Rigterink, A.S., (2015), Does Security Imply Safety? On the (Lack of) Correlation Between Different Aspects of Security, Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–21.Google Scholar

  • Rosenbaum, P.R., Rubin, D.B., (1983), The Central Role of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects, Biometrika, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 41–55.Google Scholar

  • Rountree, P.W., Land, K.C., (1996), Burglary Victimization, Perceptions of Crime Risk, and Routine Activities: A Multilevel Analysis of across Seattle Neighbourhoods and Census Tracks, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 147–180.Google Scholar

  • Sacco, V.F., (1985), City Size and Perceptions of Crime, Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 10, pp. 277–293.Google Scholar

  • Skogan, W.G., (1986). The Fear of Crime and its Behavioral Implications, in Fattah, A.E., (ed.), In From Crime Policy to Victim Policy, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar

  • Skogan, W.G., (1987), The Impact of Victimisation on Fear, Crime and Delinquency, vol. 33, pp. 135–154.Google Scholar

  • Skogan, W.G., Maxfield, M.G., (1981), Coping with Crime, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.Google Scholar

  • Smith, S.J., (1989). Social Relations, Neighborhood Structure, and the Fear of Crime in Britain, in Evans, D.J., Herbert, D.T., (eds.), In The Geography of Crime, Routledge, London.Google Scholar

  • Smith, B.L., Huff, C.R., (1982), Crime in the Country: The Vulnerability and Victimisation of Rural Citizens, Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 10, pp. 271–282.Google Scholar

  • Smith, J.A., Todd, P.E., (2005), Does Matching Overcome LaLonde’s Critique of No- Nexperimental Estimators?, Journal of Econometrics, vol. 125, pp. 305–353.Google Scholar

  • Smith, L.N., Hill, G.D., (1991), Victimization and Fear of Crime, Criminal Justice and Behavior, vol. 18, pp. 217–239.Google Scholar

  • Smith W.R., Torstensson M, Johansson K., (2001), Perceived Risk and Fear of Crime: Gender Differences in Contextual Sensitivity, International Review of Victimology, vol. 8, 159–181.Google Scholar

  • Tyler, T.R., (1980), Impact of Directly and Indirectly Experienced Events: The Origin of Crime Related Judgments and Behaviors, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 39, pp. 13–28.Google Scholar

  • Wanner, R.A., Caputo, T.C., (1987), Punitiveness, Fear of Crime, and Perceptions of Violence, Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 12, pp. 331–344.Google Scholar

  • Wilson, P.R., Brown, J.W., (1973), Crime and the Community, University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia.Google Scholar

  • Yin, P., (1980), Fear of Crime Among the Elderly: Some Issues and Suggestions, Social Problems, vol. 27, pp. 492–504.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-04-21

Published in Print: 2016-04-01


Citation Information: Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, ISSN (Online) 1554-8597, ISSN (Print) 1079-2457, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/peps-2016-0008.

Export Citation

©2016 by De Gruyter. Copyright Clearance Center

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Logan A. Yelderman, Monica K. Miller, Shelby Forsythe, and Lorie Sicafuse
Criminal Justice Review, 2017, Page 073401681771069
[2]
Raul Caruso, Marco Di Domizio, and Domenico Rossignoli
Economia Politica, 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in