Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy

Editor-in-Chief: Caruso, Raul

Ed. by Bove, Vincenzo / Kibris, Arzu / Sekeris, Petros

4 Issues per year


CiteScore 2017: 0.54

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.304
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.540

Online
ISSN
1554-8597
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 24, Issue 3

Issues

Volume 17 (2011)

Volume 4 (1996)

Volume 3 (1995)

Volume 2 (1994)

Volume 1 (1993)

Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Microfinance and Democratic Engagement

Samuel Wai Johnson Jr.
  • Corresponding author
  • George Mason University – Arlington Campus, 3434 N. Washington Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201-4411, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-09-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/peps-2017-0048

Abstract

This paper presents results from a study of the comparative effects of microfinance group lending, and individual lending technologies on measures of women’s political capital in a fragile conflict-affected setting. Based on a quasi-experiment in Liberia, the two lending technologies were found to have significant effects on different measures of women’s political capital, though the effects were greater for the group lending technology than those of the individual lending. The different effects are due to the program orientation of the two lending technologies which facilitate the development of more resources for communal activism and democratic values among group lending than individual lending borrowers. This impact of this effect will be minimal if factors that constrain the women’s ability to invest their political capital are not addressed. Although more evidence would be required in order to generalize these results, they provide us insights about the political contribution of an economic intervention to post-conflict reconstruction.

Keywords: post-conflict reconstruction; democratic engagement; political capital; Liberia; microfinance

References

  • Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. New York: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Armendariz, B., & Morduch, J. (2010). The economics of microfinance (2nd ed.). Cambridge and London: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Baker, J. L. (2000). Evaluating the impact of development projects on poverty: A handbook for practitioners. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar

  • Bernal-Garcia, J. (2008). Post-conflict microfinance and social reconciliation: Overcoming barriers through process mitigation. Stanford Journal of Microfinance, 1, 9.Google Scholar

  • Biernacki, R., & Waldorf, D. (1981). Snowball sampling: Problems and techniques of chain referral sampling. Sociological Methods & Research, 10(2), 141–163.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Birner, R., & Wittmer, H. (2000). Converting social capital into political capital: How do local communities gain political influence? A theoretical approach and empirical evidence from Thailand and Colombia. A Paper Delivered at the Eighth Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.Google Scholar

  • Booth, J., & Richard, P. (1998). Society, political capital, and democratization in Central America. The Journal of Politics, 60(3), 780–800.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • BRAC Microfinance Company Liberia. (2012). Liberia annual report. Monrovia, Liberia: BRAC Microfinance Liberia. Accessed January 12, 2017. http://www.brac.net/sites/default/files/ar2012/BRAC%20Liberia.pdf.

  • Central Bank of Liberia. (2011). Microfinance: Contributing to employment and poverty reduction. Central Bank of Liberia Newsletter, 3(2), 6.Google Scholar

  • Chong, D. (1991). Collective action and the civil rights movement. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

  • Chong, D. (1993). How people think, reason, and feel about rights and liberties. American Journal of Political Science, 37(3), 867–899.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cole, S. (2011). Increasing women’s political participation in Liberia: Challenges and potential lessons from India, Rwanda and South Africa. Washington, DC: IFES Fellowships in Democracy Studies.Google Scholar

  • Cornwall, A. (2000). Beneficiary, consumer, citizen: Perspectives on participation for poverty reduction, Sida studies (Vol. 2). Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.Google Scholar

  • De Haan, L., & Lakwo, A. (2010). Rethinking the impact of microfinance in Africa: ‘Business change’ or social emancipation. The European Journal of Development Research, 22(4), 529–545.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Doyle, K. (1998). Microfinance in the wake of conflict: Challenges and opportunities, development alternatives. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: Microenterprise Best Practices (MBP) Project.Google Scholar

  • Government of Liberia. (2008). Lift Liberia poverty reduction strategy. Monrovia, Liberia: Government of Liberia.Google Scholar

  • Hashemi, S., Schuler, R., & Riley, A. (1996). Rural credit programs and women’s empowerment in Bangladesh. World Development, 24(4), 635–653.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jackson, J. (2005). Protecting livelihoods in violent economies. In K. Ballentine & H. Nitzschke (Eds.), Profiting from Peace: Managing the resource dimensions of civil war (pp. 153–182). Colorado: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar

  • Kabeer, N. (2017). Economic pathways to women’s empowerment and active citizenship: What does the evidence from Bangladesh tell us? Journal of Development Studies, 53(5), 649–663.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Karlan, D., & Goldberg, N. (2011). Microfinance evaluation strategies: Notes on methodology and findings. In M. Labie & B. Armendariz (Eds.), The Handbook of Microfinance (pp. 17–58). London: World Scientific Publishing Company.Google Scholar

  • Kellow, T. (2010). Women, elections and violence in West Africa: Assessing women’s political participation in Liberia and Sierra Leone. London: International Alert.Google Scholar

  • Liberia Institute for Statistics and Geo-Information Services (LISGIS). (2011). Report on the Liberia Labour Force Survey 2010. Liberia: LISGIS Monrovia.Google Scholar

  • Liberia Ministry of Commerce. (2011). Poverty alleviation and wealth creation through small enterprise development: Rationale, policy and implementation framework for MSME development in Liberia 2011–2016. Monrovia, Liberia: Ministry of Commerce.Google Scholar

  • Maldonado, J., & Gonzalez-Vega, C. (2008). Impact of microfinance on schooling: Evidence from poor rural households in Bolivia. World Development, 36(11), 2440–2455.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Mayoux, L. (2001). Tackling the down side: Social capital, women’s empowerment and micro-finance in Cameroon. Development and Change, 32(3), 435–464.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Meyer, R. (2002). Track Record of Financial Institutions in Assisting the Poor in Asia. Paper for the Capacity Building Seminar on the Role of Financial Intermediaries for Poverty Reduction. Asian Development Bank Institute, Singapore.Google Scholar

  • Moran, M. H., & Pitcher, A. (2004). The “basket case” and the “poster child”: Explaining the end of civil conflicts in Liberia and Mozambique. Third World Quarterly, 25(3), 514.Google Scholar

  • Mosley, P., Olejarova, D., & Alexeeva, E. (2004). Microfinance, social capital formation and political development in Russia and Eastern Europe: A pilot study of programmes in Russia, Slovakia and Romania. Journal of International Development, 16(3), 407–427.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nelson, C. (2013). Community-based providers. In J. Ledgerwood, J. Earne & C. Nelson (Eds.), The new microfinance Handbook: A financial market system perspective (pp. 162–163). Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar

  • Principe, M. (2017). Women in nonviolent movements, United States Institute of Peace (USIP) Special Report 399. Washington, DC.Google Scholar

  • Ray, D. (1998). Development economics. India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Roxin, H., Berkmüller, H., Koller, P. J., Lawonn, J., Pooya, N., & Schappert, J. (2010). Economic empowerment of women through microcredit: The case of microfinance investment and technical assistance facility (MITAF). SLE Publication Series 240. Retrieved from http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/series/sle/240/PDF/240.pdf.Google Scholar

  • Sanyal, P. (2009). From credit to collective action: The role of microfinance in promoting women’s social capital and normative influence. American Sociological Review, 74(4), 529–550.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Schwartz, S. H., Caprara, G. V., & Vecchione, M. (2010). Basic personal values, core political values, and voting: A longitudinal analysis. Political Psychology, 31(3), 421–452.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Semaan, S., Lauby, J., & Liebman, J. (2002). Street and network sampling in evaluation studies of HIV risk-reduction interventions. AIDS Reviews, 4(4), 213–223.Google Scholar

  • Sile, E. (2013). Financial inclusion in fragile states. In T. Triki & I. Faye (Eds.), Financial inclusion in Africa (pp. 94–104). Accra, Ghana: African Development Bank.Google Scholar

  • Sims, B. M. (2012). Women in transition: A critical analysis of women’s civic and political participation in Liberia. Pretoria, South Africa: Idasa.Google Scholar

  • Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Turner, R. (1999). Entrepreneurial neighborhood initiatives: Political capital in community development. Economic Development Quarterly, 13(1), 15–22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • UNDP. (2006). The first state of the environment report for Liberia. Monrovia, Liberia: UNDP-Liberia.Google Scholar

  • UNSG (UN Secretary General). (2014). Peacebuilding in the aftermath of conflict. Report of the Secretary-General. Document A/69/399–S/2014/694. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1454555.pdf.Google Scholar

  • Verba, S. (2006). Fairness, equality, and democracy: Three big words. Social Research: An International Quarterly of Social Sciences, 73(2), 499–540.Google Scholar

  • Watters, J., & Biernacki, P. (1989). Targeted sampling: Options for the study of hidden populations. Social Problems, 36(4), 416–430.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Women’s World Banking. (2015). Individual lending for low-income women entrepreneurs: An inclusive approach. New York: Women’s World Banking.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2018-09-15


Citation Information: Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, Volume 24, Issue 3, 20170048, ISSN (Online) 1554-8597, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/peps-2017-0048.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in