Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Present Environment and Sustainable Development

2 Issues per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2284-7820
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The City-Port of Halmyris: An Integrated Geoarchaeological and Environmental Approach to the Last Roman Bastion on the Eastern Flank of the Danubian Limes

Gheorghe Romanescu / Alin Mihu-Pintilie / Donatella Carboni
Published Online: 2018-11-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pesd-2018-0028

Abstract

The last Roman City on the eastern side of the Danubian Limes is Halmyris. It is a City-port which plays a primordially military role, situated at the link between the fluvial and the marine environment. The fortress is famous for its location at the foot of the legendary Peuce Island. Halmyris benefits from important natural resources from two environments with distinct characteristics: marine (Halmyris Bay) and freshwater (Danube Delta). When the city was founded, the St. George arm was the most important navigation artery of Danube. Therefore, the penetration upstream was monitored strictly by the City-port of Halmyris (customs). This study emphasizes on the existence of natural favorable premises for the city of Halmyris and it attempts to revitalize thematic tourism. The assessment of paleoenvironment evolution and present conservation stage has been achieved to improve the risk management plan.

Keywords: late roman fort; natural resources; remote sensing survey; conservation stage; risk management plan; Halmyris Bay; Danube Delta

References

  • Allenbach K., Garonna I., Herold C., Monioudi I., Giuliani G., Lehmann A., Velegrakis A.F., (2014), Black Sea beaches vulnerability to sea level rise. Environmental Science ---amp--- Policy, 46, p. 95–109;Google Scholar

  • Al-Ruzouq R., Abu Dabous S., (2017), Archaeological Site Information Modelling and Management Based on Close-Range Photogrammetry and GIS, Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 19(3), p. 156–172;Google Scholar

  • Angelescu M., Botez V., (2009), Histria. The basilica “Parvan” sector. (I). The sector archaeological topography (2001-2007), Pontica, 42, p. 193–212;Google Scholar

  • Aragonés L., Tomás R., Cano M., Rosillo E., López I., (2016), Influence of Maritime Construction within Protected Archaeological Sites along Coastal Areas: Los Baños De La Reina (Alicante), Spain, Journal of Coastal Research 33(3), p. 642– 652.Google Scholar

  • Avram A., (1990), Das histrianische Territorium in griechisch-romischer Zeit [The Histrian territory in Greco-Roman times]. In Histria. Eine Griechenstadt am Schwarmeegebiet [Histria. A Greek city on the Schwmee area], edited by Alexandrescu P., Schuller W., Konstanz: Maier, p. 9–45.Google Scholar

  • Ballard R.D., Coleman D.F., Rosenberg G.D., (2000), Further evidence of abrupt Holocene drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology, 170, p. 253–261.Google Scholar

  • Bounegru O., (2004), The Roman military and commercial fleet at the Lower Danube and at the left of Pont [In French]. Romanian Naval Museum Yearbook, 12, p. 14–20.Google Scholar

  • Brückner H., Kelterbaum D., Marunchak O., Porotov A., Vött A., (2010), The Holocene sea level story since 7500 BP – lessons from the eastern Mediterranean, the Black and Azov Seas. Quaternary International, 225, p. 160–179.Google Scholar

  • Carozza J.M., Micu C., Mihail F., Carozza L., (2012), Landscape change and archaeological settlements in the lower Danube valley and delta from early Neolithic to Chalcolithic time: a review. Quaternary International, 261, p. 21–31.Google Scholar

  • Cordova C.E., Lehman P.N., (2003), Archaeopalynology of synanthropic vegetation in the chora of Chersonesos, Crimea, Ukraine. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30(11), p. 1483–1501.Google Scholar

  • Demirbag E., Gokasan E., Oktay F.Y., Simsek M., Yuce H., (1999), The last sea level changes in the Black Sea: evidence from the seismic data. Marine Geology, 157, p. 249–265.Google Scholar

  • Dolukhanov P.M., Arslanov K.A., (2009), Ecological crises and early human migrations in the Black Sea. Quaternary International, 197, p. 35–42.Google Scholar

  • Dolukhanov P.M., Kadurin S.V., Larchenkov P., (2009), Dynamics of the coastal North Black sea area in Late Pleistocene and Holocene and Early Human Dispersal. Quaternary International, 197, p. 27–34.Google Scholar

  • Faraci G., (2016) Ensuring the Conservative Process: The Roman Walls of Lugo Maintenance Plan. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 18(4), p. 411–421.Google Scholar

  • Feodorov P.V., (1971), Postglacial transgression of the Black Sea. International Geology Review, 14(2), p. 160–164.Google Scholar

  • Finné M., Holmgren K., Sundqvist H.S., Weiberg E., Lindblom M., (2011), Climate in the eastern Mediteranean, and adjacent regions, during the past 6000 years - A review. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(12), p. 3153–3173.Google Scholar

  • Freire J.V., (2014), Maritime Cultural Landscape: A New Approach to the Cascais Coastline. Journal of Maritime Archaeology, 9(1), p. 143–157.Google Scholar

  • Friedman G.M., (1961), Distinction between dune, beach and river sands from their textural characteristics. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 31, p. 514–529.Google Scholar

  • Friedman G.M., (1967), Dynamic processes and statistical parameters compared for size frequency distribution of beach river sands. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 37, p. 327–354.Google Scholar

  • Giosan L., Donnely J.P., Vespremeanu E., Bhattacharya J.P., Olariu C., Buonaiuto F.S., (2005), River delta morphodinamics: examples from the Danube delta. River Deltas - Concepts, models, and Examples. SEPM Special Publication, 83, p. 393– 411.Google Scholar

  • Giosan L., Donnelly J.P., Constantinescu S., Filip F., Ovejanu I., Vespremeanu-Stroe A., Vespremeanu E., Duller G.A.T., (2006), Young Danube Delta documents stable Black Sea level since the middle Holocene: morphodynamic, paleogeographic, and archaeological implications. Geology, 34(9), p. 757–760.Google Scholar

  • Giosan L., Filip F., Constantinescu S., (2009), Was the Black sea catastrophically flooded in the early Holocene? Quaternary Science Review, 28(1–2), p. 1–6.Google Scholar

  • Görür N., Cagatay M.N., Emre O., Alpar B., Sakinc M., Islamoglu Y., Algan O., et al., (2001), Is the abrupt drowning of the Black Sea shelf at 7150 yr BP a myth? Marine Geology, 176, p. 65–73.Google Scholar

  • Haimovici S., (2008), The Huge and Fast Black Sea Transgression in the Early Dobrogea Neolithic Resulting in Two Species Spondylus gaederopus and Sparus aurata on the Romanian Sea-Shore. Pontica, 41, p. 421–441.Google Scholar

  • Hansson M.C., Foley B.P., (2008), Ancient DNA fragments inside Classical Greek amphoras reveol cargo of 2400-year old shipwreck. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(5), p. 1169–1176.Google Scholar

  • Höckmann O., Müller O., Peschel G., Woehl A., (1997), Histria on the coast of the Black Sea. Prospecting work in the ancient city area [In German]. Antike Welt, 28, p. 209–217.Google Scholar

  • Keenleyside A., Schwarcz H.P., Panayotova K., (2011), Oxygen isotopic evidence of residence and migration in a Greek colonial population on the Black Sea. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(10), p. 2658–2666.Google Scholar

  • Knappett C., Evans T., Rivers R., (2008), Modelling maritime interaction in the Aegean Bronze Age. Antiquity, 82(318), p. 1009–1024.Google Scholar

  • Leshikar M.E., (2010), Cooperation in the Key: We can Protect the Underwater Cultural Heritage. Journal of Maritime Archaeology, 5(2), p. 85–95.Google Scholar

  • Luca C., (2010), The Rise of the Greek ‘Conquering Merchant’ in the Trade between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Romanian Principalities in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Journal of Mediterranean Studies, 19(2), p. 313–322.Google Scholar

  • Lungu V., (2009), Atlas of monochrome frieze ceramics from Pontus Euxinus in Greek times [In French]. Pontica, 42, p. 13–40.Google Scholar

  • Megarry W.P., Davenport B.A., Comer D.C., (2016), Emerging Applications of LiDAR / Airborne Laser Scanning in the Management of World Heritage Sites. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 18(4), p. 393–410.Google Scholar

  • Mierla M., Romanescu G., Nichersu I., Grigoras I., (2015), Hydrological risk map for the Danube Delta – a case study of floods within the fluvial delta. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 8(1), p. 98–104.Google Scholar

  • Mihu-Pintilie A., Asandulesei A., Stoleriu C.C., Romanescu G., (2016), GIS methods for assessment of hydrogeomorphic risk and anthropogenic impact which affect the archaeological sites. Case study: Dealul Mare archaeological site, Moldavian Plateau (Romania). Acta Geobalcanica, 2(1), p. 35–43.Google Scholar

  • Retallack G.J., (2008), Rocks, views, soils and plants at the temples of ancient Greece. Antiquity, 82(317), p. 640–657.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., (1996), Hydro-geomorphological evolution of the Danube Delta. Pleistocene and lower Holocene stage [In French]. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N.F., 106(Suppl.-Bd), p. 267–295.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., (2013a), Geoarchaeology of the ancient and medieval Danube Delta: Modeling environmental and historical changes. A review. Quaternaru International, 293, p. 231–244.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., (2013b), Alluvial Transport Processes and the Impact of Anthropogenic Intervention on the Romanian Littoral of the Danube delta. Ocean ---amp--- Coastal Management, 73, p. 31–43.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., (2014), The catchment area of the Milesian colony of Histria, within the Razim-Sinoie lagoon complex (Romania): hydro-geomorphologic, economic and geopolitical implications. Area, 46(3), p. 320–327.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., Bounegru O., (2009), The dynamics of the north-western delta littoral of the Black Sea during historical periods (Danube delta). Pontica, 42, p. 519–527.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., Cojocaru I., (2010), Hydrogeological considerations on the western sector of the Danube Delta – a case study for the Caraorman and Saraturile fluvial-marine levees (with similarities for the Letea levee). Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 9(6), p. 795–806.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., Bounegru O., Efros V., (2012), From Greek antiquity to the middle ages: a possible incursion an special interest tourism in the Danube delta. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 161, p. 355–367.Google Scholar

  • Romanescu G., Bounegru O., Stoleriu C.C., Mihu-Pintilie A., Nicu C.I., Enea A., Stan C.O., (2015), The ancient legendary island of PEUCE – myth or reality? Journal of Archaeological Science, 53, p. 521–535.Google Scholar

  • Ryan W.B.F., Pitman W.C., Major C.O., Shimkus K., Moskalenko V., Jones G.A., Dimitrov P., Gorur N., Sakinc M., Seyir H.Y., (1997), An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology, 138, p. 119–126.Google Scholar

  • Ryan W.B.F., Pitman W.C., (1999), Noah’s Flood: The Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History. New York: Simon ---amp--- Schuster.Google Scholar

  • Ryan W.B.F., Major C.O., Lericolais G., Goldstein S.L., (2003), Catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31, p. 525–554.Google Scholar

  • Soulet G., Menot G., Lericolais G., Bard E., (2011), A revised calendar age for the last reconnection of the Black sea to the global ocean. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(9–10), p. 1019–1026.Google Scholar

  • Stanley D.J., Blanpied C., (1980), Late Quaternary water exchange between the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Nature, 285(5766), p. 537–541.Google Scholar

  • Stanley D.J., Toscano M.A., (2009), Ancient Archaeological Sites Buried and Submerged along Egypt’s Nile Delta Coast: Ganges of Holocene Delta Margin Subsidence. Journal of Coastal Research, 25(1), p. 158–170.Google Scholar

  • Suceveanu A., Zahariade M., (1987), The ancient name of the late Roman city Independenta (Tulcea County) [In French]. Dacia N.S., 31, p. 87–96.Google Scholar

  • Suceveanu A., Zahariade M., Topoleanu F., Poenaru-Bordea G., (2003), Halmyris I. Cluj-Napoca: Nereamia Napocae Press.Google Scholar

  • Topoleanu F., (2000), Roman and Roman-Byzanthine Pottery from Halmyris (1st–7th centuries AD) [In Romanian]. Tulcea: www.cimec.ro.

  • Tsetskhladze G.R., (1998), The Greek colonisation of the Black Sea area. Historical Interpretation of Aechaeology. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.Google Scholar

  • Turner S., Crow J., (2010), Unlocking historic landscape in the Eastern Mediterranean: two pilot studies using Historic Landscape Characterisation. Antiquity, 84(323), p. 216–229.Google Scholar

  • Wagstaff S., Cheetham J., Davis A., Williams J., Outram Z., Priddy D., Chapman H., (2016), Hydrogeological Modelling of Water-Level Changes in an Area of Archaeological Significance: A Case Study from Flag Fen, Cambridgeshire, UK. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 18(1-3), p. 156–169.Google Scholar

  • Westley K., Dix J., (2006), Coastal environments and their role in prehistoric migrations. Journal of Maritime Archaeology, 1(1), p. 9–28.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2018-11-14

Published in Print: 2018-10-01


Citation Information: Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 25–45, ISSN (Online) 2284-7820, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pesd-2018-0028.

Export Citation

© 2018 Gheorghe Romanescu et al., published by Sciendo. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in