Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Physics

formerly Central European Journal of Physics

Editor-in-Chief: Seidel, Sally

Managing Editor: Lesna-Szreter, Paulina

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.755
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.820

CiteScore 2017: 0.83

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.241
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.537

ICV 2017: 162.45

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 3, Issue 3


Volume 13 (2015)

Structural and optical properties of WO3 electrochromic layers prepared by the sol-gel method

Abdoljavad Novinrooz
  • Material and Ion Beam Application Division, Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), P.O. Box, 31485-498, Karaj, Iran
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Masoomeh Sharbatdaran
  • Material and Ion Beam Application Division, Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), P.O. Box, 31485-498, Karaj, Iran
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hassan Noorkojouri
  • Material and Ion Beam Application Division, Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), P.O. Box, 31485-498, Karaj, Iran
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2005-09-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/BF02475650


Thin layers of tungsten trioxide have been prepared from an aqueous solution of peroxotungstic acid (PTA) using the sol-gel method. Compositional, structural and optical characteristics of WO3 coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass substrates were studied using X-ray diffractometery (XRD), cyclic voltammetery (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Monoclinic and triclinic crystalline structures for thin film and powdered WO3 were confirmed by XRD analysis. SEM micrograph of annealed samples revealed micro cracks due to a decrease in density and a contraction of layers. EDX analysis showed that 1∶2 ratio of oxygen and tungsten atoms in the prepared films is obtained at heat treatment temperatures higher than 200 °C. Furthermore, the annealed samples showed very good electrochromic behavior in cyclic voltammetery studies. Refractive index “n” and extinction coefficient “k” values were found to be reduced by increasing the wavelength and decreasing the temperature.

Keywords: Sol-gel; tungsten oxide; thin film; electrochromic; structural and optical properties

Keywords: 78.20.jq; 81.15.-z; 81.20.Fw; 78.66.-w

  • [1] N. Sharma, M. Deepa, P. Varshney and S.A. Agnihotory: “Influence of organic additives on the morphological, electrical, and electrochromic properties of sol-gel derived WO3 coatings”, J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol., Vol. 18, (2000), pp. 167–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008721121677CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2] P.K. Varshney, Nidhi, R. Ramachandran and S.A. Agnihotory: “Colloidal tungstic oxide films for electrochromic applications: preliminary studies”, Ind. J. Pure & Appl. Phys., Vol. 37, (1999), pp. 262–265. Google Scholar

  • [3] T. Nishide and F. Mizkani: “Crystal structures and optical properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by a complexing-agent-assisted sol-gel process”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 259, (1995), pp. 212–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(94)06444-XCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4] Y.V. Renard, G. Leveque, A. Abdellaoui and A. Donnadieu: “Optical constants of electrochromic polycrystalline WO3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 203, (1991), pp. 33–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(91)90513-WWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] H. Keneko and K. Miyake: “Estimation of the composition parameter of electrochemically colored amorphous hydrogen tungsten oxide films”, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 66, (1989), pp. 845–850. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.343507CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] G. Lrftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, P. Yianoulis and A. Siokou: “Effect of tungsten oxidation states in the thermal coloration and bleaching of amorphous WO3 films”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 384, (2001), pp. 298–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01828-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7] K.D. Lee: “Preparation and electrochromic properties of WO3 coating deposition by the sol-gel method”, Sol. Energy Mater & Sol. Cells, Vol. 57, (1999), pp. 21–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-0248(98)00162-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] R.R. Amachandran, Nidhi, S.A. Paradeep and S.A. Agnihotory: “Sol-gel deposition of EC-WO3 films using a precursor with enhanced stability”, Ind. J. Pure & Appl. Phys., Vol. 37, (1999), pp. 353–355. Google Scholar

  • [9] K. Yamanaka, H. Oakamoto and H. Kidou: “Peroxotungstic acid coated films for electrochromic display devises”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 25, (1986), pp. 1420–1426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.25.1420CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10] Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standard: Powder Diffraction File, PA. Swarthmore, 1972, Card Nos. 2-310, 5-363. Google Scholar

  • [11] K.D. Lee: “Deposition of WO3 thin films by the sol-gel method”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 302, (1997), pp. 84–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(96)09556-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12] H.L. Hartnagel, A.L. Dawar, A.K. Jain and C. Jagadish: “Semi conducting Transparent Thin Films,” IOP, London, 1995. Google Scholar

  • [13] N. Ozer: “Optical and electrochemical characteristics of sol-gel deposition tungsten oxide films: a comparison”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 304, (1997), pp. 310–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(97)00218-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14] I. Shimizu, M. Shizukuishi and E. Inoue: “Solid state electrochromic devices consisting of amorphous WO3 and Cr2O3”, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 50, (1979), pp. 4027–4032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.326483CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15] T. S. Moss: Optical Properties of Semiconductors, Bother Worth, London, 1961. Google Scholar

  • [16] H. Demiryont and K. Nietering: “Tungsten oxide films by reactive and conventional evaporation techniqes”, Appl. Opt., Vol. 28, (1989), pp. 1494–1498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.28.001494CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] A. Dannadieu, D. Davazoglou and A. Abdellaui: “Structure, optical and electro-optical properties of polycrystalline WO3 and MoO3 thin film prepared by chemical vapor deposition”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 164, (1988), pp. 333–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(88)90158-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18] P.R. Patil and P.S. Patil: “Preparation of mixed oxide MoO3−WO3 thin films by spray pyrolysis techniques and their characterization”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 382, (2001), pp. 13–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01410-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2005-09-01

Published in Print: 2005-09-01

Citation Information: Open Physics, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 456–466, ISSN (Online) 2391-5471, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/BF02475650.

Export Citation

© 2005 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Jisu Han, Kwan-woo Ko, Saad Sarwar, Moon-soo Lee, Sunghyeok Park, Sungjun Hong, and Chi-hwan Han
Electrochimica Acta, 2018
Sangeeta Adhikari, Debasish Sarkar, and Himadri Sekhar Maiti
Materials Research Bulletin, 2014, Volume 49, Page 325
Akbar I. Inamdar, Y.S. Kim, B.U. Jang, Hyunsik Im, Woong Jung, Dae-Young Kim, and Hyungsang Kim
Thin Solid Films, 2012, Volume 520, Number 16, Page 5367
Babak Amirsolaimani, Soheil Azimi, and Shams Mohajerzadeh
SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 2011, Volume 42, Number 1, Page 1794
S Azimi, A Sandoughsaz, B Amirsolaimani, J Naghsh-Nilchi, and S Mohajerzadeh
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2011, Volume 21, Number 7, Page 074005
Claes G. Granqvist
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2007, Volume 91, Number 17, Page 1529
Gunnar A. Niklasson and Claes G. Granqvist
J. Mater. Chem., 2007, Volume 17, Number 2, Page 127

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in