Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Physics

formerly Central European Journal of Physics

Editor-in-Chief: Seidel, Sally

Managing Editor: Lesna-Szreter, Paulina


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.005

CiteScore 2018: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.237
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.541

ICV 2017: 162.45

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-5471
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 15, Issue 1

Issues

Volume 13 (2015)

Research of influence of open-winding faults on properties of brushless permanent magnets motor

Piotr Bogusz / Mariusz Korkosz
  • Corresponding author
  • The Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, Poland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Adam Powrózek / Jan Prokop / Piotr Wygonik
Published Online: 2017-12-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2017-0118

Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of influence of selected fault states on properties of brushless DC motor with permanent magnets. The subject of study was a BLDC motor designed by the authors for unmanned aerial vehicle hybrid drive. Four parallel branches per each phase were provided in the discussed 3-phase motor. After open-winding fault in single or few parallel branches, a further operation of the motor can be continued. Waveforms of currents, voltages and electromagnetic torque were determined in discussed fault states based on the developed mathematical and simulation models. Laboratory test results concerning an influence of open-windings faults in parallel branches on properties of BLDC motor were presented.

Keywords: brushless direct current motor with permanent magnets; fault states; internal fault; parallel branches

PACS: 03.50.De; 07.50.Ek; 07.05.Tp; 88.85.Fg; 88.85.Hj

1 Introduction

Brushless DC motors with permanent magnets are characterized by high efficiency and high torque-to-volume ratio [1, 2]. Therefore, BLDC motors are frequently used in applications where high efficiency and small overall dimensions are the most significant features. Such applications include electric and hybrid drives for vehicles and small aircrafts (unmanned and classic) [3, 4]. In UAV drive systems, low voltage motors with parallel branches are frequently used. Such solution has both advantages and disadvantages. Its advantages include faster reaching of demanded working point and fault-tolerant operation. On the other hand, its disadvantages include possibility of occurring equalizing currents in parallel branches within each phase [5].

Fault states can be caused by failures in a supply system, a control system or in a machine. In case of failures in a machine, windings short circuits or winding open-circuits can occur [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. In drives for aircraft applications, higher reliability as well as a possibility of further operation after fault is required [7, 8]. Most of the papers which discuss problems concerning windings faults concern machines with star-connected windings. In machines with delta-connected windings and with parallel branches, there is no possibility of detecting faults as e.g. it is proposed in Ref. [6].

In the paper, operation under open-winding faults in parallel branches of delta-connected windings was analysed. Waveforms of currents, voltages and electromagnetic torque were determined in the discussed fault states based on the developed mathematical and simulation models. The simulation test results were validated by experiments and conclusions concerning influence of fault states on motor properties were drawn.

2 Analysis of fault states

2.1 Structure of the BLDC motor

The analysed motor (Udc = 52 V, PN = 3.5 kW, nN = 8000 rpm) was designed by the authors for hybrid drive of small unmanned aerial vehicle. The design is a three-phase, external-rotor structure with 24 stator slots and 20 rotor poles (Figure 1). The delta-connected windings with four parallel branches were used in the motor.

Designed by the authors BLDC motor
Figure 1

Designed by the authors BLDC motor

2.2 Analysed fault states

Figure 2 shows an electric diagram of the analysed motor. Additional switches which allow obtaining fault states in the machine (by opening them) were placed in phase A in each parallel branch and in phases B and C for chosen branches. The following motor operation variants were analysed: I – regular operation (all switches closed), II- fault in branch Ph1_1 (S1 opened), III – fault in branches Ph1_1 and Ph1_3 (S1 and S3 opened), IV – fault in branches Ph1_1, Ph1_2 and Ph1_3 (S1, S2, S3 opened), V-fault in branches Ph1_1, Ph1_2, Ph1_3, Ph1_4 (S1, S2, S3, S4 opened).

The electric diagram of BLDC motor with additional switches in phase A, B and C
Figure 2

The electric diagram of BLDC motor with additional switches in phase A, B and C

3 Mathematical model

A mathematical model which takes into account the nonlinearity of the magnetic circuit and magnetic couplings between windings has been developed for the discussed BLDC motor.

The voltage-current equation, the equation of rotational motion torques, and the formula expressing angular velocity for the BLDC motor circuit model from Figure 2 can be written down in the form [12]:

u=Ri+ddtψ(θ,i,iPM)(1)

Jdωdt+Dω+TL=Teθ,i,iPM(2)

dθdt=ω(3)

where: u - vector of voltages, i - vector of currents, Ψ(θ, i,iPM) - vector of winding fluxes induced by winding currents and permanent magnets, R - matrix of resistances, θ – the rotor position, iPM – the permanent magnet magnetization equivalent current, J – the rotor moment of inertia, D – the coefficient of viscous friction, TL – the load torque, ω = /dt – angular velocity of the rotor.

The expression for the electromagnetic torque (2), can be written down in the form:

Te(θ,i,iPM)=Wc(θ,i,iPM)θ(4)

where Wc(θ, i,iPM) is the total magnetic field co-energy in the machine air gap.

4 Results of simulation and laboratory tests

4.1 Simulation tests

Simulation tests were carried out for five analysed cases (IV) under steady-state operation (Udc = 52 V, n = 9000 rpm).

Figures 3-7 show waveforms of line currents (Figures 3-5), source current (Figure 6) and electromagnetic torque (Figure 7).

A waveform of line current i1
Figure 3

A waveform of line current i1

A waveform of line current i2
Figure 4

A waveform of line current i2

A waveform of line current i3
Figure 5

A waveform of line current i3

A waveform of supply current idc
Figure 6

A waveform of supply current idc

A waveform of electromagnetic torque Te
Figure 7

A waveform of electromagnetic torque Te

A disconnection of particular branches in phase Ph1 influences on a variation of line currents, phase currents and generated electromagnetic torque. A loss up to two branches (case II and III) causes an expected behavior of the motor. In case of loss of 3 from 4 parallel branches (case IV), slightly higher drop in generated electromagnetic torque is visible. In the case V, phase Ph1 is disconnected and this disconnection of all branches of phase Ph1 does not cause break in connection of remaining phases Ph2 and Ph3 with supply system. However, it significantly influences on a variation of shape and value of line currents as well as electromagnetic torque. The selected simulation results are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

Selected simulation results

After open-winding fault (cases I - IV), electromagnetic torque decreases and torque ripples increase. In the case V, ripples of electromagnetic torque significantly increases. It should be noticed that the motor can continue operation with decreased load despite breaks in supplying of particular parallel branches of phase Ph1 (cases II - V). A diagnostics of fault states can be conducted through FFT analysis e.g. of source current (Figure 6) as it was proposed in [10, 11].

4.2 Laboratory tests

Figure 8 shows a laboratory setup.

A laboratory setup
Figure 8

A laboratory setup

The motor operation was tested for cases I, III and V in laboratory conditions. Waveforms of motor line currents and line-to-line voltages were registered at rated voltage and load torque of 1.5 N⋅m (Figures 9-10).

Waveforms of line currents: a) case I, b) case III, c) case V
Figure 9

Waveforms of line currents: a) case I, b) case III, c) case V

Waveforms of line-to-line voltages: a) case I, b) case III, c) case V
Figure 10

Waveforms of line-to-line voltages: a) case I, b) case III, c) case V

Mechanical characteristics, overall efficiency characteristics and characteristics of rms values of line currents were determined for cases I, III and V (Figures 11-14).

Speed vs. load torque for cases I, III, V
Figure 11

Speed vs. load torque for cases I, III, V

Overall efficieny vs. load torque for cases I, III, V
Figure 12

Overall efficieny vs. load torque for cases I, III, V

RMS line current i1 vs. load torque for cases I, III, V
Figure 13

RMS line current i1 vs. load torque for cases I, III, V

RMS line current i2 vs. load torque for cases I, III, V
Figure 14

RMS line current i2 vs. load torque for cases I, III, V

A disconnection of phase Ph1 (case V) at delta-connected windings allows further operation of the motor. However, available torque on the motor shaft is significantly lower in laboratory tests. In two remaining phases Ph2 and Ph3, phase currents increase what leads into increase of line currents i2 and i3 (of value of line current i1).

Overall efficiency of the drive system also decreases noticeably. When at least one branch of phase Ph1 was supplied, there was not observed any significant decrease in overall efficiency of the drive system. Start-ups of the motor were analysed for each case in laboratory conditions and the motor started in each analysed case. However, when phase Ph1 was disconnected (case V), high ripples of generated electromagnetic torque caused oscillations of speed during start-up.

5 Conclusions

The paper presents the analysis of influence of open-winding faults on properties of brushless DC motor with permanent magnets. Simulation and laboratory tests proved that motor operation is possible after fault in several branches. Nevertheless, it is connected with increase in torque ripples. Thus, start-up with high load torque can be impossible. Depending on a fault type, the resultant efficiency of the drive system decreases (a disconnection of all phase) or remains on a similar level. Therefore, a usage of parallel branches is much more favourable from the viewpoint of the drive system reliability. However, the overall efficiency can be decreased due to equalizing currents.

Acknowledgement

The research work was supported by The National Centre for Research and Development Project DZP/INNOLOT-1/2020/2013 of Poland and in part by the statutory funds of the Department of Electrodynamics and Electrical Machine Systems, Rzeszow University of Technology.

References

  • [1]

    Gieras J. F., Wing M., Permanent Magnet Motor Technology – Design and Applications, Second Edition, CRC Press, 2002. Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Antonello R., Carraro M., Zigliotto M., Maximum-Torque-Per-Ampere Operation of Anisotropic Synchronous Permanent-Magnet Motors Based on Extremum Seeking Control, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, 2014, 61, 9, 5086-5093. Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    Husain I., “Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Design Fundamentals”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2003. Google Scholar

  • [4]

    Zhang H., Saudemont C., Robyns B., Petit M., Comparison of Technical Features between a More Electric Aircraft and a Hybrid Electric Vehicle, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5. Harbin, China, 2008 Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Moehle A., Balancing currents in parallel winding branches of super large drives, 2008 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2008, 706-710. Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Hang J., Zhang J., Cheng M., Ding S., Detection and Discrimination of Open-Phase Fault in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive System, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, 2016, 31, 7, 4697-4709. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Aghili F., Fault-Tolerant Torque Control of BLDC Motors, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, 2011, 26, 2, 355-363. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Jiang X., Huang W., Cao R., Hao Z., Jiang W., Electric Drive System of Dual-Winding Fault-Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Motor for Aerospace Applications, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2015, 62, 12, 7322-7330. Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9]

    Garlapati S., Buja G., and Tessarolo A., An Algebraic Approach to Determine the Current Supply in a Faulty 5-Phase PM BLDC Drive. Part II -Model Setup and its Application to the case of One Open Phase Fault, 2015 International Conference on Sustainable Mobility Applications, Renewables and Technology (SMART), 2015, 1-6. Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Park J., Hur J., Detection of Inter-Turn and Dynamic Eccentricity Faults Using Stator Current Frequency Pattern in IPM-Type BLDC Motors, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, 2016, 63, 3, 1771-1780. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Leeand S.and Hur J., Detection Technique for Stator Inter-Turn Faults in BLDC Motors Based on Third-Harmonic Components of Line Currents, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, 2017, 53, 1, 143-150. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Prokop J., Mathematical modeling of switched electric machines, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, Rzeszów, 2013 (in polish) Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Bogusz P., Korkosz M., Powrózek A., Prokop J., Wygonik P., An analysis of influence of open-winding faults on properties of brushless DC motor with permanent magnets, 2017 18th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields in Mechatronics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ISEF) Book Abstracts, IEEE Conference Publications, Lodz, Poland, 2017, 1-2.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-11-03

Accepted: 2017-11-12

Published Online: 2017-12-29


Citation Information: Open Physics, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 959–964, ISSN (Online) 2391-5471, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2017-0118.

Export Citation

© 2017 P. Bogusz et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in