Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Physics

formerly Central European Journal of Physics

Editor-in-Chief: Seidel, Sally

Managing Editor: Lesna-Szreter, Paulina


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.005

CiteScore 2018: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.237
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.541

ICV 2017: 162.45

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-5471
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 16, Issue 1

Issues

Volume 13 (2015)

On topological properties of block shift and hierarchical hypercube networks

Juan Luis García Guirao
  • Corresponding author
  • Departamento de Matemática Aplicada y Estadística, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Hospital de Marina, 30203-Cartagena, Región de Murcia, Spain
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Muhammad Kamran Siddiqui / Asif Hussain
  • School of Management and Economics, North China University of Water Resource and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan, P.R China
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-12-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2018-0101

Abstract

Networks play an important role in electrical and electronic engineering. It depends on what area of electrical and electronic engineering, for example there is a lot more abstract mathematics in communication theory and signal processing and networking etc. Networks involve nodes communicating with each other. Graph theory has found a considerable use in this area of research. A topological index is a real number associated with chemical constitution purporting for correlation of chemical networks with various physical properties, chemical reactivity. The concept of hyper Zagreb index, first multiple Zagreb index, second multiple Zagreb index and Zagreb polynomials was established in chemical graph theory based on vertex degrees. In this paper, we extend this study to interconnection networks and derive analytical closed results of hyper Zagreb index, first multiple Zagreb index, second multiple Zagreb index, Zagreb polynomials and redefined Zagreb indices for block shift network (BSN − 1) and (BSN − 2), hierarchical hypercube (HHC − 1) and (HHC − 2).

Keywords: hyper Zagreb index; first multiplicative Zagreb index; second multiplicative Zagreb index; Zagreb polynomials; redefined Zagreb indices; block shift networks; Hierarchical interconnection networks

PACS: 02.10.Ox

1 Introduction

Multiprocessor interconnection networks are often required to connect thousands of homogeneously replicated processor-memory pairs, each of which is called a processing node. Instead of using a shared memory, all synchronization and communication between processing nodes for program execution is often done via message passing. Design and use of multi processor interconnection networks have recently drawn considerable attention due to the availability of inexpensive, powerful microprocessors and memory chips. The mesh networks have been recognized as versatile interconnection networks for massively parallel computing. Mesh/torus-like low-dimensional networks have recently received a lot of attention for their better scalability to larger networks, as opposed to more complex networks such as hypercubes. In particular the failure of cooperation on dependent networks has been studied a lot recently in [1].

A number of hierarchical inter connection network (HIN) provide a framework for designing networks with reduced link cost by taking advantage of the locality of communication that exist in parallel applications. HIN employ multiple level. Lower level network provide local communication while higher level networks facilitate remote communication. The multistage networks have long been used as communication networks for parallel computing [2].

The topological properties of certain networks are studied in [3]. Molecules and molecular compounds are often modeled by molecular graphs. A molecular graph is a graph in which vertices are atoms of a given molecule and edges are its chemical bonds. Since the valency of carbon is four, it is natural to consider all graphs with maximum degree ≤ 4, as a molecular graph. A graph G(V, E) with vertex set V and edge set E is connected, if there exists a connection between any pair of vertices in G. A network is simply a connected graph having no multiple edges and no loops. Throughout this article, the degree of a vertex v ∈ V(G), denoted by deg(v), is the number of edges incident to v.

A topological index is a numeric quantity associated with a graph which characterizes the topology of a graph and is invariant under graph automorphism. In more precise way, a topological index Top(G) of a graph G, is a number with the property that for every graph H isomorphic to graph G, Top(H) = Top(G). The concept of topological index came from work done by Wiener [4], while he was working on a boiling point of paraffin. He named this index as the path number. Later on, the path number was renamed as the Wiener index. The Wiener index is the first and the most studied topological index, both from theoretical point of view and applications, and defined as the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices in G, see for details [5, 6].

One of the oldest topological indices is the first Zagreb index introduced by I. Gutman and N.Trinajstic based on degree of vertices of G in 1972 [7]. The first and the second Zagreb indices of a graph G are defined as:

M1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)](1)M2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)](2)

In 2013, G. H. Shirdel, H.R. Pour and A. M. Sayadi [8] introduced a new degree based on Zagreb index named “ hyper Zagreb index" as:

HM(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2(3)

M. Ghorbani and N. Azimi defined two new versions of Zagreb indices of a graph G in 2012 [9]. These indices are the first multiplicative Zagreb index PM1(G) and the second multiplicative Zagreb index PM2(G) and are defined respectively as:

PM1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)](4)PM2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)](5)

The properties of PM1(G) and PM2(G) indices for some chemical structures have been studied in [10]. The first Zagreb polynomial M1(G, x) and the second Zagreb polynomial M 2(G, x) are defined as:

M1(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)](6)M2(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)](7)

The properties of Zagreb polynomials for some chemical structures have been studied in [11].

Ranjini et al. [12] reclassified the Zagreb indices, to be specific, the redefined first, second and third Zagreb indices for a graph G as;

ReZG1(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)(8)ReZG2(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)(9)ReZG3(G)=uvE(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]](10)

Nowadays, there is an extensive research activity on HM(G), PM1(G), PM2(G) indices and M1(G, x), M2(G, x) polynomials and their variants, see also [13, 14, 15].

For further study of topological indices of various graph families, see [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30].

2 Methods

For the calculation of our outcomes, we used a methodology for combinatorial enlisting, a vertex segment procedure, an edge parcel procedure, diagram theoretical instruments, logical frameworks, a degree-tallying technique, and degrees of neighbors system.

3 Results for block shift network (BSN − 1)n×n

In this section, we compute certain degree based topological indices for block shift network (BSN), see Figure 1(a). The Randic type indices for hierarchical interconnection networks is computed by Haider et. al in [31]. We compute first and second Zagreb indices, hyper Zagreb index HM (G), first multiple Zagreb index PM1(G), second multiple Zagreb index PM2(G) and Zagreb polynomials M1(G, x), M2(G, x) for (BSN − 1)n×n.

(a) block shift network (BSN − 1)3×3 (b) block shift network (BSN − 2)1×1
Figure 1

(a) block shift network (BSN − 1)3×3 (b) block shift network (BSN − 2)1×1

Let G be a block shift network. The number of vertices and edges in (BSN − 1)n×n is 16n2 and 24n2 − 2, respectively. There are two types of edges in (BSN − 1)n×n based on degrees of end vertices of each edge. The edge set of (BSN − 1)n×n can be divided into two partitions based on the degree of end vertices. The first edge partition E1((BSN −1)n×n) contains 8 edges uv, where deg(u) = 2, deg(v) = 3. The second edge partition E2((BSN − 1)n×n) contains 24n2 − 10 edges uv, where deg(u) = deg(v) = 3.

  • The first and second Zagreb indices of (BSN − 1)n×n

Now using Eqs. (1),(2), we have

M1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=5|E1(G)|+6|E2(G)|=5(8)+6(24n210)=144n220.M2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=6|E1(G)|+9|E2(G)|=6(8)+9(24n210)=216n242.
  • Hyper Zagreb index of (BSN − 1)n×n

The hyper Zagreb index using Eq. (3) is computed as:

HM(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2HM(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2=52|E1(G)|+62|E2(G)|=25(8)+36(24n210)=864n2160.
  • Multiplicative Zagreb indices of (BSN − 1)n×n

The multiplicative Zagreb indices using Eqs. (4), (5) are computed as:

PM1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]PM1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=5|E1(G)|×6|E2(G)|=58×6(24n210).PM2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]PM2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=6|E1(G)|×9|E2(G)|=68×9(24n210).
  • The first and second Zagreb polynomials of (BSN − 1)n×n

Now using Eqs. (6),(7), we have

M1(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x5+uvE2(G)x6=|E1(G)|x5+|E2(G)|x6=8x5+(24n210)x6.M2(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x6+uvE2(G)x9=|E1(G)|x6+|E2(G)|x9=8x6+(24n210)x9.
  • The redefined first, second, and third Zegreb index of (BSN − 1)n×n

Now using the edge partition of the block shift network G, and Eq. (8), we have:

ReZG1(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=uvE1(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)+uvE2(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=8(2+32×3)+(24n210)(3+33×3)=48n23.

By using Eq. (9), the second redefined Zagreb index is computed as below:

ReZG2(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=abE1(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)+abE2(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=8(2×32+3)+(24n210)(3×33+3)=485+36n215.

Now by using Eq. (10), the third redefined Zagreb index is computed as:

ReZG3(G)=uvE(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=uvE1(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]+uvE2(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=8((2×3)×(2+3))+(24n210)((3×3)×(3+3))=1296n2300.

4 Results for block shift network (BSN − 2)n×n

The number of vertices and edges in (BSN −2)n×n are 16n2 and 32n2 − 2 respectively see Figure 1(b). There are two types of edges in (BSN − 2)n×n based on degrees of end vertices of each edge. The edge set of (BSN − 2)n×n can be divided into two partitions based on the degree of end vertices. The first edge partition E1((BSN − 2)n×n) contains 12 edges uv, where deg(u) = 3, deg(v) = 4. The second edge partition E2((BSN − 2)n×n) contains 32n2 − 14 edges uv, where deg(u) = deg(v) = 4.

  • The first and second Zagreb indices of (BSN − 2)n×n

Now using Eqs. (1),(2), we have

M1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=7|E1(G)|+8|E2(G)|=7(12)+8(32n214)=512n2+12.M2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=12|E1(G)|+16|E2(G)|=12(12)+16(32n214)=512n280.
  • Hyper Zagreb index of (BSN − 2)n×n

The hyper Zagreb index using Eq. (3) is computed as:

HM(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2HM(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2=72|E1(G)|+82|E2(G)|=49(12)+64(32n214)=2048n2308.
  • Multiplicative Zagreb indices of (BSN − 2)n×n

The multiplicative Zagreb indices using Eqs. (4), (5) are computed as:

PM1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]PM1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=7|E1(G)|×8|E2(G)|=712×8(32n214).PM2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]PM2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=12|E1(G)|×16|E2(G)|=1212×16(32n214).
  • The first and second Zagreb polynomials of (BSN − 2)n×n

Now using Eqs. (6),(7), we have

M1(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x7+uvE2(G)x8=|E1(G)|x7+|E2(G)|x8=12x7+(32n214)x8.M2(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x12+uvE2(G)x16=|E1(G)|x12+|E2(G)|x16=12x12+(32n214)x16.
  • The redefined first, second, and third Zegreb index of (BSN − 2)n×n

Now using Eq. (8) and the edge partition of the block shift network (BSN − 2)n×n, we have:

ReZG1(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=abE1(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)+abE2(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=12(3+43×4)+(32n214)(4+44×4)=16n2.

By using Eq. (9), the second redefined Zagreb index is computed as below:

ReZG2(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=uvE1(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)+uvE2(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=12(3×43+4)+(32n214)(4×44+4)=1447+64n258.

Now by using Eq. (10), the third redefined Zagreb index is computed as:

ReZG3(G)=uvE(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=uvE1(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]+uvE2(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=12((3×4)×(3+4))+(32n214)((4×4)×(4+4))=4096n22800.

5 Results for hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 1)n×n

In this section, we compute certain degree based topological indices of hierarchical interconnection networks see Figure 2(a). The Randic type indices for hierarchical interconnection networks is computed by Haider et. al in [31]. We compute first and second Zagreb indices, hyper Zagreb index HM (G), first multiple Zagreb index PM1(G), second multiple Zagreb index PM2(G) and Zagreb polynomials M1(G, x), M 2(G, x) for hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 1)n×n and hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 2)n×n.

(a) Hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 1)1×1 (b) Hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 2)1×1.
Figure 2

(a) Hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 1)1×1 (b) Hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 2)1×1.

The numbers of vertices and edges in (HHC −1)n×n are 16n + 16 and 24n + 20, respectively. There are two types of edges in (HHC − 1)n×n based on degrees of end vertices of each edge. The edge set of (HHC − 1)n×n can be divided into two partitions based on the degree of end vertices. The first edge partition E1((HHC −1)n×n) contains 16 edges uv, where deg(u) = 2, deg(v) = 3. The second edge partition E2((HHC − 1)n×n) contains 24n + 4 edges uv, where deg(u) = deg(v) = 3.

  • The first and second Zagreb indices of (HHC − 1)n×n

Now using Eqs. (1),(2), we have

M1((HHC1)n×n)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=5|E1(G)|+6|E2(G)|=5(16)+6(24n+4)=216n+104.M2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=6|E1(G)|+9|E2(G)|=6(16)+9(24n+4)=216n+132.
  • Hyper Zagreb index of (HHC − 1)n×n

The hyper Zagreb index using Eq. (3) is computed as:

HM(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2HM(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2=52|E1(G)|+62|E2(G)|=25(16)+36(24n+4)=864n+544.
  • Multiple Zagreb indices of (HHC − 1)n×n

The multiple-zagreb indices using Eqs. (4), (5) are computed as:

PM1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]PM1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=5|E1(G)|×6|E2(G)|=516×6(24n+4).PM2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]PM2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=6|E1(G)|×9|E2(G)|=616×9(24n+4).
  • The first and second Zagreb polynomials of (HHC − 1)n×n

Now using Eqs. (6),(7), we have

M1(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x5+uvE2(G)x6=|E1(G)|x5+|E2(G)|x6=16x5+(24n+4)x6.M2(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x6+uvE2(G)x9=|E1(G)|x6+|E2(G)|x9=16x6+(24n+4)x9.
  • The redefined first, second, and third Zegreb index of (HHC − 1)n×n

Now using Eq. (8) and the edge partition of the block shift network (HHC − 1)n×n, we have:

ReZG1(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=uvE1(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)+uvE2(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=16(3+23×2)+(24n+4)(3+33×3)=403+48n2+83.

By using Eq. (9), the second redefined Zagreb index is computed as below:

ReZG2(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=uvE1(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)+uvE2(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=16(3×23+2)+(24n+4)(3×33+3)=965+36n+6.

Now by using Eq. (10), the third redefined Zagreb index is computed as:

ReZG3(G)=uvE(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=uvE1(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]+uvE2(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=16((3×2)×(3+2))+(24n+4)((3×3)×(3+3))=1296n+576.

6 Results for hierarchical hypercube network (HHC − 2)n×n

The number of vertices and edges in (HHC−2)n×n are 16n2 and 32n2 − 2, respectively (see Figure 2(b)). There are two types of edges in (HHC − 2)n×n based on degrees of end vertices of each edge. The edge set of (HHC − 2)n×n can be divided into two partitions based on the degree of end vertices. The first edge partition E1((HHC −2)n×n) contains 24 edges uv, where deg(u) = 3, deg(v) = 4. The second edge partition E2((HHC−2)n×n) contains 32n+4 edges uv, where deg(u) = deg(v) = 4.

  • The first and second Zagreb indices of (HHC − 2)n×n

Now using Eqs. (1),(2), we have

M1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=7|E1(G)|+8|E2(G)|=7(24)+8(32n+4)=512n+200.M2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=12|E1(G)|+16|E2(G)|=12(24)+16(32n+4)=512n+352.
  • Hyper Zagreb index of (HHC − 2)n×n

The hyper Zagreb index using Eq. (3) is computed as:

HM(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2HM(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2+uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]2=72|E1(G)|+82|E2(G)|=49(24)+64(32n+4)=2048n+1432.
  • Multiple Zagreb indices of (HHC − 2)n×n

The Multiple-Zagreb indices using Eqs. (4), (5) are computed as:

vPM1(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]PM1(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)+deg(v)]=7|E1(G)|×8|E2(G)|=724×8(32n+4).PM2(G)=uvE(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]PM2(G)=uvE1(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]×uvE2(G)[deg(u)×deg(v)]=12|E1(G)|×16|E2(G)|=1224×16(32n+4).
  • The first and second Zagreb polynomials of (HHC − 2)n×n

Now using Eqs. (6),(7), we have

M1(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]M1(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)+deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x7+uvE2(G)x8=|E1(G)|x7+|E2(G)|x8=24x7+(32n+4)x8.M2(G,x)=uvE(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]M2(G,x)=uvE1(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]+uvE2(G)x[deg(u)×deg(v)]=uvE1(G)x12+uvE2(G)x16=|E1(G)|x12+|E2(G)|x16=24x12+(32n+4)x16.
  • The redefined first, second, and third Zegreb index of (HHC − 2)n×n

Now using Eq. (8) and the edge partition of the block shift network (HHC − 2)n×n, we have:

ReZG1(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=uvE1(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)+uvE2(G)deg(u)+deg(v)deg(u)×deg(v)=24(3+43×4)+(32n+4)(4+44×4)=16n+16.

By using Eq. (9), the second redefined Zagreb index is computed as below:

ReZG2(G)=uvE(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=uvE1(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)+uvE2(G)deg(u)×deg(v)deg(u)+deg(v)=24(3×43+4)+(32n+4)(4×44+4)=2887+64n+8.

Now by using Eq. (10), the third redefined Zagreb index is computed as:

ReZG3(G)=uvE(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=uvE1(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]+uvE2(G)[[deg(u)×deg(v)]×[deg(u)+deg(v)]]=24((3×4)×(3+4))+(32n+4)((4×4)×(4+4))=4608n+2596.

Conclusion

In this paper we determined first Zagreb index M1(G), second Zagreb index M2(G), hyper Zagreb index HM(G), first multiple Zagreb index PM1(G), second multiple Zagreb index PM2(G), Zagreb polynomials M1(G, x) and M 2(G, x), and redefined Zagreb indices for block shift networks and hierarchical hypercube networks. In future, we are interested in designing some new architectures/ networks and then studying their topological indices which will be quite helpful in understanding their underlying topologies.

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the anonymous referees for their valuable comments and suggestions that improved this paper.

References

  • [1]

    Gutman I., Tošović J., Radenković S., Marković S., On atom–bond connectivity index and its chemical applicability, Indian J. Chem., 2012, 51A, 690-694. Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Konstantinidou, S., The selective extra stage butterfly, IEEE. Trans., Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., 1992, 1, 502–506. Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Shao Z., Siddiqui M. K., Muhammad M. H., Computing Zagreb Indices and Zagreb Polynomials for Symmetrical Nanotubes. Symmetry, 2018, 10, 1-20. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Wiener H., Structural determination of paraffln boiling points, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69, 17-20. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    Dobrynin A.A., Entringer R., Gutman I., Wiener index of trees: Theory and applications, Acta Appl. Math., 2001, 66, 211-249. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    Gutman I., Polansky O. E., Mathematical Concepts in Organic Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986. Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Gutman I., Trinajstic N., Graph theory and molecular orbitals total π-electron energy of alternant hydrocarbons, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1972, 17, 535–538. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Shirdel G.H., Pour H.R., Sayadi A.M., The Hyper-Zagreb Index of Graph Operations, Iran. J. Math. Chem., 2013, 4(2), 213-220. Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Ghorbani, M., Azimi, N., Note on multiple Zagreb indices, Iran. J. Math. Chem., 2012, 32, 137-143. Google Scholar

  • [10]

    Eliasi M., Iranmanesh A., Gutman I., Multiplicative versions of first Zagreb Index, MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem., 2012, 68, 217-230. Google Scholar

  • [11]

    Gutman I., Das K.C., Some Properties of the Second Zagreb Index, MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem., 2004, 50, 103-112. Google Scholar

  • [12]

    Ranjini P.S., Lokesha V., Usha A., Relation between phenylene and hexagonal squeez using harmonic index, Int. J. Graph. Theory., 2013, 1, 116-21. Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Gao W., Siddiqui M.K., Naeem M., Imran M., Computing multiple ABC index and multiple GA index of some grid graphs, Open Physic, 2018, 161, 588-598. Google Scholar

  • [14]

    Liu J. B., Siddiqui M.K., Zahid M. A., Naeem M., Baig A.Q., Topological Properties of Crystallographic Structure of Molecules. Symmetry, 2018, 10, 1-21. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Siddiqui M. K., Gharibi W., On Zagreb Indices, Zagreb Polynomials of Mesh Derived Networks, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci., 2016, 13, 8683-8688. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Gao W., Siddiqui M.K., Naeem M., Rehman N.A., Topological Characterization of Carbon Graphite and Crystal Cubic Carbon Structures, Molecules, 2017, 22, 1496-1507. Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17]

    Imran M., Siddiqui M. K., Naeem M., Iqbal M. A., On Topological Properties of Symmetric Chemical Structures, Symmetry, 2018, 10, 1-20. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Siddiqui M. K., Naeem M., Rahman N. A., Imran M., Computing topological indicesof certain networks, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater., 2016, 18, 884-892. Google Scholar

  • [19]

    Gao W., Siddiqui M.K., Molecular Descriptors of Nanotube, Oxide, Silicate, and Triangulene Networks, J. Chem., 2017, 2017, 654-664. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Basavanagoud B., Gao W., Patil, S., Desai V.R., Mirajkar K.G., Pooja, B., Computing First Zagreb index and F-index of New C-products of Graphs, Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences, 2017, 21, 285-298. Google Scholar

  • [21]

    Basavanagoud B., Desai V.R., Patil S., β α) Connectivity Index of Graphs, Applied. Math. Nonlin. Sci., 2017, 21, 21-30. Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Gao W., Siddiqui M.K., Imran M., Jamil M.K., Farahani M.R., Forgotten Topological Index of Chemical Structure in Drugs, Saudi Pharm. Jou., 2016, 24, 258-267. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23]

    Gharibi W., Ahmad A., Siddiqui M.K., On Zagreb Indices, Zagreb Polynomials of Nanocone and Nanotubes, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci., 2016, 13, 5086-5092. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24]

    Idrees N., Naeem M.N., Hussain F., Sadiq A., Siddiqui M.K., Molecular Descriptors of Benzenoid System, Quimica Nova, 2017, 40(2), 143-145. Google Scholar

  • [25]

    2. Kang S.M., Siddiqui M.K., Rehman N.A., Naeem M., Muhammad M.H., Topological Properties of 2-Dimensional Silicon-Carbons" IEEE Access, 2018, 6(1), 59362-59373. Google Scholar

  • [26]

    Gao W., Imran M., Siddiqui M.K., Naeeme M., Jamil F., Molecular Description of Copper (I) Oxide and Copper (II) Oxide, Quimica. Nova. 2018, 41(8), 874-879. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [27]

    3. Imran M., Siddiqui M.K., Ahmad A., Ali U., Hanif N., On the Degree-Based Topological Indices of the Tickysim SpiNNaker Model, Axioms, 2018, 7, 1-13. Google Scholar

  • [28]

    Randić M., Characterization of molecular branching, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97 6609-6615. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    Ramane H.S., Jummannaver R.B., Note on forgotten topological index of chemical structure in drugs, Appl. Math. Nonlinear Sciences., 2016, 12, 369-374. Google Scholar

  • [30]

    Siddiqui M.K., Imran M., Ali A., On Zagreb indices, Zagreb polynomials of some nanostar dendrimers, Appl. Math. Comput., 2016, 280, 132-139. Google Scholar

  • [31]

    Ali H., Baig A.Q., Shafiq M.K., On topological properties of hierarchical interconnection networks, J. Appl. Math. Comput., 2017, 55, 313-334. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-10-24

Accepted: 2018-11-14

Published Online: 2018-12-26


Citation Information: Open Physics, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 810–819, ISSN (Online) 2391-5471, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2018-0101.

Export Citation

© 2018 J. L. García Guirao et al., published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in