Rojas, R.: Omnidirectional control, Robotik, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, 2005. Google Scholar
 Antonelli, G. and Chiaverini, S.: Adaptive control of an au- tonomous underwater vehicle - experimental results on ODIN, IEEE Journal Nr. 1, pp. 64–69, 1999. Google Scholar
 Antonelli, G. and Chiaverini, S. and Sarkar, N. and West, M.: Adaptive Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Experimental Results on ODIN, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology Nr. 5, pp. 756-765, 2001. Google Scholar
 Jonghui Han and Wan Kyun Chung: Coordinated motion con- trol of Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System with mini- mizing restoring moments, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pp. 3158–3163, 2008. Google Scholar
 Osterloh, C.; Meyer, B.; Amory, A.; Pionteck, T.; Maehle, E.: MONSUN II - Towards Autonomous Underwater Swarms for Environmental Monitoring, IROS 2012, Workshop on Robotics for Environmental Monitoring, pp. 1-6, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2012. Google Scholar
 Allen, B.; Stokey, R.; Austin, T.; Forrester, N.; Goldsborough, R.; Purcell, M.; von Alt, C.: REMUS: a small, low cost AUV; sys- tem description, field trials and performance results, IEEE, Proceedings of Oceans ’97, vol. 2, 1997. Google Scholar
 Shea, D.; Williams, C.; He, M.; Crocker, P.; Riggs, N.; Bachmayer, R.: Design and testing of the Marport SQX-500 twin-pod, Proceedings IEEE/OES Conf. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUV 2010, Monterey, CA, USA, Sept. 2010. Google Scholar
 Forouher, D.; Hartmann, J.; Klüssendorff, J.H.; Maehle, E.; Meyer, B.; Osterloh, C.; Tosik, T.: HANSE - A Low-Cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Autonomous Mobile Systems (AMS), Stuttgart, 2012. Google Scholar
 Madgwick, Sebastian O H: Madgwick - 2011 - Quater- nions.pdf, x-io Technologies Limited, 2011. Google Scholar
 SolidWorks 3D CAD Software [Online], Available: http://www.solidworks.com/Google Scholar
Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics
Editor-in-Chief: Schöner, Gregor
1 Issue per year
Smart-E An Autonomous Omnidirectional Underwater Robot
The survey of waterbodies or underwater installations is a challenging task. To reduce the danger for divers, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) can be deployed. These requires a high manoeuvrability and agility in order to provide access in hard-to-reach areas. Smart-E is an omnidirectional AUV designed and developed at the Institute of Computer Engineering of the University of Luebeck. The drive is realized by the minimal configuration of three thrusters that are arranged at 120º to each other. To achieve omnidirectional movement in the 3D space, each motor pivots through 180º around its radial axis with the aid of a servo motor. This leads to a manoeuvrability of six degrees of freedom (DOF). Smart-E is equipped with various sensors like a pressure and temperature sensor, a 360º scanning sonar, an IMU-AHRS system and a tilt camera unit at the bottom. Besides the autonomous behaviors, the main challenge is to control all six DOF of the AUV to achieve a smooth and controllable omnidirectional underwater movement even in rough environments.
Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.